Skip to main content

Full text of "The geography of Strabo. With an English translation by Horace Leonard Jones. Based in part upon the unfinished version of John Robert Sitlington Sterrett"

See other formats

ΝΥ eit 

aot nites ane HR 

€ 608¢cE10 



- - --Ὑ 
-Ὰ ς Ψ 
-- a ee) ΩΝ - ὦ — ς, —_— “ 4 4 
Β Ἢ th a oe Ὄ . 
~ <p πμὰς. —- ad = Te te .ὦ0Ὦ lee a Nal AR I ae — Ἔρος amnanomci 

» ‘ » 

‘ 7 7, 

ὲ te. ae Β ἃ, δ - » fe, Sot ᾿ ᾿ eT Β , . ὦ aif 
a ee ώ ΝΣ μα ΟΝ ee oe κι 5-Ὸ ee ee ἐν οὐ ae 

᾿ 7 


2’ oe 



suet | ἱ , 3 
WED AT et τον δι τ... 
-. + = ᾿ 
“> νὴ ὧν ΐ 
4 f ἘΠΕ 
a re; BB PAE, EF ge COT HD’ 
My tnt! ΨΩ PP a Bae 
Bah ASE, ἀξ οἱ 
᾿᾽- ff 

ἣν ‘=z 
ἡ ! 
| Se 
: ὯὩ 
» Ἐ 
( ί 
ia ~ 2 φ' 
4 ' 
Ν ‘* 
. ’ 
-*~ af 
1 ? - whe 
ad } 
=o iy : 




na way 
a “ὃ 



ν i 
e ὃ Ἷ τ 
iA yy r 

| | _ tT. E. PAGE, cu., urrr.p. 
E. CAPPS, Pa.p., 11,.Ὁ. +W. H. D. ROUSE, urrr.p. 
_ A. POST, u.u.p. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., F.R.HIST.soc. 

Spey) i A 

‘a VI > 







Pat 4 


42 τ i! 


πασος Jeo” AIA, aa 

a - -- ἃ 
» ae ἔς 
τό oe ae 

4 ¥ His 

Ἂ Ἂς 
νι Σ Ἢ 
, ᾿ > 4. 
᾿ 5: 
i. gr 
re 4 
ha # μ 
‘ a 
.- 4 

7 a 
- 1 
~ ed 
cr” ἊΜ »" 
ἡ παν" 







01 14 is5 


TT I wus : Ww ve A ron 

| erTagye nad a 
S| peas ὙΤΉΘΣ ATTA ae 
2 arth som φ ; τ 
= iow πῶ. A, 5 F 

Ὁ f- & 
ΟΝ 8 


. . . 


e . . ᾿ 

ὧνν . . ‘ 

. . ΕΣ 

Ἔ : 

ΑΘ LounsA ΤΣ 

δε. δεν ists αν; Ray γα PTY ἃ 

4 Me} 3 BEA Kes (45 Sr eoyee ee fale σαν ht 
: NaH τς ES 5) THE Wy +34 weet τ τῶ Ban 
GRAP 3 a ate ae 43 ind: new 2 πὰ “τ Γ 

)ς - i OF STRABO 

oy 2 ree αν Ἢ in 2 ty EAs 


BOOK xu ee rote 

‘afr ae Pas MARE OT 245 820 
4 bye 5 
ers. x ἀ- ΜῈ ς VN? Δ 5} 
AAT τοι ιν + χῶτ τὸ ΡΣ LRY 

Satin ao Chit ies i, On Aet.,, dag 
᾿ δ ΟΣ > 5 tty ee iz ; RAPS 

Paes δι Mad, pam) ἢ PY νυν pmoveve 

MBE retinas c PUM ΟΥ̓́Τ. ἃ δου DS aya 
- Ἵ . εν 
" . = a ω - 
“Ὁ ἐὺ 4 Cue tS PRE ts) 
Ὁ ἢ ἐπ ον (9 firs 

ONE DAD Serene 

i x Ὁ να - 
. - ' ib ὧν ! 4 
ἢ + ͵ . Ὶ 
§ 3 4 teh > ofa 

Ss oe ee Oe eee 


ἢ a 


C581 1. Μέχρι μὲν δεῦρο ἀφωρίσθω τὰ περὶ τῆς 
Φρυγίας" ἐπανιόντες δὲ πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν Προπον- 
τίδα καὶ τὴν ἐφεξῆς τῷ Αἰσήπῳ παραλίαν τὴν 
αὐτὴν τῆς περιοδείας τάξιν ἀποδώσομεν. ἔστι 
δὲ Τρωὰς πρώτη τῆς παραλίας ταύτης, ἧς τὸ 
πολυθρύλητον, καίπερ ἐν ἐρειπίοις καὶ ἐν ἐρημίᾳ 
λειπομένης, ὅμως πολυλογίαν οὐ τὴν τυχοῦσαν 
παρέχει τῇ γραφῇ. πρὸς τοῦτο δὲ συγγνώμης 
δεῖ καὶ παρακλήσεως, ὅπως τὴν αἰτίαν τοῦ 
μήκους μὴ ἡμῖν μᾶλλον avartTwow οἱ ἐντυγ- 
χάνοντες ἢ τοῖς σφόδρα ποθοῦσι τὴν τῶν ἐνδόξων 
καὶ παλαιῶν γνῶσιν: προσλαμβάνει δὲ τῷ 
μήκει καὶ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἐποικησάντων τὴν 
χώραν Ἑλλήνων τε καὶ βαρβάρων, καὶ οἱ 
συγγραφεῖς, οὐχὶ τὰ αὐτὰ γράφοντες περὶ τῶν 
αὐτῶν, οὐδὲ σαφῶς πάντα: ὧν ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις 
ἐστὶν “Ὅμηρος, εἰκάζειν περὶ τῶν πλείστων 
παρέχων. δεῖ δὲ καὶ τὰ τούτου διαιτᾶν καὶ τὰ 

1 ἀνάπτωσιν, Kramer, for ἀναπτωεῖν F, ἀνάπτοιεν other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 

1 The translator must here record his obligations to Dr. 
Walter Leaf for his monumental works on the Troad : his 
Troy, Macmillan and Co., 1912, and his Strabo on the Troad, 
Cambridge, 1923, and his numerous monographs in classical 



1.1 Let this, then, mark the boundary of Phrygia.? 
I shall now return again to the Propontis and the 
coast that comes next after the Aesepus River, and 
follow the same order of description as before. The 
first country on this seaboard is the Troad, the 
fame of which, although it is left in ruins and in deso- 
lation, nevertheless prompts in writers no ordinary 
prolixity. With this fact in view, I should ask the 
pardon of my readers and appeal to them not to 
fasten the blame for the length of my discussion 
upon me rather than upon those who strongly yearn 
for knowledge of the things that are famous and 
ancient. And my discussion is further prolonged 
by the number of the peoples who have colonised 
the country, both Greeks and barbarians, and by 
the historians, who do not write the same things 
on the same subjects, nor always clearly either ; 
among the first of these is Homer, who leaves us 
to guess about most things. And it is necessary 
for me to arbitrate between his statements and 

periodicals. The results of his investigations in the Troad 
prove the great importance of similar investigations, on the 
spot, of various other portions of Strabo’s ‘‘ Inhabited 

Sa reader will find a map of Asia Minor in Vol. V. (at 
end). : 


U 582 


τῶν ἄλλων, ὑπογράψαντας πρότερον ἐν κεφαλαίῳ 
τὴν τῶν τόπων φύσιν. 

2, ᾿Ἀπὸ δὴ τῆς Κυζικηνῆς καὶ τῶν περὶ 
Αἴσηπον τόπων καὶ Γράνικον μέχρι ᾿Α βύδου καὶ 
Σηστοῦ τὴν τῆς Προποντίδος παραλίαν εἶναι 
συμβαίνει, ἀπὸ δὲ ᾿Αβύδου μέχρι Λεκτοῦ τὰ 
περὶ Ἴλιον καὶ Τένεδον καὶ ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν τὴν 
Τρωάδα' πάντων δὴ τούτων ὑπέρκειται ἡ “dn 
τὸ ὄρος, μέχρι Λεκτοῦ καθήκουσα" ἀπὸ Λεκτοῦ δὲ 
μέχρι Καΐκου ποταμοῦ καὶ τῶν Κανῶν λεγομένων 
ἐστὲ τὰ περὶ "ἼΑσσον καὶ ᾿Αδραμύττιον καὶ 
᾿Αταρνέα καὶ Πιτάνην καὶ τὸν ᾿Εἰλαϊτικὸν 
κόλπον οἷς πᾶσιν ἀντιπαρήκει ἡ τῶν Λεσβίων 
νῆσος" εἶθ᾽ ἑξῆς τὰ περὶ Κύμην μέχρι “Ἑρμου 
καὶ Φωκαίας, ἥπερ ἀρχὴ μὲν τῆς ᾿Ιωνίας ἐστί, 
πέρας δὲ τῆς Αἰολίδος. τοιούτων δὲ τῶν τόπων 
ὄντων, ὁ μὲν ποιητὴς ἀπὸ τῶν περὶ Αἴσηπον 
τόπων καὶ τῶν περὶ τὴν νῦν Κυζικηνὴν χώραν 
ὑπαγορεύει μάλιστα τοὺς Τρῶας ἄρξαι μέχρι τοῦ 
Καΐκου ποταμοῦ διῃρημένους κατὰ δυναστείας 
εἰς ὀκτὼ μερίδας ἢ καὶ ἐννέα: τὸ δὲ τῶν ἄλλων 
ἐπικούρων πλῆθος ἐν τοῖς συμμάχοις διαριθ- 

8. Οἱ δ᾽ ὕστερον τοὺς ὅρους οὐ τοὺς αὐτοὺς 
λέγουσι καὶ τοῖς ὀνόμασι χρῶνται διηλλαγμένως, 
αἱρέσεις 5 νέμοντες πλείους. μάλιστα δὲ αἱ τῶν 
“Ἑλλήνων ἀποικίαι παρεσχήκασι λόγον" ἧττον μὲν 
ἡ ᾿Ιωνική" πλείονι γὰρ διέστηκε τῆς Τρωάδος" ἡ 

1 δή, Corais, for δέ; so the later editors. 
2 Meineke, following conj. of Corais, emends αἱρέσεις to 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 1-3 

those of the others, after I shall first have described in 
a summary way the nature of the region in question. 

2. The seaboard of the Propontis, then, extends 
from Cyzicené.and the region of the Aesepus and 
Granicus Rivers as far as Abydus and Sestus, 
whereas the parts round [lium and Tenedos and 
the Trojan Alexandreia extend from Abydus_ to 
Lectum. Accordingly, Mt. Ida, which extends 
down to Lectum, lies above all these places. From 
Lectum to the Caicus River, and to Canae,}! as it 
is called, are the parts round Assus and Adramyttium 
and Atarneus and Pitané and the Elaitic Gulf; and 
the island of the Lesbians extends alongside, and 
opposite, all these places. Then come next the 
parts round Cymé, extending to the Hermus and 
Phocaea, which latter constitutes the beginning of 
Ionia and the end of Aeolis. Such being the 
position of the places, the poet indicates in a 
general way that the Trojans held sway from the 
region of the Aesepus River and that of the present 
Cyzicené to the Caicus River,” their country being 
divided by dynasties into eight, or nine, portions, 
whereas the mass of their auxiliary forces are 
enumerated among the allies. 

3. But the later authors do not give the same 
boundaries, and they use their terms differently, 
thus allowing us several choices. The main cause 
of this difference has been the colonisations of the 
Greeks ; less so, indeed, the Ionian colonisation, for 
it was farther distant from the Troad; but most of 

1 On the position of this promontory, see Leaf, Ann. Brit, 
School at Athens, XXII, p. 37, and Strabo on the Troad, 
Ῥ. xxxviii. 

2 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. xli. 


δὲ τῶν Αἰολέων παντάπασι; καθ᾽ ὅλην yap 
ἐσκεδάσθη ἀπὸ τῆς Κυζικηνῆς μέχρι τοῦ Καΐκου 
καὶ ἐπέλαβεν ἔτι πλέον τὴν μεταξὺ τοῦ Καΐκου 
καὶ τοῦ “Epyov ποταμοῦ. τέτρασι γὰρ δὴ 
γενεαῖς πρεσβυτέραν φασὶ τὴν Αἰολικὴν ἀποι- 
κίαν τῆς ᾿Ιωνικῆς, διατριβὰς δὲ λαβεῖν καὶ 
χρόνους μακροτέρους. ᾿Ορέστην μὲν γὰρ ἄρξαι 
τοῦ στόλου, τούτου δ᾽ ἐν ᾿Αρκαδίᾳ τελευτήσαντος 
τὸν βίον, διαδέξασθαι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ Πενθίλον 
καὶ προελθεῖν μέχρι Θράκης ἑξήκοντα ἔ ἔτεσι τῶν 
Τρωικῶν ὕστερον, ὑπ᾽ αὐτὴν τὴν τῶν Ἥρακλει- 
δῶν εἰς Πελοπόννησον κάθοδον" εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αρχέλαον, 
υἱὸν ἐκείνου, περαιῶσαι τὸν Αἰολικὸν στόλον εἰς 
τὴν νῦν Κυξικηνὴν τὴν περὶ τὸ Δασκύλιον" Ῥρᾶν 
δέ, τὸν υἱὸν τούτου τὸν νεώτατον, προελθόντα 
μέχρι τοῦ Γρανίκου ποταμοῦ καὶ πωρεσκευασ- 
μένον ἄμεινον περαιῶσαι τὸ πλέον τῆς στρατιᾶς 
εἰς Λέσβον καὶ κατασχεῖν αὐτήν' Κλεύην δέ, τὸν 
Δώρου, καὶ Μαλαόν, καὶ αὐτοὺς ἀπογόνους 
ὄντας ᾿Αγαμέμνονος, συνωγαγεῖν μὲν τὴν στρα- 
τιὰν κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον, καθ᾽ ὃν καὶ Πενθί- 
os’ ἀλλὰ τὸν μὲν τοῦ Πενθίλου στόλον φθῆναι 
περαιωθέντα, ἐκ τῆς Θράκης εἰς τὴν ᾿Ασίαν, τού- 
τους δὲ περὶ τὴν Λοκρίδα, καὶ τὸ Φρίκιον ὄρος 
διατρῖψαι πολὺν χρόνον, ὕστερον δὲ διαβάντας 
κτίσαι τὴν Κύμην τὴν Φρικωνίδα κληθεῖσαν ἀπὸ 
τοῦ Λοκρικοῦ ὄρους. 

4. Tév Αἰολέων τοίνυν καθ᾽ ὅλην σκεδασθέν- 
των τὴν χώραν, ἣν ἔφαμεν ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ 
λέγεσθαι ρωικήν, οἱ! ὕστερον οἱ μὲν πᾶσαν 
Αἰολίδα προσαγορεύουσιν, οἱ δὲ μέρος, καὶ Τροίαν 

1 δ᾽, after of, Corais suggests; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 3-4 

all that of the Aeolians, for their colonies were 
seattered throughout the whole of the country from 
Cyzicené to the Caicus River, and they went on 
still farther to occupy the country between the 
Caicus and Hermus Rivers. In fact, the Aeolian 
colonisation, they say, preceded the Ionian colonisa- 
tion by four generations, but suffered delays and 
took a longer time; for Orestes, they say, was the 
first leader of the expedition, but he died in 
Arcadia, and his son Penthilus succeeded him and 
advanced as far as Thrace sixty years after the 
Trojan War, about the time of the return of the 
Heracleidae to the Peloponnesus; and then Arche- 
laiis! the son of Penthilus led the Aeolian expedition 
across to the present Cyzicené near Dascylium; and 
Gras, the youngest son of Archelaiis, advanced to 
the Granicus River, and, being better equipped, led 
the greater part of his army across to Lesbos and 
occupied it. And they add that Cleues, son of 
Dorus, and Malaiis, also descendants of Agamemnon, 
had collected their army at about the same time 
as Penthilus, but that, whereas the fleet of Penthilus 
had already crossed over from Thrace to Asia, Cleues 
and Malaiis tarried a long time round Locris and 
Mt. Phricius, and only later crossed over and 
founded the Phryconian Cymé, so named after the 
Locrian mountain. 

4. The Aeolians, then, were scattered throughout 
the whole of that country which, as I have said, 
the poet called Trojan. As for later authorities, 
some apply the name to all Aeolis, but others to 
only a part of it; and some to the whole of Troy, 

1 Pausanias (3.2.1) spells his name ‘‘ Kchelas.” 

“ 7 


οἱ μὲν ὅλην, οἱ δὲ μέρος αὐτῆς, οὐδὲν ἕλως ἀλλή- 
λοις ὁμολογοῦντες. εὐθὺς γὰρ ἐπὶ τῶν κατὰ τὴν 
Προποντίδα τόπων ὁ μὲν Ὅμηρος ἀπὸ Αἰσήπου 
τὴν ἀρχὴν ποιεῖται τῆς Τρωάδος" Εὔδοξος δὲ 
ἀπὸ Πριάπου 1 καὶ ᾿Αρτάκης, τοῦ ἐν τῇ Κυξικηνῶν 

0583 νήσῳ χωρίου ἀνταίροντος τῷ Πριάπῳ, συστέλλων 
ἐπ᾿ ἔλαττον τοὺς ὅρους" Δαμάστης δ᾽ ἔτι μᾶλλον 
συστέλλει ἀπὸ Παρίου" καὶ “γὰρ οὗτος μὲν ἕως 
Λεκτοῦ προάγει, ἄλλοι δ᾽ ἄλλως" Χάρων δ᾽ ὁ 
Λαμψακηνὸς τριακοσίους ἄλλους ἀφαιρεῖ στα- 
δίους, ἀπὸ Πρακτίου ἀρχόμενος" τοσοῦτοι “γάρ 
εἰσιν ἀπὸ Ἰ]αρίου εἰς Πράκτιον" ἕως μέντοι 
᾿Αδραμυττίου πρόεισι" Σκύλαξ δὲ ὁ Καρυανδεὺς 
ἀπὸ ᾿Αβύδου ἄρχεται" ὁμοίως δὲ τὴν Αἰολίδα 
Ἔφορος μὲν λέγει ἀπὸ ᾿Αβύδου μέχρι Κύμης, 
ἄλλοι δ᾽ ἄλλως. 

5. Τοπογραφεῖ δὲ κάλλιστα τὴν ὄντως λεγο- 
μένην Τροίαν ἡ τῆς “ldns θέσις, ὄρους ὑψηλοῦ 
βλέποντος πρὸς δύσιν καὶ τὴν ταύτῃ θάλατταν, 
μικρὰ δ᾽ ἐπιστρέφοντος * καὶ πρὸς ἄρκτον καὶ τὴν 
ταύτῃ παραλίαν. ἔστι δὲ αὕτη μὲν τῆς 1 Ἰροπον- 
τίδος ἀπὸ τῶν περὶ Αβυδον στενῶν ἐπὶ τὸν 
Αἴσηπον καὶ τὴν Κυξζικηνήν, ἡ δ᾽ ἑσπερία θά- 
λαττα ὅ τε ᾿ΕἙλλήσποντός ἐστιν 3 ὁ ἔξω καὶ τὸ 
Αὐγαῖον πέλαγος. πολλοὺς δ᾽ ἔχουσα πρόποδας 

1 καὶ ᾿Αρτάκης . .. Πριάπῳ, Leaf, in Journal of Hellenic 
Studies, XX XVII., p. 22, would delete ; so in his Strabo on 
the Troad, P. 2 (see his note on p. 47). 

> ἐπιστρέφοντος Ex, ἐπιστραφέντος other MSS. 

3 ὃ, before ἔξω, Kramer inserts: so the later editors, 

4 ἔξω EF, ἐν ¢ other MSS. 

1 Iliad 2. 824. See § 9 following. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 4-5 

but others to only a part of it, not wholly agreeing 
with one another about anything. For instance, in 
reference to the places on the Propontis, Homer 
makes the Troad begin at the Aesepus River,! 
whereas Eudoxus makes it begin at Priapus and 
Artacé, the place on the island of the Cyziceni that 
lies opposite Priapus,? and thus contracts the limits; 
but Damastes contracts the country still more, 
making it begin at Parium ; and, in fact, Damastes 
prolongs the Troad to Lectum, whereas other 
writers prolong it differently. Charon of Lamp- 
sacus diminishes its extent by three hundred stadia 
more, making it begin at Practius,3 for that is the 
distance from Parium to Practius; however, he pro- 
longs it to Adramyttium, Scylax of Caryanda 
makes it begin at Abydus; and similarly Ephorus 
says that Aeolis extends from Abydus to Cymé, 
while others define its extent differently.* 

5. But the topography of Troy, in the proper 
sense of the term, is best marked by the position of 
Mt. Ida, a lofty mountain which faces the west and 
the western sea but makes a slight bend also towards 
the north and the northern seaboard. This latter 
is the seaboard of the Propontis, extending from 
the strait in the neighbourhood of Abydus to the 
Aesepus River and Cyzicené, whereas the western 
sea consists of the outer Hellespont® and the 
Aegaean Sea. Mt. Ida has many foot-hills, is like 

2 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 47. 

3 Whether city or river (see 13. 1. 21). 

4 See Leaf’s definition of the Troad (7'roy, p. 171). 

5 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 48. 

5 On the aes the term Hellespont, see Book VII, 
Frag. 57 (58), and Leaf (Strabo on the Troad), p. 50. 



ἡ Ἴδη καὶ σκολοπενδρώδης οὖσα τὸ σχῆμα 
ἐσχάτοις ἀφορίξεται “τούτοις, τῷ τε περὶ τὴν 
Ζέλειαν ἀ ἀκρωτηρίῳ καὶ τῷ καλουμένῳ Λεκτῷ, τῷ 
μὲν τελευτῶντι εἰς τὴν μεσόγαιαν μικρὸν ὑπὲρ 
τῆς Κυζικηνῆς" καὶ δὴ καὶ ἔστι νῦν. ἡ Ζέλεια 
τῶν Κυξικηνῶν' τὸ δὲ Λεκτὸν εἰς τὸ πέλαγος 
καθήκει τὸ Αἰγαῖον, ἐν παράπλῳ κείμενον τοῖς ἐκ 
Τενέδου πλέουσιν εἰς Λέσβον. 

Ἴδην δ᾽ ἵκανον πολυπίδακα μητέρα θηρῶν, 
Λεκτόν, 6011 πρῶτον λιπέτην ἅλα 

ad \ em a ς > / n A 
Υπνος καὶ ἡ Hpa, τοῖς οὖσιν οἰκείως τοῦ ποιητοῦ 
/ Ν / Ν ee nr Μ 3 \ 
φράζοντος τὸ Λεκτόν' καὶ yap ὅτι τῆς Ἴδης ἐστὶ 
\ Ν \ ‘ ’ > / > / 
τὸ Λεκτὸν καὶ διότι πρώτη ἀπόβασις ἐκ θαλάττης 
αὕτη τοῖς ἐπὶ τὴν Ἴδην ἀνιοῦσιν, εἴρηκεν ὀρθῶς," 
καὶ τὸ πολυπίδακον' εὐυδρότατον γὰρ κατὰ ταῦτα 
μάλιστα τὸ ὄρος, δηλοῖ δὲ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν 

ὅσσοι ἀπ᾽ ᾿Ιδαίων ὀρέων ἅλαδε προρέουσι, 
Ῥῆσός θ᾽ ‘Emrtamopos τε 

καὶ οἱ ἑξῆς, ods ἐκεῖνος εἴρηκε καὶ ἡμῖν νυνὶ 
πάρεστιν ὁρᾶν. τοὺς δὴ πρόποδας τοὺς ἐσχά- 
tous ἐφ᾽ ἑκάτερα φράζων οὕτως τὸ Λεκτὸν καὶ 
τὴν Ζέλειαν, οἰκείως τούτων καὶ ἀκρώρειαν 
ἀφορίζει Γάργαρον, ἄκρον λέγων" ὃ καὶ γὰρ νῦν 

1 ὅθι, Xylander, for ὅτι; so the later editors. 

2 καὶ τὸ. .. δρᾶν, ejected by Meineke. 

3 κατὰ ταῦτα μάλιστα, Leaf brackets (see his note, op, cit., 
Ρ. 49). 

* φράζων, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, for ὁρᾶι. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13.1.5 

the scolopendra! in shape, and is defined by its 
two extreme limits: by the promontory in the 
neighbourhood of Zeleia and by the promontory 
called Lectum, the former terminating in the interior 
slightly above Cyzicené (in fact, Zeleia now belongs 
to the Cyziceni), whereas Lectum extends to the 
Aegaean Sea, being situated on the coasting-voyage 
between Tenedos and Lesbos. When the poet says 
that Hypnos and Hera “came to many-fountained 
Ida, mother of wild beasts, to Lectum, where first 
the two left the sea,’? he describes Lectum in 
accordance with the facts; for he rightly states that 
Lectum is a part of Mt. Ida, and that Lectum is the 
first place of disembarkation from the sea for those 
who would go up to Mt. Ida, and also that the moun- 
tain is “ many-fountained,” for there in particular 
the mountain is abundantly watered, as is shown by 
the large number of rivers there, “all the rivers 
that flow forth from the Idaean mountains to the 
sea, Rhesus and Heptaporus’’? and the following, 
all of which are named by the poet and are now to 
be seen by us. Now while Homer thus describes 
Lectum ὅ and Zeleia® as the outermost foot-hills of 
Mt. Ida in either direction, he also appropriately 
distinguishes Gargarus from them as a summit, 
ealling it “topmost.”? And indeed at the present 

1 A genus of myriapods including some of the largest 

2 Iliad 14, 283. 8 Πίαὰ 12. 19. . 
4 The Granicus, Aesepus, Scamander, and Simoeis. 
5 [liad 14, 284. 6 Jliad 2. 824. 

7 [liad 14, 292, 352; 15. 152. 

5 λέγων, Kramer, for τέρων CFmoz, τερον D with ε above τ 
man, sec., Whence ἕτερον hi and Tzschucke. 


Γάργαρον ἐν τοῖς ἄνω μέρεσι τῆς ἤϊδης δείκνυται 
τόπος, ἀφ᾽ οὗ τὰ νῦν Tdépyapa | TOMS Αἰολική. 
ἐντὸς μὲν οὖν τῆς Ζελείας καὶ τοῦ Λεκτοῦ Ἄρῶτά 
ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς Προποντίδος ἀρξαμένοις, τὰ μέχρι 
τῶν κατ᾽ "A Budov στενῶν" εἶτ᾽ ἔξω τῆς ΠΙροπον- 
τίδος τὰ μέχρι Λεκτοῦ. 

Οὔδϑ4ά4 6. Κάμψαντι δὲ τὸ Λεκτὸν ἀναχεῖται κόλπος 
μέγας, ὃν ἡ “Id ποιεῖ πρὸς τὴν ἤπειρον ἀναχω- 
ροῦσα ἀπὸ τοῦ Λεκτοῦ καὶ αἱ Κάναι, τὸ ἐκ 
θατέρου μέρους ἀντικείμενον ἀκρωτήριον σῷ 
Λεκτῷ: καλοῦσι δ᾽ οἱ μὲν ᾿Ιδαῖον κόλπον, οἱ 
᾿Αδραμυττηνόν. ἐν τούτῳ δὲ αἱ τῶν Αἰολέων 
πόλεις μέχρι τῶν ἐκβολῶν τοῦ “Ἕρμου, καθάπερ 
εἰρήκαμεν. εἴρηται δὲ ἐν τοῖς ἔμπροσθεν ὅ ὅτι τοῖς 
ἐκ Βυξαντίου πλέουσι πρὸς νότον ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας 
ἐστὶν ὁ πλοῦς, πρῶτον ἐπὶ “Σηστὸν καὶ “Λβυδον 
διὰ μέσης τῆς Προποντίδος, ἔ ἔπειτα τῆς παραλίας * 
τῆς ᾿Ασίας μέχρι Καρίας. ταύτην δὴ φυλάττον- 
τας χρὴ τὴν ὑπόθεσιν ἀκούειν τῶν ἑξῆς, κἂν 
λέγωμεν κόλπους τινὰς ἐν τῇ παραλίᾳ, τάς τε 
ἄκρας δεῖ νοεῖν τὰς ποιούσας αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τῆς 
αὐτῆς γραμμῆς κειμένας, ὥσπερ τινὸς μεσημ- 

1. ‘Ex δὴ τῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ λεγομένων 
εἰκάξουσιν οἱ φροντίσαντες περὶ τούτων πλέον τι, 
πᾶσαν τὴν παραλίαν ταύτην ὑπὸ τοῖς Τρωσὶ 
γεγονέναι, διῃρημένην μὲν εἰς δυναστείας ἐννέα, 

3 τά, before μέχρι, Groskurd inserts ; so the later editors, 

. "ιἀναχωροῦσα EK, ἀποχωροῦσα other MSS. ; 80 Leaf. 

8 τῆς παραλίας is indefensible; perhaps παρὰ τὴν παράλίαν 

1 See Leaf, Strabo on the Trvad, p. xliv. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. τ. 5-7 

time people point out in the upper parts of Ida a 
place called Gargarum, after which the present 
Gargara, an Aeolian city, is named. Now between 
Zeleia and Lectum, beginning from the Propontis, 
are situated first the parts extending to the straits at 
Abydus, and then, outside the Propontis, the parts 
extending to Lectum, 

6. On doubling Lectum one encounters a large 
wide-open gulf, which is formed by Mt. Ida as it 
recedes from Lectum to the mainland, and by Canae, 
the promontory opposite Lectum on the other side. 
Some call it the Idaean Gulf, others the Adramyt- 
tene. On this gulf! are the cities of the Aeolians, 
extending to the outlets of the Hermus River, as 1 
have already said. I have stated in the earlier parts 
of my work® that, as one sails from Byzantium 
towards the south, the route lies in a straight line, 
first to Sestus and Abydus through the middle of the 
Propontis, and then along the coast of Asia as far as 
Caria. It behooves one, then, to keep this sup- 
position in mind as one listens to the following; and, 
if 1 speak of certain gulfs on the coast, one must 
think of the promontories which form them as lying 
in the same line, a meridian-line, as it were. 

7. Now as for Homer’s statements, those who 
have studied the subject more carefully * conjecture 
from them that the whole of this coast became 
subject to the Trojans, and, though divided into 
nine dynasties, was under the sway of Priam at the 

# 13. 1. 2 (see Leaf’s article cited in foot-note there). 

3 Strabo refers to his discussion of the meridian-line drawn 
by Eratosthenes through Byzantium, Rhodes, Alexandria, 
Syené, and Meroé (see 2. 5. 7 and the Frontispiece in Vol. 1). 

* Strabo refers to Demetrius of Scepsis and his followers. 

Β 13 


ὑπὸ δὲ τῷ Πριάμῳ τεταγμένην κατὰ τὸν Ἰλιακὸν 
πόλεμον καὶ λεγομένην Τροίαν: δῆλον δὲ ἐκ τῶν 
κατὰ μέρος. οἱ γὰρ περὶ τὸν ᾿Α γιλλέα τειχήρεις 
‘ow J > a 
ὁρῶντες τοὺς ᾿Ιλεέας Kat’ ἀρχάς, ἔξω ποιεῖσθαι 
τὸν πόλεμον ἐπεχείρησαν καὶ περιιόντες ἀφαιρεῖ- 
σθαι τὰ κύκλῳ" 

δώδεκα δὴ σὺν νηυσὶ πόλεις ἀλάπαξ᾽ ἀνθρώ- 


πεζὸς δ᾽ ἕνδεκά φημι κατὰ Τροίην ἐρίβωλον. 

’ὔ Ν / \ / ” 
Τροίαν yap λέγει τὴν πεπορθημένην ἤπειρον" 
πεπόρθηται δὲ σὺν ἄλλοις τόποις καὶ τὰ ἀντικεί- 

- 7 \ \ , \ ‘ 
μενα τῇ Λέσβῳ τὰ περὶ Θήβην καὶ Λυρνησσὸν 
καὶ Πήδασον τὴν τῶν Λελέγων καὶ ἔτε ἡ τοῦ 
Εὐρυπύλου τοῦ 'Tnrépou παιδός" 

ἀλλ᾽ οἷον τὸν Τηλεφίδην κατενήρατο χαλκῷ, 
ὁ Νεοπτόλεμος, ἥρω Εὐρύπυλον. ταῦτα δὴ πεπορ- 
θῆσθαι λέγει καὶ αὐτὴν τὴν Λέσβον" 
ὅτε Λέσβον ἐὐκτιμένην ἕλεν 1 αὐτός: 
πέρσε δὲ Λυρνησσὸν καὶ Πήδασον" 
Ν \ . 
Λυρνησσὸν διαπορθήσας καὶ rei yea Θ΄ Ins. 
ἐκ μὲν Λυρνησσοῦ ἡ Βρισηὶς ἑάλω 
τὴν ἐκ Λυρνησσοῦ ἐξείλετο" 
ἧς ἐν τῇ ἁλώσει τὸν Μύνητα 3 καὶ τὸν ᾿ἘΠππίστροφον 
nq ’ὔ “ / 
πεσεῖν, φησίν, ὡς ἡ Βρισηὶς θρηνοῦσα τὸν Πάτρο- 
κλον δηλοῖ: ) 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. τ. 7 

time of the Trojan War and was called Troy. And 
this is clear from his detailed statements. For 
instance, Achilles and his army, seeing at the outset 
that the inhabitants of Ilium were enclosed by walls, 
tried to carry on the war outside and, by making 
raids all round, to take away from them all the 
surrounding places: ‘“ Twelve cities of men I have 
laid waste with my ships, and eleven, I declare, by 
land throughout the fertile land of Troy.” 1 For by 
“Troy ᾿᾿ he means the part of the mainland that was 
sacked by him ; and, along with other places, Achilles 
also sacked the country opposite Lesbos in the neigh- 
bourhood of Thebé and Lyrnessus and Pedasus,? which 
last belonged to the Leleges, and also the country of 
Eurypylus theson of Telephus. ‘ But what aman was 
that son of Telephus who was slain by him with the 
bronze,’ that is, the hero Eurypylus, slain by Neopto- 
lemus. Now the poet says that these places were 
sacked, including Lesbos itself: “when he himself 
took well-built Lesbos” ; and ‘‘he sacked Lyrnessus 4 
and Pedasus”’ ;° and “ when he laid waste Lyrnessus 
and the walls of Thebé.’’® It was at Lyrnessus that 
Briseis was taken captive, “whom he carried away 
from Lyrnessus”’;? and it was at her capture, 
according to the poet, that Mynes and Epistrophus 
fell, as is shown by the lament of Briseis over 

1 Tliad 9. 328. 2 Iliad 20. 92. 
8 Odyssey 11. 518. 4 Iliad 9. 129. 
5 Iliad 20. 92. 8 Iliad 2. 691. 
7 Tliad 2. 690. 

1 ἕλεν, Xylander, for ἕλες ; so the later editors. 
2 καὶ τὸν ’Exlorpopov, Meineke ejects. 



οὐδὲ μὲν οὐδέ μ᾽ ἔασκες, ὅτ᾽ ἄνδρ᾽ ἐμὸν ὠκὺς 

ἔκτεινεν, πέρσεν δὲ πόλιν θείοιο Μύνητος, 


C585 ἐμφαίνει γὰρ τὴν Λυρνησσὸν λέγων πόλιν θείοιο 
Μύνητος, ὡς ἂν δυναστευομένην ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, καὶ 
ἐνταῦθα πεσεῖν αὐτὸν μαχόμενον" ἐκ δὲ τῆς Θήβης 
ἡ Χρυσηὶς ἐλήφθη" 

ὠχόμεθ᾽ ἐς Θήβην ἱερὴν πόλιν ᾿Ηετίωνος" 
ἐκ δὲ τῶν ἀχθέντων. ἐκεῖθέν φησιν εἶναι τὴν 
Χρυσηίδα. ἐνθένδε δ᾽ ἣν καὶ ἡ ᾿Ανδρομάχη " 
᾿Ανδρομάχη “θυγάτηρ μεγαλήτορος ᾿Ηετίωνος" 
᾿Ηετίων, ὃς ἔναιεν ὑπὸ Πλάκῳ ὑληέσσῃ, 
Θήβῃ Ὑποπλακίῃ, Κιλίκεσσ᾽ ἄνδρεσσιν ἀ ἀνάσ- 

δευτέρα οὖν αὕτη δυναστεία Τρωικὴ μετὰ τὴν 
ὑπὸ Μύνητι. οἰκείως δὲ τούτοις καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς 
᾿Ανδρομάχης λεχθὲν οὕτως, 
ἽἝκτορ, ἐγὼ δύστηνος" ἰῇ ἄρα γεινόμεθ᾽ αἴσῃ 
ἀμφότεροι, σὺ μὲν ἐν Τροίῃ Πριάμου ἐνὶ οἴκῳ, 
αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ Θήβησιν, 
οὐκ οἴονται δεῖν ἐξ εὐθείας ἀκούειν, σὺ μὲν ἐν 
Τροίῃ, αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ Θήβῃσιν ἢ ἢ Θήβηθεν,; ἀλλὰ καθ᾽ 
ὑπερβατόν' ἀμφότεροι ἐν Tpoin,® σὺ μὲν Πριάμου 
ἐνὶ οἴκῳ, αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ Θήβησι. τρίτη δ᾽ ἐστὶν 
ἡ τῶν Λελέγων, καὶ αὕτη Τρωική, 

"Artew, ὃς Λελέγεσσι φιλοπτολέμοισιν ἀνάσ- 
οὗ τῇ θυγατρὶ συνελθὼν Πρίαμος γεννᾷ τὸν 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. τ. 7 

Patroclus: “thou wouldst not even, not even, let 
me weep when swift Achilles slew my husband and 
sacked the city of divine Mynes”’;! for in calling 
Lyrnessus ‘‘the city of divine Mynes” the poet 
indicates that Mynes was dynast over it and that he 
fell in battle there. But it was at Thebé that 
Chryseis was taken captive: “ We went into Thebé, 
the sacred city of Eétion” ;? and the poet says that 
Chryseis was part of the spoil brought from that 
place. Thence, too, came Andromaché: “ Andro- 
maché, daughter of great-hearted Eétion; Eétion 
who dwelt ‘neath wooded Placus in Thebé Hypo- 
placia,t and was lord over the men of Cilicia,’’® 
This is the second Trojan dynasty after that of 
Mynes. And consistently with these facts writers 
think that the following statement of Andromaché, 
“Hector, woe is me! surely to one doom we were 
born, both of us—thou in Troy in the house of 
Priam, but I at Thebae,” ὁ should not be interpreted 
strictly, 1 mean the words “thou in Troy, but I at 
Thebae” (or Thebé), but as a case of hyperbaton, 
meaning “both of us in Troy—thou in the house of 
Priam, but I at Thebae.”” The third dynasty was 
that of the Leleges, which was also Trojan: “Οἱ 
Altes, who is lord over the war-loving Leleges,’”’ 7 by 
whose daughter Priam begot Lycaon and Polydorus. 

1 Jliad 19. 295. 2 Iliad 1. 366. 

3 Iliad 1. 369. 4 The epithet means ‘‘’neath Placus.” 

5. Iliad 22 477. 6 Jliad 22. 477. 7 Iliad 21. 86. 
1 ἐνθένδε, . . ᾿Ανδρομάχη, found or!v in the Epitome. 
2 σὺ μὲν... Θήβηθεν, Meineke ejects. 

8 ἐν Τροίῃ Epitome, ἐκ Τροίης MSS. 
5 1] 

C 586 


Λυκάονα καὶ Πολύδωρον. καὶ μὴν οἵ ye ὑπὸ τῷ 
“Ἕκτορι ἐν τῷ καταλόγῳ ταττόμενοι λέγονται 
Τρωσὶ μὲν ἡγεμόνευε μέγας κορυθαίολος “Εἰκτωρ. 
on οὖ ἘΠ ΑΓ pee 
εἶθ᾽ οἱ ὑπὸ τῷ Αἰνείᾳ 
Δαρδανίων ait’ ἦρχεν ἐὺς παῖς ᾿Αγχίσαο" 
καὶ οὗτοι Τρῶες" φησὶ γοῦν" 
Αἰνεία, Τρώων βουληφόρε. 
εἶθ᾽ οἱ ὑπὸ Πανδάρῳ Λύκιοι, ods καὶ αὐτοὺς καλεῖ 
οἱ δὲ Ζέλειαν ἔναιον ὑπαὶ πόδα νείατον Ἴδης, 
᾿Αφνειοί, πίνοντες ὕδωρ μέλαν Αἰσήποιο, 
Τρῶες" τῶν αὖτ᾽ ἦρχε Λυκάονος ἀγλαὸς υἱός, 

σ δ᾽ “ ὃ / \ \ “ \ 
ἕκτη δ᾽ αὕτη δυναστεία. καὶ μὴν οἵ γε μεταξὺ 
a > , rid 4 a Par Ν Ν \ 
τοῦ Αἰσήπου καὶ ᾿Αβύδου Τρῶες" ὑπὸ μὲν yap 

““Υ ͵ > \ Ν ν»]᾽.ν .- 
τῷ ᾿Ασίῳ ἐστὶ τὰ περὶ “ABudov 
of δ᾽ ἄρα Ἰϊερκώτην καὶ ἸΠράκτιον ἀμφενέ- 

καὶ Σηστὸν καὶ ΓΑ βυδὸον ἔ ἔχον καὶ δῖαν Apia Biv, 
τῶν αὖθ᾽ “Tpraxidns ἦρχ᾽ "Actos" 

ἀλλ᾽ ἐν ᾿Αβύδῳ μὲν υἱὸς τοῦ Ἰ]ριάμου διέτριβεν, 
ἵππους νέμων, πατρῷας δηλονότι" 

ἀλλ᾽ υἱὸν Ipidpoto νόθον βάλε Δημοκόωντα, 

“ .} / = » δ ᾽ ͵΄ Η͂ 

ὅς οἱ ABuddbev ἦλθε παρ᾽ ἵππων ὠκειάων 
ἐν δὲ Περκώτῃ υἱὸς Ἱκετάονος ἐβουνόμει, οὐκ 
ἀλλοτρίας οὐδ᾽ οὗτος βοῦς" 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1.7 

And indeed those who are placed under Hector in 
the Catalogue are called Trojans: ‘The Trojans 
were led by great Hector of the flashing helmet.” ἢ 
And then come those under Aeneias: “The Dar- 
danians in turn were commanded by the valiant son 
of Anchises” ;* and these, too, were Trojans; at 
any rate, the poet says, ‘ Aeneias, counsellor of the 
Trojans.”* And then come the Lycians under 
Pandarus, and these also he calls Trojans: ‘“ And 
those who dwelt in Zeleia beneath the nethermost 
foot of Ida, Aphneii,* who drink the dark water of 
the Aesepus, Trojans; these in turn were commanded 
by Pandarus, the glorious son of Lycaon,”> And 
this was the sixth dynasty. And indeed those who 
lived between the Aesepus River and Abydus were 
Trojans ; for not only were the parts round Abydus 
subject to Asius, ‘‘and they who dwelt about Percoté 
and Practius® and held Sestus and Abydus and 
goodly Arisbé *“—these in turn were commanded by 
Asius the son of Hyrtacus,’® but a son of Priam 
lived at Abydus, pasturing mares, clearly his father’s : 
* But he smote Democodén, the bastard son of Priam, 
for Priam had come from Abydus from his swift 
mares” ;® while in Percoté a son of Hicetaon was 
pasturing kine, he likewise pasturing kine that 

' [liad 2. 816. 2 Iliad 2. 819. 

3 [liad 20. 83. 

* Aphneii is now taken merely as an adjective, meaning 
*‘wealthy”” men, but Strabo seems to concur in the belief 
that the people in question were named ‘ Aphneii” after 
Lake ‘‘ Aphnitis” (see 13. 1. 9). 

§ Iliad 2, 824. 

5 Whether city or river (see 13. 1. 21). 

7 On Arisbé, see Leaf, Troy, 193 ff. 

8 Iliad 2. 835. ¥ Lliud 4. 499, 



πρῶτον δ᾽ ‘Ixketaovidny ἐνένιπεν } 
ἴφθιμον Μελάνιππον" ὁ δ᾽ ὄφρα μὲν εἰλίποδας 
’ 81 , 
Book’ ἐν ἸΪερκώτη" 
ὥστε καὶ αὕτη ἂν εἴη Τρωὰς καὶ ἡ ἐφεξῆς ἕως 
᾿Αδραστείας" ἦρχον γὰρ αὐτῆς 

υἷε δύω Μέροπος Περκωσίου. 

πάντες μὲν δὴ Τρῶες οἱ ἀπὸ ᾿Αβύδου μέχρι, ᾿Αδρα- 
στείας, δίχα μέντοι διῃρημένοι, οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ τῷ 
᾿Ασίῳ, οἱ δ᾽ ὑπὸ τοῖς Μεροπίδαις" καθάπερ καὶ ἡ 
τῶν Κιλίκων διττή, ἡ μὲν Θηβαϊκή, ἡ ἡ δὲ Λυρνησ- 
σίς" ἐν αὐτῇ " δ᾽ ἂν λεχθείη ἡ ὑπὸ Εὐρυπύλῳ 
ἐφεξῆς οὖσα τῇ Λυρνησσίδι. ὅτι δὲ τούτων 
ἁπάντων ἦρχεν ὁ Πρίαμος, οἱ τοῦ ᾿Αχιλλέως 
λόγοι πρὸς τὸν ἸΤρίαμον σαφῶς ἐμφανίξουσι" 

καί σε, γέρον, τὸ πρὶν μὲν ἀκούομεν ὄλβιον 


ὅσσον Λέσβος ἄνω Μάκαρος πόλις ἐντὸς 

καὶ Φρυγίη καθύπερθε, καὶ “Ελλήσποντος 

1 ἐνένιπεν, Kramer, for ἔννεπεν x, ἐνέειπεν other MSS. 

2 For ἐν αὐτῇ, Madvig conj. ἐνάτῃ. 

3 After ἀπείρων Miiller-Diibner add another line (546) from 
Homer, τῶν σε, γέρον, πλυύτῳ τε καὶ υἱάσι φασὶ κεκάσθαι, as 
eS ὃ to the sense; so Leaf (Strabo oa the Troad, pp. 6 
and 57). 

1 7.e. the kine belonged to Priam. This son of Hicetaon, 
a kinsman of Hector (/diad 15. 545), ‘dwelt in the house of 
Priam, who honoured him eyually with his own children’ 
(Iliad 15. 551). 


GEOGRAPHY, 13.1.7 

' belonged to no other:* “And first he rebuked 
mighty Melanippus the son of Hicetaon, who until 
this time had been wont to feed the kine of 
shambling gait in Percoté”;* so that this country 
would be a part of the Troad, as also the next 
country after it as far as Adrasteia, for the leaders of “ 
the latter were “the two sons of Merops of Per- 
coté.”3 Accordingly, the people from Abydus to 
Adrasteia were all Trojans, although they were 
divided into two groups, one under Asius and the 
other under the sons of Merops, just as Cilicia? also 
was divided into two parts, the Theban Cilicia and 
the Lyrnessian ;° but one might include in the Lyr- 
nessian Cilicia the territory subject to Eurypylus, 
which lay next to the Lyrnessian Cilicia.6 But that 
Priam was ruler of these countries, one and all, is 
clearly indicated by Achilles’ words to Priam: “ And 
of thee, old sire, we hear that formerly thou wast 
blest; how of all that is enclosed by Lesbos, out at 
sea, city of Macar, and by Phrygia in the upland, 
and by the boundless Hellespont.” 7 

2 Iliad 15. 546. 3 Tliad 2. 831. 

4 The Trojan Cilicia (see 13. 1. 70). 

5 See 13. 1. 60-61. 

® The eight dynasties were (1) that of Mynes, (2) that of 
Eétion, (3) that of Altes, (4) that of Hector, (5) that of Aeneias, 
(6) that of Pandarus, (7) that of Asius, and (8) that of the two 
sons of Merops. If, however, there were nine dynasties (see 
13. 1. 2), we may assume that the ninth was that of Eury- 
pylus (see 13. 1. 70), unless, as Choiseul—Gouffier (Voyage 
Pittoresque de la Gréce, vol. ii, cited by Gossellin) think, it 
was that of the island of Lesbos. 

1 Iliad 24, 543. The quotation is incomplete without 
the following words of Homer: “‘o’er all these, old sire, 
thou wast pre-eminent, they say, because of thy wealth and 
thy sons.” 


C 587 


8. Τότε μὲν οὖν τοιαῦτα ὑπῆρχεν, ὕστερον δὲ 
ἠκολούθησαν μεταβολαὶ παντοῖαι. τὰ μὲν γὰρ 
περὶ Κύξικον Φρύγες ἐπᾳ Kno av ἕως Πρακτίου, τὰ 
δὲ περὶ "Αβυδον Θρᾷκες: ἔτι δὲ πρότερον τούτων 
ἀμφοῖν Βέβρυκες καὶ 'Δρύοπες" τὰ δ᾽ ἑξῆς Τρῆρες, 
καὶ οὗτοι Θρᾷκες" τὸ δὲ Θήβης πεδίον Λυδοί, οἱ 
τότε Μῴύονες, καὶ Μυσῶν. οἱ περιγενόμενοι τῶν 
ὑπὸ Τηλέφῳ πρότερον καὶ Τεύθραντι. οὕτω δὴ 
τοῦ ποιητοῦ τὴν Αἰολίδα καὶ τὴν Τροίαν εἰς év 
συντιθέντος, καὶ τῶν Αἰολέων τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ 
” Eppov πᾶσαν μέχρι τῆς κατὰ Κύξικον παραλίας 
κατασ όντων καὶ πόλεις κτισάντων, οὐδ᾽ ἂν 
ἡμεῖς ἀτόπως περιοδεύσαιμεν, εἰς ταὐτὸ συντι- 
θέντες 5 τήν τε Αἰολίδα νῦν ἰδίως λεγομένην. τὴν 
ἀπὸ τοῦ “Ἕρμου μέχρι Λεκτοῦ καὶ τὴν ἐφεξῆς 
μέχρι τοῦ Αἰσήπου" ἐν γὰρ τοῖς καθ᾽ ἕκαστα 
διακρινοῦμεν πάλιν, παρατιθέντες ἅμα τοῖς νῦν 
οὖσι τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων λεγόμενα. 

9. Ἔστιν οὖν μετὰ τὴν τῶν Κυξικηνῶν πόλιν 
καὶ τὸν Αἴσηπον ἀρχὴ τῆς Τρωάδος καθ᾽ “Ὅμηρον. 
λέγει δ᾽ ἐκεῖνος μὲν οὕτω hes αὐτῆς" 

οἱ δὲ Ζέλειαν ἔναιον ὑπαὶ πόδα νείατον Ἴδης 
᾿Αφνειοί, πίνοντες ὕδωρ μέλαν Αἰσήποιο, 

n “ > 9 / ᾽ \ er 
Τρῶες: τῶν αὖθ᾽ ἦρχε Λυκάονος ἀγλαὸς υἱός, 

τούτους δὲ ἐκάλει καὶ Λυκίους" ᾿Αφνειοὺς δὲ ἀπὸ 

1 For Δρύοπες Leaf conj. Δολίονες. 
2 EFmaxz have συνθέντες. 

1 Leaf (Strabo on the ΝΣ p. 61) makes a strong case for 
emending ‘* Dryopes” to ‘‘Doliones,” but leaves the Greek 

text (p. 7) unchanged. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. τ. 8-9 

8. Now such were the conditions at the time of 
the Trojan War, but all kinds of changes followed 
later; for the parts round Cyzicus as far as the 
Practius were colonised by Phrygians, and those 
round Abydus by Thracians; and still before these 
two by Bebryces and Dryopes.1_ And the country 
that lies next was colonised by the Treres, themselves 
also Thracians ; and the Plain of Thebé by Lydians, 
then called Maeonians, and by the survivors of the 
Mysians who had formerly been subject to Telephus 
and Teuthras. So then, since the poet combines 
Aeolis and Troy, and since the Aeolians held 
possession of all the country from the Hermus 
River® to the seaboard at Cyzicus, and founded 
their cities there, I too might not be guilty of de- 
scribing them wrongly if I combined Aeolis, now 
properly so called, extending from the Hermus 
River to Lectum, and the country next after it, 
extending to the Aesepus River; for in my detailed 
treatment of the two, | shall distinguish them again, 
setting forth, along with the facts as they now are, 
the statements of Homer and others. 

9. According to Homer, then, the Troad begins 
after the city of the Cyziceni and the Aesepus River. 
And he so speaks of it: ‘And those who dwelt in 
Zeleia beneath the nethermost foot of Ida, Aphneii,? 
who drink the dark water of the Aesepus, Trojans; 
these in turn were commanded by Pandarus the 
glorious son of Lycaon.’* These he also calls 
Lycians.® And they are thought to have been 

2 See 13. 1. 1, and p. 40 of Leaf’s first article cited in foot- 
note there. 

8 See foot-note on Aphneii in 13. 1. 7. 

ὁ Jliad 2, 824. 5 See 13. 1. 7. 


τῆς ᾿Αφνίτιδος νομίζουσι λίμνης" Kal yap οὕτω 
καλεῖται ἡ Δασκυλῖτις. 

10. Ἡ μὲν δὴ Ζέλεια ἐν τῇ παρωρείᾳ τῇ 
ὑστάτῃ τῆς Ἴδης ἐστίν, ἀπέχουσα Κυζίκου μὲν 
σταδίους ἐνενήκοντα καὶ ἑκατόν, τῆς δ᾽ ἐγγυτάτω 
θαλάττης, καθ᾽ ἣν ἐκδίδωσιν Αἴσηπος, ὅσον 
ὀγδοήκοντα. ἐπιμερίξει δὲ συνεχῶς τὰ κατὰ τὴν 
παραλίαν τὴν μετὰ τὸν Αἴσηπον" 

οἱ δ᾽ ᾿Αδρήστειάν T εἶχον καὶ δῆμον ᾿Απαισοῦ, 

καὶ Πιτύαν εἶχον Kai Τηρείης ὄρος αἰπύ, 

τῶν ἦρχ᾽ ᾿Αδρηστός τε καὶ "Αμφιος λινοθώμηξ, 

υἷε δύω Μέροπος Ἰ]ερκωσίου. 

nan \ ἈΝ / »“ἅ / \ 6 , 
ταῦτα δὲ Ta χωρία τῇ Zereia μὲν ὑποπέπτωκε, 
ἔχουσι δὲ Κυξικηνοί τε καὶ ἸΠριαπηνοὶ μέχρι καὶ 
τῆς παραλίας. περὶ μὲν οὖν τὴν Ζέλειαν ὁ 
Τάρσιός ἐστι ποταμός, εἴκοσιν ἔχων διαβάσεις 

lal a « “) «ς 
τῇ αὐτῇ ὁδῷ, καθάπερ ὁ ‘Ertdropos, ὅν φησιν ὁ 
« » ’ὔ 
ποιητής" 3 ὁ δ᾽ ἐκ Νικομηδείας εἰς Νίκαιαν τέτ- 
\ v ‘ \ Εν , > 
Tapas Kal εἴκοσι, πολλοὺς δὲ καὶ ὁ ἐκ Φολόης εἰς 
/ , 
τὴν Ἠλείαν. .. Σκάρθων πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι, 

1 πιτύειαν ἔχον is the reading of the Homeric MSS., but see 
Πίτυα in § 15 below. 
25658 ἐκ. .. Ταύρου, Meineke ejects, 

1 On the site of Zeleia, see Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 66. 

2 Tliad 2. 828. 

8 The places in question appear to have belonged to 
Zeleia. Leaf (op. cit., p. 65) translates: ‘‘are commanded by 
Zeleia” ; but the present translator is sure that, up to the 
present passage, Strabo has always used ὑποπίπτω in a purely 
geographical sense (¢.g., cf. 9. 1. 15, and especially 12. 4. 
6, where Strabo makes substantially the same statement 



Sere" νὰ... 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 9-10 

called “ Aphneii” after Lake “ Aphnitis,” for Lake 
Dascylitis is also called by that name. 

10. Now Zeleia! is situated on the farthermost 
foot-hill of Mt. Ida, being one hundred and ninety 
stadia distant from Cyzicus and about eighty stadia 
from the nearest part of the sea, where the Aesepus 
empties. And the poet mentions severally, in con- 
tinuous order, the places that lie along the coast 
after the Aesepus River: ‘‘And they who held 
Adrasteia and the land of Apaesus, and held Pityeia 
and the steep mountain of Tereia—these were led 
by Adrastus and Amphius of the linen corslet, the 
two sons of Merops of Percoté.”? These places lie 
below Zeleia,? but they are occupied by Cyziceni and 
Priapeni even as far as the coast. Now near Zeleia 
is the Tarsius River, which is crossed twenty times 
by the same road, like the Heptaporus River,® which 
is mentioned by the poet.* And the river that flows 
from Nicomedeia into Nicaea is crossed twenty-four 
times, and the river that flows from Pholoé into the 
Eleian country? is crossed mnany times . . . Scarthon 
twenty-five times,’ and the river that flows from the 

concerning Zeleia as in the present passage). But see Leaf’s 
note (op. cit.), p. 67. 

4 On this river see Leaf, work last cited, p. 67. 

5 Strabo does not mean that the Heptaporus was crossed 
twenty times. The name itself means the river of ‘‘ seven 
fords” (or ferries). 

6 liad 12. 20. 

7 7.¢e. Elis, in the Peloponnesus, 

8 The text is corrupt; and ‘‘Scarthon,” whether it applies 
to a river or a people, is otherwise unknown. However, this 
whole passage, ‘‘ And the river that flows from Nicomedeia 
. . . crossed seventy-five times,” appears to be a gloss, and 
is ejected from the text by Kramer and Meineke (see Leaf’s 
Strabo and the Troad, p. 65, note 4), 

VOL, VI. ἘΒ 5 


πολλοὺς δὲ καὶ ὁ ἐκ Κοσκινίων eis ᾿Αλάβανδα, 
πέντε δὲ καὶ ἑβδομήκοντα ὁ ἐκ Τυάνων εἰς Σόλους 
διὰ τοῦ Ταύρου. 

11, Ὑπὲρ δὲ τῆς ἐκβολῆς τοῦ Αἰσήπου σχεδόν 
TL...) σταδίοις κολωνός ἐστιν, ἐφ᾽ ᾧ τάφος 
δείκνυται Μέμνονος τοῦ Τιθωνοῦ" πλησίον δ᾽ ἐστὶ 
καὶ ἡ Μέμνονος κώμη. τοῦ δὲ Δίσήπου καὶ τοῦ 
Πριάπου μεταξὺ ὁ Τράνικος ῥεῖ, τὰ πολλὰ δι᾽ 
᾿Αδραστείας πεδίου, ἐφ’ ᾧ ᾿Αλέξανδρος τοὺς 
Δαρείου σατράπας ἀνὰ κράτος ἐνίκησε συμβαλών, 
καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύρου καὶ τοῦ Εὐφρά- 
του παρέλαβεν. ἐπὶ δὲ Γρανίκῳ πόλις ἦν Σιδηνή, 
χώραν ἔχουσα πολλὴν ὁμώνυμον, κατέσπασται 
δὲ νῦν. ἐν δὲ τῇ μεθορίᾳ τῆς Κυξζικηνῆς καὶ τῆς 
Πριαπηνῆς ἐστὶ ta “Αρπάγια 3 τόπος, ἐξ οὗ τὸν 
Γανυμήδην μυθεύουσιν ἡρπάχθαι' ἄλλοι δὲ περὶ 
Δαρδάνιον ἄκραν, πλησίον Δαρδάνου. 

12. Πρίαπος δ᾽ ἐστὶ πόλις ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ καὶ 
λιμήν" κτίσμα δ᾽ οἱ μὲν Μιλησίων φασίν, οἵπερ 
καὶ “ABvdov καὶ Ilpoxovyncov συνῴκισαν κατὰ 
τὸν αὐτὸν καιρόν, οἱ δὲ Κυξικηνῶν" ἐπώνυμος δ᾽ 
ἐστὶ τοῦ Πριάπου τιμωμένου παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς, eit ἐξ 
᾿Ορνεῶν τῶν περὶ Κόρινθον μετενηνεγμένου τοῦ 
ἱεροῦ, εἴτε τῷ λέγεσθαι Διονύσου καὶ νύμφης τὸν 
θεὸν ὁρμησάντων ἐπὶ τὸ τιμᾶν αὐτὸν τῶν ἀνθρώ- 
πων, ἐπειδὴ σφόδρα εὐάμπελός ἐστιν ἡ χώρα καὶ 

1 After τὶ there is a lacuna in the MSS. except Fi, ὁ read- 
ing ἐν εἴκοσι. 

3 “Αρπάγια, the spelling in Stephanus ; ‘Apméyeu F, ‘Apza- 
xera (unaccented) D, ‘Apraxeia other MSS. 

1 The number of stadia has fallen out of the MSS. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 10-12 

country of the Coscinii into Alabanda is crossed 
many times, and the river that flows from Tyana 
into Soli through the Taurus is crossed seventy-five 

11. About . . .1 stadia above the outlet of the 
Aesepus River is a hill, where is shown the tomb of 
Memnon, son of Tithonus; and near by is the village 
of Memnon. The Granicus River flows between the 
Aesepus River and Priapus, mostly through the plain 
of Adrasteia,2 where Alexander utterly defeated 
the satraps of Dareius in battle, and gained the 
whole of the country inside the Taurus and the Eu- 
phrates River. And on the Granicus was situated 
the city Sidené, with a large territory of the same 
name; but it is now in ruins. On the boundary 
between the territory of Cyzicus and that of Priapus 
is a place called Harpagia,? from which, according 
to some writers of myths, Ganymede was snatched, 
though others say that he was snatched in the 
neighbourhood of the Dardanian Promontory, near 

12. Priapus‘ is a city on the sea, and also a harbour. 
Some say that it was founded by Milesians, who at 
the same time also colonised Abydus and Proconnesus, 
whereas others say that it was founded by Cyziceni. 
It was named after Priapus, who was worshipped 
there; then his worship was transferred thither from 
Orneae near Corinth, or else the inhabitants felt an 
impulse to worship the god because he was called 
the son of Dionysus and a nymph; for their country 
is abundantly supplied with the vine, both theirs 

* See Leaf, work last cited, p. 70. 
8. The root harpag means ‘‘snatch away.” 
* On the site of Priapus, see Leaf, p. 73. 


C 588 


ef ‘ ΦΝ .2 a “ Ψ a Π a 
αὕτη καὶ 71 ἐφεξῆς ὅμορος ἥ τε τῶν Παριανῶν 
καὶ ἡ τῶν Λαμψακηνῶν" ὁ γοῦν Ἐέρξης τῷ Θεμιοσ- 

r > 3 » \ / > / 
τοκλεῖ εἰς οἶνον ἔδωκε τὴν Λάμψακον. ἀπεδείχθη 
δὲ θεὸς οὗτος ὑπὸ τῶν νεωτέρων' οὐδὲ yap 
ς lal -“ 

Ησίοδος οἷδε Πρίαπον, ἀλλ᾽ ἔοικε τοῖς ᾿Αττικοῖς 
Ὀρθάνῃ καὶ Κονισάλῳ καὶ Τύχωνι καὶ τοῖς 

13. ᾿Εκαλεῖτο δ᾽ ἡ χώρα αὕτη ᾿Αδράστεια καὶ 
᾿Αδραστείας πεδίον, κατὰ ἔθος τι οὕτω λεγόντων 

Ἁ > \ / “ «ς \ / | , 
τὸ αὐτὸ χωρίον διττῶς, ὡς καὶ Θήβην καὶ Θήβης 
πεδίον, καὶ Μυγδονίαν καὶ Μυγδονίας πεδίον. 
φησὶ δὲ 3 Καλλισθένης ἀπὸ ᾿Αδράστου βασιλέως, 
ὃς πρῶτος Νεμέσεως ἱερὸν ἱδρύσατο, καλεῖσθαι 
᾿Αδράστειαν. ἡ μὲν οὖν πόλις μεταξὺ Πριάπου 
καὶ Παρίου, ἔχουσα ὑποκείμενον πεδίον ἐπώνυμον, 
> <a \ a 9 > ΄ “ ΄ \ 
ἐν ᾧ καὶ μαντεῖον ἦν ᾿Απόλλωνος ᾿Ακταίου καὶ 
“a / ὃ \ \ 3 > δὲ Π / Ἢ 

ρτέμιδος κατὰτὴν ... . 3 εἰς δὲ Πάριον μετὴ 
νέχθη πᾶσα ἡ κατασκευὴ καὶ λιθία 4 κατα- 
σπασθέντος τοῦ ἱεροῦ, καὶ ὠκοδομήθη ἐν τῷ Παρίῳ 
βωμός, Ἑ). ρμοκρέοντος ἔργον, πολλῆς μνήμης 
ἄξιον κατὰ TO” μέγεθος καὶ κάλλος" τὸ δὲ μαντεῖον 
> , 6 , \ δὲ! , > a 
ἐξηλείφθη, καθάπερ καὶ τὸ ἐν Ζελείᾳφ. ἐνταῦθα 

\ = vey tether arars ΄ , FOL OA 
μὲν οὖν οὐδὲν ἱερὸν ᾿Αδραστείας δείκνυται, οὐδὲ δὴ 

1 ἡ, Meineke inserts. 

2 «al, before Καλλισθένης, Corais and Meineke omit. 

3 κατὰ τὴν Πυκάτην (omitted by Ca), after ᾿Αρτέμιδος, is 
corrupt ; κατὰ τὴν τύκατιν Dhi; κατὰ τὴν ἐπακτίαν, conj. Voss 
on Scylax, p. 85; κατὰ τὴν ἀκτήν, conj. Berkel on Stephanus, 
s.v. ᾿Ακτή (Kramer approving); κατὰ τὴν πυμάτην ἀκτήν, 
Groskurd; κατὰ τὴν Πακτύην, conj. Meineke; κατὰ τὴν 
Πιτυᾶτιν, conj. Corais. 

4 λιθία, Meineke emends to λιθεία. 

5 Instead of τό moxz read τε; so Corais and Meineke, 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 12-13 

and the countries which border next upon it, I mean 
those of the Pariani and the Lampsaceni. At any 
rate, Xerxes gave Lampsacus to Themistocles to 
supply him with wine. But it was by people of later 
times that Priapus was declared a god, for even 
Hesiod does not know of him; and he resembles 
the Attic deities Orthané, Conisalus, Tychon, and 
others like them. 

13. This country was called “ Adrasteia” + and 
Plain of Adrasteia,’ in accordance with a custom 
whereby people gave two names to the same place, as 
“Thebé” and “ Plain of Thebé,” and “ Mygdonia”’ 
and “ Plain of Mygdonia.” According to Callisthenes, 
among others, Adrasteia was named after King 
Adrastus, who was the first to found a temple of 
Nemesis. Now the city is situated between Priapus 
and Parium; and it has below it a plain that is 
named after it, in which there was an oracle of 
Apollo Actaeus and Artemis. .. .2 But when the 
temple was torn down, the whole of its furnishings 
and stone-work were transported to Parium, where 
was built an altar,? the work of Hermocreon, very 
remarkable for its size and beauty; but the oracle 
was abolished like that at Zeleia. Here, however, 
there is no temple of Adrasteia, nor yet of Nemesis, 

1 On the site of Adrasteia, see Leaf, p. 77. 

3 Three words in the Greek text here are corrupt. Strabo 
may have said that this temple was “on the shore,” or ‘‘in 
the direction of Pityeia” (the same as Pitya; see § 15 follow- 
ing), or “in the direction of Pactyé” (see critical note). 

; ge altar was a stadium (about 600 feet) in length 
(10. 5. 7). 

8 ἐξηλείφθη is emended by Miiller-Diibner and Meineke to 

᾿ 49 


Νεμέσεως, περὶ δὲ Κύξικόν ἐστιν᾽ Ἀδραστείας ἱερόν. 
᾿Αντίμαχος δ᾽ οὕτω φησίν" 

ἔστι δέ τις Νέμεσις μεγάλη θεός, ἣ τάδε πάντα 

πρὸς μακάρων ἔλαχεν: βωμὸν δέ οἱ εἵσατο 


Αδρηστος ποταμοῖο παρὰ ῥόον Αἰσήποιο, 

ἔνθα τετίμηταί τε καὶ ᾿Αδρήστεια καλεῖται. 

14. "ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ Πάριον πόλις ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ, 
λιμένα ἔχουσα μείζω τῆς Πριάπου, καὶ ηὐξημένη 
γε ἐκ ταύτης" θεραπεύοντες γὰρ οἱ Παριανοὶ 
τοὺς ᾿Ατταλεκούς, ὑφ᾽ οἷς ἐτέτακτο ἡ Πρια- 
πηνή, πολλὴν αὐτῆς ἀπετέμοντο, ἐπιτρεπόντων 
ἐκείνων. ἐνταῦθα μυθεύουσι τοὺς ᾿Οφιογενεῖς 
συγγένειάν τινᾶ ἔχειν πρὸς τοὺς ὄφεις" φασὶ δ᾽ 
αὐτῶν τοὺς ἄρρενας τοῖς ἐχιοδήκτοις ἄκος εἶναι 
συνεχῶς ἐφαπτομένους, ὥσπερ, τοὺς ἐπῳδούς, 
πρῶτον μὲν τὸ πελίωμα εἰς ἑαυτοὺς μεταφέροντας, 
εἶτα καὶ τὴν φλεγμονὴν παύοντας καὶ τὸν πόνον. 
μυθεύουσι δὲ τὸν ἀρχηγέτην τοῦ γένους ἥρωά τινα 
ἐξ ὄφεως μεταβαλεῖν" τάχα δὲ τῶν Ψύλλων τις 
ἣν τῶν Διβυκῶν, εἰς δὲ τὸ γένος διέτεινεν ἡ 
δύναμις μέχρι ποσοῦ. κτίσμα δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὸ ΙΙάριον 
Μιλησίων καὶ ᾿Ερυθραίων καὶ Παρίων. 

15. [litva! δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἐν Πιτυοῦντι τῆς Παριανῆς, 

1 Instead of Πίτυα, the Epitome, following the Homeric 
MSS. (see ὃ 10 above), reads Πιτύεια. 

1 A not uncommon appellation of the gods. 

® Note the variant spelling of the name, 

8 «<Serpent-born.”’ 

4 See Leaf, work last cited, p. 85. 5 See 17. 1. 44. 

6 See Fraser, Totemism and Eico gamy, 1. 20, 2.54 and 4. 178. 
7 According to the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (1. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. τ. 13-15 

to be seen, although there is a temple of Adrasteia 
near Cyzicus. Antimachus says as follows: “There 
is a great goddess Nemesis, who has obtained as her 
portion all these things from the Blessed.t_ Adrestus? 
was the first to build an altar to her beside the 
stream of the Aesepus River, where she is worshipped 
under the name of Adresteia.” 

14. The city Parium is situated on the sea; it hasa 
larger harbour than Priapus, and its territory has been 
increased at the expense of Priapus; for the Parians 
eurried favour with the Attalic kings, to whom 
the territory of Priapus was subject, and by their 
permission cut off for themselves a large part of that 
territory. Here is told the mythical story that the 
Ophiogeneis® are akin to the serpent tribe;* and 
they say that the males of the Ophiogeneis cure 
snake-bitten people by continuous stroking, after the 
manner of enchanters, first transferring the livid 
colour to their own bodies and then stopping both 
the inflammation and the pain. According to the 
myth, the original founder of the tribe, a certain 
hero, changed from a serpent into a man, Perhaps 
he was one of the Libyan Psylli,® whose power per- 
sisted in his tribe for a certain time.*- Parium was 
founded by Milesians and Erythraeans and Parians. 

15. Pitya? is in Pityus in the territory of Parium, 

933), cited by Leaf (Troy, p. 187), ‘‘ Laimpsacus was formerly 
called Pityeia, or, as others spell it, Pitya. Some say that 
Phrixus stored his treasure there and that the city was 
named after the treasure, for the Thracian word for treasure 
is ‘ pitye’” (but cf. the Greek word “ pitys,” “‘ pine tree”). 
Strabo, however, places Pitya to the east of Parium, whereas 
Lampsacus lies to the west (see Leaf, /.c., pp. 185 ff.; and his 
Strabo on the Troad, p. 87). In § 18 (following) Strabo says 
that ‘‘ Lampsacus was formerly called Pityussa.” 

" 31 


ὑπερκείμενον ἔχουσα πιτυῶδες ὄρος" μεταξὺ δὲ 

κεῖται Lapiov καὶ ἸΙριάπου κατὰ Λῖνον, χωρίον 

ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ, ὅπου οἱ Λινούσιοι κοχλίαι ἄριστοι 

τῶν πάντων ἁλίσκονται. 

16. Ἐν δὲ τῷ παράπλῳ τῷ ἀπὸ Παρίου εἰς 
Πρίαπον ἥ τε παλαιὰ Προκόννησός ἐστι καὶ ἡ 
νῦν ἸΠροκόννησος, πόλιν ἔχουσα καὶ μέταλλον 

uf le] ‘ ’ > 4 \ an 

C589 μέγα λευκοῦ λίθου σφόδρα ἐπαινούμενον" τὰ γοῦν 
κάλλιστα τῶν ταύτῃ πόλεων ἔργα, ἐν δὲ τοῖς 
πρῶτα! τὰ ἐν Κυζίκῳ, ταύτης ἐστὶ τῆς λίθου. 
ἐντεῦθέν ἐστιν ᾿Αριστέας," ὁ ποιητὴς τῶν ᾽Αρι- 
μασπείων καλουμένων ἐπῶν, ἀνὴρ γόης, εἴ τις 

11. Τὸ δὲ Τηρείης * ὄρος οἱ μὲν τὰ ἐν Πειρωσσῷ 
Μ ‘ a » « A , 
ὄρη φασίν, ἃ ἔχουσιν ot Κυζικηνοὶ τῇ Ζελείᾳ 
προσεχῆ, ἐν οἷς βασιλικὴ θήρα κατεσκεύαστο 

a . \ 0 “ ‘ δ Νὰ δίων 
τοῖς Λυδοῖς, καὶ Πέρσαις ὕστερον" οἱ δ᾽ ἀπὸ 
τετταράκοντα σταδίων Λαμψάκου δεικνύουσι 

, »"».}» Φ \ al e U > [2 
λόφον, ἐφ᾽ ᾧ Μητρὸς θεῶν ἱερὸν ἐστιν ἅγιον, 
Tnpeins * ἐπικαλούμενον. 

18. Καὶ ἡ Λαμψακος δ᾽ ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ πόλις 
ἐστὶν εὐλίμενος καὶ ἀξιόλογος, συμμένουσα καλῶς, 


ὥσπερ καὶ ἡ ᾿Αβυδος" διέχει δ᾽ αὐτῆς ὅσον 
1 πρῶτα, Corais, for πρῶτον ; so the later editors. 
2 ᾿Αριστέας, Casaubon, for ᾿Αρισταῖος ; so the later editors. 
3 πηρείης, in margin of Εἰ, for ῥείης C, τῆς peins other 


4 Τηρείης, the editors, for τῆς ῥείης. 

1 Leaf (1.6.) translates, ‘‘ hill shaped like a pine tree,” 
adding (p. 187) that ‘‘ the resemblance to a pine tree, so far 
as my personal observation went, means no more than that 
the hill slopes gently up to a rounded top.” However, the 
Greek adjective probably means in the present passage 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 15-18 

lying below a pine-covered mountain ;! and it lies 
between Parium and Priapus in the direction of 
Linum, a place on the seashore, where are caught 
the Linusian snails, the best in the world. 

16. On the coasting-voyage from Parium to 
Priapus lie both the old Proconnesus and the present 
Proconnesus, the latter having a city and also a great 
quarry of white marble that is very highly com- 
mended; at any rate, the most beautiful works of 
art? in the cities of that part of the world, and 
especially those in Cyzicus, are made of this marble. 
Aristeas was a Proconnesian—the author of the 

Arimaspian Epic, as it is called—a charlatan if ever 

there was one.® 

17. As for “the mountain of Tereia,’ * some say 
that it is the range of mountains in Peirossus which 
are occupied by the Cyziceni and are adjacent to 
Zeleia, where a royal hunting-ground was arranged 
by the Lydians, and later by the Persians;* but 
others point out a hill forty stadia from Lampsacus, 
on which there is a temple sacred to the mother of 
the gods, entitled “ Tereia’s’”’ temple. 

18. Lampsacus,® also, is a city on the sea, a 
notable city with a good harbour, and still flourishing, 
like Abydus. It is about one hundred and seventy 

**pine-covered ” (cf. the use of the same adjective iu 8. 6. 22, 
where it applies to a sacred precinct on the Isthmus of 

2 i.e. buildings, statues, and other marble structures (see 
5. 2. 5and 5. 3. 8, and the foot-notes on ‘‘ works of art’). 

3 See 1. 2. 10, and Herodotus, 4. 13. 

4 The mountain mentioned in Iliad 2. 829. 

. Xenophon (Hellenica 4. 1, 15) speaks of royal hunting- 
grounds, ‘‘some in enclosed parks, others in open regions.’ 

® Now Lapsaki. On the site, see Leaf, p. 92. 



ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ ἑκατὸν σταδίους" ἐκαλεῖτο δὲ 
πρότερον Πιτυοῦσσα, καθάπερ καὶ τὴν Χίον 
φασίν' ἐν δὲ τῇ περαίᾳϊ τῆς Χερρονήσου πο- 
λίχνιόν spre Καλλίπολις" κεῖται δ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀκτῆς, 
ἐκκειμένη3 πολὺ πρὸς τὴν ᾿Ασίαν κατὰ τὴν 
Λαμψακηνῶν πόλιν, ὥστε τὸ δίαρμα μὴ πλέον 
εἶναι τετταράκοντα σταδίων. 

19. Ἔν δὲ τῷ μεταξὺ Λαμψάκου καὶ Παρίου 
Παισὸς ἢ ἣν πόλις καὶ ποταμός: κατέσπασται a 
ἡ πόλις" οἱ δὲ Παισηνοὶ μετῴκησαν εἰς Λάμψα- 
κον, Μιλησίων ὄντες ἄποικοι καὶ αὐτοί, καθώπερ 
καὶ οἱ Λαμψακηνοί: ὁ δὲ ποιητὴς εἴρηκεν ἀμφο- 
τέρως, καὶ προσθεὶς τὴν πρώτην συλλαβήν, 

\ n ? a 
καὶ δῆμον ᾿Απαισοῦ, 
\ > , 
καὶ ἄφελων, 
΄ eo, => *.¢ a 
ὅς p evi Ilato@ 
ναῖε πολυκτήμων. 
καὶ ὁ ποταμὸς νῦν οὕτω καλεῖται. Μιλησίων δ᾽ 
᾽ ‘ e \ « € \ 4 > a 
εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ Kodwval ai ὑπὲρ Λαμψάκου ἐν τῇ 
μεσογαίᾳ τῆς Λαμψακηνῆς" ἄλλαι δ᾽ εἰσὶν ἐπὶ 
τῇ ἐκτὸς Ἑλλησποντίᾳ θαλάττῃ, Ἰλίου διέχουσαι 
σταδίους τετταράκοντα πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατόν" ἐξ ὧν 
τὸν Κύκνον φασίν. ᾿Αναξιμένης δὲ καὶ ἐν τῇ 
᾿Ερυθραίᾳ φησὶ λέγεσθαι Κολωνὰς καὶ ἐν τῇ 
Φωκίδι καὶ ἐν Θετταλίᾳ" ἐν δὲ τῇ Παριανῇ ἐ ἐστὶν 
᾿Ιλιοκολώνη. ἐν δὲ τῇ ᾿Λαμψακηνῇ τόπος εὐάμ- 
πέλος Γεργίθιον" ἣν δὲ καὶ “πόλις Γέργιθα, ἐκ 
τῶν ἐν τῇ Κυμαίᾳ Τεργίθων" ἣν γὰρ κἀκεῖ πόλις 

1 περαίᾳ, Xylander, for orepég ; so the later editors. 
2 moz read ἐκκειμένης. 
3 κατέσπασται Foz, κατέσπαστο CDhirwx. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 18-19 

stadia distant from Abydus; and it was formerly 
called Pityussa, as also, it is said, was Chios. On 
the opposite shore of the Chersonesus is Callipolis, a 
small town. [ is on the headland and runs far out 
towards Asia in the direction of the city of the 
Lampsaceni, so that the passage across to Asia from 
it is no more than forty stadia. 

19. In the interval between Lampsacus and 
Parium lay a city and river called Paesus; but the 
city is in ruins. The Paeseni changed their abode 
to Lampsacus, they too being colonists from the 
Milesians, like the Lampsaceni. But the poet refers 
to the place in two ways, at one time adding the 
first syllable, “and the land of Apaesus,’! and at 
another omitting it, ‘a man of many possessions, 
who dwelt in Paesus.”’* And the river is now 
spelled in the latter way. Colonae,? which lies 
above Lampsacus in the interior of Lampsacené, is 
also a colony of the Milesians; and there is another 
Colonae on the outer “Hellespontine sea, which is 
one hundred and forty stadia distant from Ilium and 
is said to be the birthplace of Cycnus.4 Anaximenes 
says that there are also places in the Erythraean 
territory and in Phocis and in Thessaly that are 
called Colonae. And there is an Iliocoloné in the 
territory of Parium. In the territory of Lampsacus 
is a place called Gergithium ® which is rich in vines ; 
and there was also a city called Gergitha from 
Gergithes in the territory of Cymé, for here too 

1 Iliad 2, 828, 2 Iliad 5. 612. 

“ a the site of Colonae, see Leaf (Strabo and the Troad), 
Ρ. 101. 

s pine of Colonae, slain by Achilles in the Trojan War. 

δ On Gergithium, see Leaf, p. 102, 



πληθυντικῶς καὶ θηλυκῶς λεγομένη αἱ Ρέργιθες, 
ὅθενπερ ὁ Γεργίθιος ἦν Κεφάλων' καὶ νῦν ἔτι 
δείκνυται τόπος ἐν τῇ Kupaig Γεργίθιον πρὸς 
Λαρίσσῃ. ἐκ Παρίου μὲν οὖν ὁ γλωσσογράφος 
κληθεὶς ἦν Νεοπτόλεμος μνήμης ἄξιος, ἐ ἐκ Λαμψά- 
κου δὲ Χάρων TE ὁ ) συγγραφεὺς καὶ ᾿Αδείμαντος καὶ 
᾿Αναξιμένης ὁ ῥήτωρ καὶ Μητρόδωρος, ὁ τοῦ 
᾿Ἐπικούρου ἑταῖρος, καὶ αὐτὸς δ᾽ ᾿Επίκουρος 
τρόπον τινὰ Λαμψακηνὸς ὑπῆρξε, διατρίψας ἐν 
Λαμψάκῳ καὶ φίλοις χρησάμενος τοῖς ἀρίστοις 
C590 τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτῃ, τοῖς περὶ Ἰδομενέα καὶ 
Λεοντέα. ἐντεῦθεν δὲ μετήνεγκεν ᾿Αγρίππας τὸν 
πεπτωκότα λέοντα, Λυσίππου ἔργον" ἀνέθηκε δὲ 
ἐν τῷ ἄλσει τῷ μεταξὺ τῆς λίμνης καὶ τοῦ εὐρίπου. 
20. Μετὰ δὲ Λάμψακόν ἐστιν Αβυδος καὶ τὰ 
μεταξὺ χωρία, περὶ ὧν οὕτως εἴρηκε συλλαβὼν 
ὁ ποιητὴς καὶ τὴν “Λαμψακηνὴν͵ καὶ τῆς ἸΠαριανῆς 
τινὰ (οὔπω γὰρ ἦσαν αὗται αἱ πόλεις κατὰ τὰ 


οἱ δ᾽ ἄρα Περκώτην καὶ Πράκτιον ἀμφενέμοντο, 
πρὶ Σηστὸν καὶ “ABvdov ἔχον καὶ δὃῖαν 
τῶν αὖθ᾽ “Ὑρτακίδης ἦρχ᾽ “Actos, 
ὃν ᾿Αρίσβηθεν φέρον ἵπποι 
αἴθωνες μεγάλοι ποταμοῦ ἄπο Σελλήεντος. 

1 Fl. in the Alexandrian period ; author of works entitled 
Glosses and Un Epigrams. 

2 Early historian ; author of Persian History and Annals 
of the Lampsaceni. 

3’ Known only as courtier of Demetrius Poliorcetes, 

4 See Frazer’s note on Pausanias, 6. 18. 2. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 1τ9-20 

there was a city called Gergithes, in the feminine 
plural, the birthplace of Cephalon the Gergithian. 
And still to-day a place called Gergithium is pointed 
out in the territory of Cymé near Larissa. Now 
Neoptolemus,' called the Glossographer, a notable 
man, was from Parium; and Charon the historian? 
and Adeimantus* and Anaximenes the rhetorician * 
and Metrodorus the comrade of Epicurus were from 
Lampsacus ; and Epicurus himself was in a sense a 
Lampsacenian, having lived in Lampsacus and having 
been on intimate terms with the ablest men of that 
city, Idomeneus and Leonteus and their followers. 
It was from here that Agrippa transported the Fallen 
Lion, a work of Lysippus ; and he dedicated it in the 
sacred precinct between the Lake and the Euripus.® 

20. After Lampsacus come Abydus and the 
intervening places of which the poet, who comprises 
with them the territory of Lampsacus and part of 
the territory of Parium (for these two cities were 
not yet in existence in the Trojan times), speaks as 
follows: “ And those who dwelt about Percoté and 
Practius, and held Sestus and Abydus and goodly 
Arisbé—these in turn were led by Asius, the son of 
Hyrtacus, . . . who was brought by his-large sorrel 
horses from Arisbé, from the River Selléeis.”® In 

δ “The Lake” seems surely to be the Stagnum Agrippae 
mentioned by Tacitus (Annals 15. 37), i.e. the Nemus 
Caesarum on the right bank of the Tiber (see A. Habler, 
Hermes 19 (1884), p. 235). ‘‘The Stagnum Agrippae was 
apparently a pond constructed by Agrippa in connection 
with the Aqua Virgo and the canal called Euripus in the 
neighbourhood of the Pantheon” (C. G. Ramsay, Annals of 
Tacitus, 15. 37), or, as Leaf (op. cit., p. 108) puts it, ‘‘The 
Euripus is the channel filled with water set up by Caesar 

round the arena of the Circus Maximus at Rome to protect 
the spectators from the wild beasts,” ® Iliad 2. 835. 

. 8 


οὕτω δ᾽ εἰπὼν. ἔοικε τὸ βασίλειον ἀποφαίνειν 
τοῦ ‘Agiov τὴν ᾿Αρίσβην, ὅθεν ἥκειν αὐτόν 

ὃν ᾿Αρίσβηθεν φέρον ἵπποι 

hae ΟΝ ἄπο Σελλήεντος. 
οὕτω δ᾽ ἀφανῆ τὰ χωρία ταῦτά ἐστιν, ὥστε οὐδ᾽ 
ὁμολογοῦσι περὶ αὐτῶν οἱ ἱστοροῦντες, πλὴν ὅτι 
περὶ "ABvéov καὶ Λάμψακόν ἐ ἐστι καὶ Πάριον, καὶ 
ὅτι ἡ πάλαι Περκώτη" μετωνομάσθη, ὁ ὁ τόπος. 

21. Τῶν δὲ ποταμῶν τὸν μὲν ᾿Σελλήεντά φησιν 

ὁ ποιητὴς πρὸς τῇ ᾿Αρίσβῃ ῥεῖν, εἴπερ ὁ “Actos 
᾿Αρίσβηθέν τε ἧκε καὶ ποταμοῦ ἄπο Σελλήεντος. 
ὁ δὲ Πράκτιος ποταμὸς μὲν ἔστι, πόλις δ᾽ οὐχ 
εὑρίσκεται, ὥς τίνες ἐνόμισαν" ῥεῖ δὲ καὶ οὗτος 
μεταξὺ ᾿Αβύδου καὶ Λαμψάκου τὸ οὖν 

καὶ Ilpuxtiov ἀμφενέμοντο, 

ef / e \ “ ΄ > 
οὕτω Sextéov, ὡς περὶ ποταμοῦ, καθάπερ Ka- 

Le \ \ \ a μή 

οἵ τ᾽ ἄρα πὰρ ποταμὸν Κηφισὸν δῖον ἔναιον, 


ἀμφί te Παρθένιον ποταμὸν κλυτὰ ἔργ᾽ ἐνέ- 

ἦν δὲ καὶ ἐν Λέσβῳ πόλις ᾿Αρίσβα, ἧς τὴν 
χώραν ἔχουσι Μηθυμναῖοι" ἔστι δὲ καὶ ποταμὸς 
"ApiaBos ἐν Θράκῃ, ὥσπερ εἴρηται, καὶ τούτου 

1 After Περκώτη Leaf inserts μετῳκίσθη καὶ Περκώπη (see 
his Strabo on the Troad, p. 11, footnote 3 on p. 108, and 
note on Percoté, p. 111). Thus, according to him, ‘the old 
Percoté was transplanted and the name of its site changed 
to Percopé.” 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 20-21 

speaking thus, the poet seems to set forth Arisbé, 
whence he says Asius came, as the royal residence of 
Asius: “ who was brought by his horses from Arisbé, 
from the River Selléeis.” But these places? are so 
obscure that even investigators do not agree about 
them, except that they are in the neighbourhood of 
Abydus and Lampsacus and Parium, and that the 
old Percoté,? the site, underwent a change of name.? 

21. Of the rivers, the Selléeis flows near Arisbé, 
as the poet says, if it be true that Asius came both 
from Arisbé and from the Selléeis River. The 
River Practius is indeed in existence, but no city of 
that name is to be found, as some have wrongly 
thought. This river also* flows between Abydus 
and Lampsacus. Accordingly, the words, “and 
dwelt about Practius,’ should be interpreted as 
applying to a river, as should also those other 
words, “and those who dwelt beside the goodly 
Cephisus River,” ὅ and “those who had their famed 
estates about the Parthenius River,’’® There was 
also a city Arisba in Lesbos, whose territory is 
occupied by the Methymnaeans. And there is an 
Arisbus River in Thrace, as I have said before,’ near 

1 4.e. Arisbé, Percoté, and the Selléeis. Strabo himself 
locates the Practius (13. 1. 4, 7, 8, 21). On the sites of these 
places, see Leaf’s Troy. pp. 188 ff., his note in Jour. Hellenic 
Studies, XXX VII (1917), p. 26, and his Strabo on the Troad, 

pp- 108 ff. 
2 Homer’s Percoté, on the sea. 3 See critical note. 
4 74, as well as the Selléeis. 5 Tliad 2. 522. 

6 /liad 2. 854 (see critical note). 
? Obviously in the lost portion of Book VII. 

* Instead of ἔργ᾽ ἐνέμοντο the Homeric MSS. have δώματ᾽ 
ἔναιον, and Strabo himself so cites in 12. 3. 5. Eustathius 
(note on {ας 2. 835) cites as in the present passage. 



πλησίον οἱ Κεβρήνιοι Θρᾷκες. πολλαὶ δ᾽ ὁμω- 
νυμίαι Θρᾳξὶ καὶ Τρωσίν, οἷον Σκαιοὶ ᾿Θρᾷκές 
τινες καὶ Σκαιὸς ποταμὸς καὶ Σκαιὸν τεῖχος καὶ 
ἐν Τροίᾳ Σκαιαὶ πύλαι" Ξάνθιοι Θρᾷκες, Ξάνθος 
ποταμὸς ἐν Τροίᾳ; “Apia Bos ὁ ἐμβάλλων εἰς τὸν 
Ἕβρον, ᾿Αρίσβη ἐν Τροίᾳ: Ῥῆσος “ποταμὸς ἐν 
Τροίᾳ, Ῥῆσος δὲ καὶ ὁ 0 βασιλεὺς τῶν Θρᾳκῶν. 

ἔστι δὲ καὶ τῷ ᾿Ασίῳ ὁμώνυμος ἕτερος παρὰ τῷ 
ποιητῇ Actos, 

ὃς μήτρως ἣν “Extopos ἱπποδάμοιο, 
αὐτοκασίγνητος Ἑκάβης, υἱὸς δὲ Δύμαντος, 
ὃς Φρυγίην ναίεσκε pons ἐπὶ Σαγγαρίοιο. 

22. "Αβυδος δὲ Μιλησίων ἐστὶ κτίσμα, ἐπι- 
τρέψαντος Εύγου, τοῦ Λυδῶν βασιλέως" ἦν γὰρ 
ἐπ᾿ ἐκείνῳ τὰ χωρία καὶ ἡ Τρωὰς ἅπασα, 
ὀνομάζεται, δὲ καὶ ἀκρωτήριόν τι “πρὸς Δαρδάνῳ 

C591 Ty vyas" ἐπίκειται δὲ τῷ στόματι τῆς Ἱροποντίδος 

καὶ τοῦ Ἑλλησπόντου, διέχει δὲ τὸ ἴσον Λαμψά. 
κου καὶ Ἰλίου, σταδίους περὶ ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ 
ἑκατόν. ἐνταῦθα δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὸ ἑπταστάδιον, ὅπερ 
yy / Ν 4 \ > es \ \ 
ἔζευξε Ἐέρξης, τὸ διόριξον τὴν Εὐρώπην καὶ τὴν 
᾿Ασίαν. καλεῖται δ᾽ ἡ ἄκρα τῆς Εὐρώπης Χερ- 
ρόνησος διὰ τὸ σχῆμα, ἡ ποιοῦσα τὰ στενὰ τὰ 
κατὰ τὸ ξεῦγμα" ἀντίκειται δὲ τὸ ζεῦγμα τῇ 
». 7 

Αβύδῳ. Σηστὸς δὲ ἀρίστη; τῶν ἐν Χερρονήσῳ 
πόλεων" διὰ δὲ τὴν γειτοσύνην ὑπὸ τῷ αὐτῷ 

1 For ἀρίστη Meineke conj. κρατίστη. 

1 Iliad 16. 717. 

. 2 On the site of Abydus, see Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 21-22 

which are situated the Thracian Cebrenians. There 
are many names common to the Thracians and the 
Trojans; for example, there are Thracians called 
Scaeans, and a river Scaeus, and a Scaean Wall, and 
at Troy the Scaean Gates. And there are Thracian 
Xanthians, and in Troy-land a river Xanthus. And 
in Troy-land there is a river Arisbus which empties 
into the Hebrus, as also a city Arisbé. And there 
was a river Rhesus in Troy-land ; and there was a 
Rhesus who was the king of the Thracians. And 
there is also, of the same name as this Asius, another 
Asius in Homer, “who was maternal uncle to horse- 
taming Hector, and own brother to Hecabé, but son 
of Dymas, who dwelt in Phrygia by the streams of 
the Sangarius.”’+ : 

22. Abydus was founded by Milesians, being 
founded by permission of Gyges, king of the 
Lydians; for this district and the whole of the 
Troad were under his sway; and there is a promon- 
tory named Gygas near Dardanus, Abydus lies at 
the mouth of the Propontis and the Hellespont ; 
and it is equidistant from Lampsacus and [lium, 
about one hundred and seventy stadia.2 Here, 
separating Europe and Asia, is the Heptastadium,? 
which was bridged by Xerxes. The European 
promontory that forms the narrows at the place of 
the bridge is called the Chersonesus 4 because of its 
shape. And the place of the bridge lies opposite 
Abydus. Sestus® is the best of the cities in the 
Chersonesus; and, on account of its proximity to 
Abydus, it was assigned to the same governor as 

3 4, ‘*Strait of seven stadia.” 
4 i.e. * Land-island” or ““ Peninsula.” 
5 On its site, see Leaf, work last cited, p. 119. 

" 41 


ἡγεμόνι Kal αὕτη ἐτέτακτο οὔπω ταῖς ἠπείροις 
διοριζόντων τῶν τότε τὰς ἡγεμονίας. ἡ μὲν οὖν 
ἴἼΑβυδος καὶ ἡ Σηστὸς διέχουσιν ἀλλήλων τριά- 
κοντά που σταδίους ἐκ λιμένος εἰς λιμένα, τὸ δὲ 
ζεῦγμά ἐστι μικρὸν ἀπὸ τῶν πόλεων παραλλά- 
ἕαντι ἐξ Αβύδου μὲν ὡς ἐπὶ τὴν Προποντίδα, ἐκ 
δὲ Σηστοῦ εἰς τοὐναντίον: ὀνομάζεται δὲ πρὸς τῇ 
Σηστῷ τόπος ᾿Αποβάθρα, καθ᾽ ὃν ἐξζεύγνυτο ἡ 
σχεδία ἔστι δὲ ἡ Σηστὸς ἐνδοτέρω κατὰ τὴν 
Προποντίδα ὑπερδέξιος τοῦ ῥοῦ τοῦ ἐξ αὐτῆς" 
διὸ καὶ εὐπετέστερον ἐκ τῆς Σηστοῦ διαίρουσι 
παραλεξάμενοι! μικρὸν ἐπὶ τὸν τῆς Ἡροῦς 
πύργον κἀκεῖθεν ἀφιέντες τὰ πλοῖα συμπράττοντος 
τοῦ ῥοῦ πρὸς τὴν περαίωσιν" τοῖς δ᾽ ἐξ Αβύδου 
περαιουμένοις παραλεκτέον 3 ἐστὶν εἰς τἀναντία 
ὀκτώ που σταδίους ἐπὶ πύργον τινὰ κατ᾽ ἀντικρὺ 
τῆς Σηστοῦ, ἔπειτα διαίρειν πλάγιον καὶ μὴ 
τελέως ἐναντίον ἔγουσιν τὸν ῥοῦν. ᾧκουν δὲ τὴν 
ἼΛβυδον μετὰ τὰ Γρωωικὰ Θρᾷκες, εἶτα Μιλήσιοι. 
τῶν δὲ πόλεων ἐμπρησθεισῶν ὑπὸ Δαρείου, τοῦ 
Ἐέρξου πατρός, τῶν κατὰ τὴν Προποντίδα, 
ἐκοινώνησε καὶ ἡ “ABudos τῆς αὐτῆς συμφορᾶς. 
ἐνέπρησε δὲ πυθόμενος μετὰ τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν Σκυθῶν 
ἐπάνοδον, τοὺς νομάδας παρασκευάζεσθαι δια- 
βαίνειν ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν κατὰ τιμωρίαν ὧν ἔπαθον, 
δεδιὼς μὴ αἱ πόλεις πυρθμεῖα παράσχοιεν τῇ 
στρατιᾷ. συνέβη δὲ πρὸς ταῖς ἄλλαις μετα- 
βολαῖς καὶ τῷ χρόνῳ καὶ τοῦτο αἴτιον τῆς 

| παραλεξάμενοι, Kramer restores, for παραλαξάμενοι OC, 
παραλλαξάμενοι rw, Xylander, and other editors. 

ὁ παραλεκτέον, Kramer restores, for παραλλακτέον, earlier 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 22 

Abydus in the times when governorships had not 
yet been delimited by continents. Now although 
Abydus and Sestus are about thirty stadia distant 
from one another from harbour to harbour, yet the 
line of the bridge across the strait is short, being 
drawn at an angle to that between the two cities, that 
is, from a point nearer than Abydus to the Propontis 
on the Abydus side to a point farther away from 
the Propontis on the Sestus side. Near Sestus is a 
place named Apobathra, where the pontoon-bridge 
was attached to the shore. Sestus lies farther in 
towards the Propontis, farther up the stream that 
flows out of the Propontis. It is therefore easier to 
cross over from Sestus, first coasting a short distance 
to the Tower of Hero and then letting the ships 
make the passage across by the help of the current. 
But those who cross over from Abydus must first 
follow the coast in the opposite direction about 
eight stadia to a tower opposite Sestus, and then 
sail across obliquely and thus not have to meet the 
full force of the current. After the Trojan War 
Abydus was the home of Thracians, and then of 
Milesians, But when the cities were burned by 
Dareius, father of Xerxes, I mean the cities on the 
Propontis, Abydus shared in the same misfortune. 
He burned them because he had learned after his 
return from his attack upon the Scythians that the 
nomads were making preparations to cross the strait 
and attack him to avenge their sufferings, and was 
afraid that the cities would provide means for the 
passage of their army. And this too, in addition to 
the other changes and to the lapse of time, is a 
cause of the confusion into which the topography of 

1 i.e. ** Place of Disembarkation.” 


συγχύσεως TOY τόπων. περὶ δὲ Σηστοῦ Kal τῆς 
ὅλης Χερρονήσου προείπομεν ἐν τοῖς περὶ τῆς 
Θράκης τόποις, φησὶ δὲ τὴν Σηστὸν Θεόπομπος 

ραχεῖαν μέν, εὐερκῆ δέ, καὶ σκέλει διπλέθρῳ 
συνάπτειν πρὸς τὸν λιμένα, καὶ διὰ ταῦτ᾽ οὖν καὶ 
διὰ τὸν ῥοῦν κυρίαν εἶναι τῶν παρόδων. 

28. Ὑπέρκειται δὲ τῆς τῶν ᾿Αβυδηνῶν χώρας 
ἐν τῇ Τρωάδι τὰ Αστυρα, ἃ νῦν μὲν ᾿Αβυδηνῶν 
ἐστί, κατεσκαμμένη πόλις, πρότερον δὲ ἣν καθ᾽ 
αὑτά, χρυσεῖα ἔχοντα, ἃ νῦν σπάνιά ἐστιν 
ἐξαναλωμένα, καθάπερ τὰ ἐν τῷ Tu@A τὰ περὶ 
τὸν ΠΠακτωλόν. ἀπὸ ᾿Αβύδου δ᾽ ἐπὶ Αἰσηπὸν 
περὶ ἑπτακοσίους φασὶ σταδίους, εὐθυπλοίᾳ δὲ 
ἐλάττους. , 

C592 24. "ἔξω δὲ ᾿Αβύδου τὰ περὶ τὸ "λιόν ἐστι, 
τά τε παράλια ἕως Λέκτου καὶ τὰ ἐν τῷ Τρωικῷ 
πεδίῳ καὶ τὰ παρώρεια τῆς Ἴδης τὰ ὑπὸ τῷ 
Αἰνείᾳ. διττῶς δὲ ταῦτ᾽ ὀνομάζει ὁ ποιητής, τοτὲ 
μὲν οὕτω λέγων" 

Δαρδανίων ait’ ἦρχεν ἐὺς παῖς ᾿Αγχίσαο, 
Δαρδανίους καλῶν, τοτὲ δὲ Δαρδάνους, 
Τρῶες καὶ Λύκιοι καὶ Δάρδανοι ἀγχιμαχηταί. 

1 Kramer suspects that τόποις should be ejected. Meineke 
conj. λόγοις, but retains τόποις in his text. Op. Frog. 55a, 
Vol. III, p. 378. 

1 See Vol. III, Frags. 51 (p. 373), 55d (p. 379), and 5la, 
52, and 53 (p. 375). 

2 2.6. about 200 feet (in breadth). 

3. According to Leaf (l.c., p. 135), the shortest course of a 
vessel between Abydus and the mouth of the Aesepus 
measures just about 700 stadia. Hence Strabo’s authorities 
for his statement are in error if, as usual, the longer voyage 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 22-24 

' the country has fallen. As for Sestus and the 
Chersonesus in general, I have already spoken of 
them in my description of the region of Thrace. 
Theopompus says that Sestus is small but well forti- 
fied, and that it is connected with its harbour by a 
double wall of two plethra,? and that for this reason, 
as also on account of the current, it is mistress of 
the passage. 

23. Above the territory of the Abydeni, in the 
Troad, lies Astyra. This city, which is in ruins, 
now belongs to the Abydeni, but in earlier times it 
was independent and had gold mines. These mines 
are now scant, being used up, like those on Mt. 
Tmolus in the neighbourhood of the Pactolus River. 
From Abydus to the Aesepus the distance is said to 
be about seven hundred stadia, but less by straight 

24. Outside Abydus lies the territory of [lium—the 
parts on the shore extending to Lectum, and the 
places in the Trojan Plain, and the parts on the side 
of Mt. Ida that were subject to Aeneias. The poet 
names these last parts in two ways, at one time 
saying as follows: “The Dardanii in turn were 
led by the valiant son of Anchises,’4 calling the 
inhabitants “ Dardanii’’; and at another time, 
“ Dardani”’: “ The Trojans and Lycians and Dardani 
that fight in close combat.’”’ And it is reason- 

is a coasting voyage, following the sinuosities of the gulfs, as 
against the shorter, or more direct, voyage. Leaf, however, 
forces the phrase ‘‘ by straight sailing” to mean ‘‘a straight 
course wholly over the land,” adding that ‘‘the meaning 
must be that it would be shorter if one could sail straight,” 
and that ‘‘ the expression is singularly infelicitous as applied 
to a journey by land in centrast to one by sea.” 
4 lliad. 2. 819. 



εἰκὸς δ᾽ ἐνταῦθα ἱδρῦσθαι τὸ παλαιὸν τὴν λεγο- 
μένην ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ Δαρδανίαν" 

Δάρδανον αὖ πρῶτον τέκετο νεφεληγερέτα 
κτίσσε δὲ Δαρδανίην. 

“ \ \ »>Q> » / / > , 

νῦν μὲν γὰρ οὐδ᾽ ἴχνος πόλεως σώξεται αὐτόθι. 
25. Εἰκάζει δὲ Πλάτων μετὰ τοὺς κατα- 
κλυσμοὺς τρία πολιτείας εἴδη συνίστασθαι" 
πρῶτον μὲν τὸ ἐπὶ τὰς ἀκρωρείας ἁπλοῦν τι 

καὶ ἄγριον, δεδιότων τὰ ὕδατα ἐπιπολάζοντα 
“ , tal 
ἀκμὴν ἐν τοῖς πεδίοις: δεύτερον δὲ τὸ ἐν ταῖς 
ς / ΄ > 
ὑπωρείαις, θαρρούντων ἤδη κατὰ μικρόν, ἅτε δὴ 
καὶ τῶν πεδίων ἀρχομένων ἀναψύχεσθαι" τρίτον 
δὲ τὸ ἐν τοῖς πεδίοις. λέγοι δ᾽ ἂν τις καὶ τέταρτον 
καὶ πέμπτον ἴσως καὶ πλείω, ὕστατον δὲ τὸ ἐν 
τῇ παραλίᾳ καὶ ἐν ταῖς νήσοις, λελυμένου παντὸς 
fal / “ 
τοῦ τοιούτου φόβου. τὸ γὰρ μᾶλλον καὶ ἧττον 
rn / a , / BAN 
θαρρεῖν πλησιάζειν τῇ θαλάττῃ πλείους ἂν 
ὑπογράφοι διαφορὰς πολιτειῶν καὶ ἠθῶν, κα- 
θάπερ'! τῶν ἀγαθῶν3 τε καὶ τῶν ἀγρίων ἔτι 
\ a / 

πως ὃ ἐπὶ τὸ ἥμερον τῶν δευτέρων ὑποβεβηκότων. 
ἔστι 5€4 τις διαφορὰ καὶ παρὰ τούτοις τῶν 
cal > 
ἀγροίκων καὶ μεσαγροίκων καὶ πολιτικῶν ἀφ 
ὧν ἤδη καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ ἀστεῖον καὶ ἄριστον ἦθος 
ἐτελεύτησεν ἡ τῶν ὀνομάτων κατ᾽ ὀλίγον μετά- 

1 καθάπερ, Xylander, for καὶ ἅπερ ; so the later editors. 

2 ἀγαθῶν MSS., Leaf (op. cit. pp. 13, 140) restores, for 
ἁπλῶν, emendation of Groskurd accepted by other later editors. 
Plato (Laws 679 ΟἹ) says: ἀγαθοὶ μὲν διὰ ταῦτα (ἰ.6. the absence 
of riches, poverty, insolence, injustice, and envy) τε ἦσαν καὶ 

διὰ τὴν λεγομένην εὐήθειαν. 
8 ἔτι πως, the editors in general, for ἐστί πως moz, ἔτι πῶς 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 24-25 

able to suppose that this was in ancient times the site 
of the Dardania mentioned by the poet when he 
says, “ At first Dardanus was begotten by Zeus the 
cloud-gatherer, and he founded Dardania” ;1 for at 
the present time there is not so much as a trace of 
a city preserved in that territory.” 

25. Plato® conjectures, however, that after the 
time of the floods three kinds of civilisation were 
formed : the first, that on the mountain-tops, which 
was simple and wild, when men were in fear of the 
waters which still deeply covered the plains; the 
second, that on the foot-hills, when men were now 
gradually taking courage because the plains were 
beginning to be relieved of the waters; and the 
third, that in the plains, One might speak equally 
of a fourth and fifth, or even more, but last of all that 
on the sea-coast and in the islands, when men had 
been finally released from all such fear; for the 
greater or less courage they took in approaching the 
sea would indicate several different stages of civilisa- 
tion and manners, first as in the case of the qualities of 
goodness * and wildness, which in some way further 
served as a foundation for the milder qualities in the 
second stage. But in the second stage also there is 
a difference to be noted, I mean between the rustic and 
semi-rustic and civilised qualities; and, beginning 
with these last qualities, the gradual assumption 
of new names ended in the polite and highest 

ες Ὁ Iliad 20. 215, 
3 On the boundaries of Dardania, see Leaf (J.c., p. 137), 
® Laws 677-679. 4 See critical note, 

ting MSS. ; omitted by Corais ; ἤδη πως, Groskurd ; ἑτέρως 

4 δέ, after ἔστι, Leaf omits. 

a 47 


Ayes, κατὰ τὴν τῶν ἠθῶν ἐπὶ τὸ κρεῖττον 
μετάστασιν, παρὰ τὰς τῶν τόπων καὶ τῶν βίων 
μεταβολάς. ταύτας δὴ τὰς διαφορὰς ὑπογράφειν 
φησὶ τὸν ποιητὴν ὁ Πλάτων, “τῆς μὲν πρώτης 
πολιτείας παράδειγμα τιθέντα τὸν τῶν Κυκλώπων 
βίον, αὐτοφυεῖς ,Ῥεμομένων καρποὺς καὶ τὰς 
ἀκρωρείας κατεχόντων ἐν σπηλαίοις τισίν' 

ἀλλὰ τά γ᾽ ἄσπαρτα καὶ ἀνήροτα πάντα 

φησίν, αὐτοῖς" 

τοῖσιν & οὐκ ἀγοραὶ βουληφόροι, οὔτε 

ἀλλ᾽ οἵ γ᾽ ὑψηλῶν ὀρέων ναίουσι κάρηνα, 

ἐν σπέσσι γλαφυροῖσι, θεμιστεύει δὲ ἕκαστος 

παίδων ἠδ᾽ ἀλόχων. 

τοῦ δὲ δευτέρου τὸν ἐπὶ τοῦ Δαρδάνου" 

κτίσσε δὲ Δαρδανίην, ἐπεὶ οὔπω Ἴλιος ἑ ἱρή 
C593 ἐν πεδίῳ πεπόλιστο, πόλις μερόπων ἀνθρώ- 
ἀλλ᾽ ἔθ᾽ ὑπωρείας ὠκεον 53 πολυπιδάκου “Jdns. 

τοῦ δὲ τρίτου ἐπὶ τοῦ λου τὸν ἐν τοῖς πεδίοις. 
τοῦτον γὰρ παραδιδόασι τοῦ Ἰλίου κτίστην, ἀφ᾽ 
οὗ καὶ τὴν ἐπωνυμίαν λαβεῖν τὴν πόλιν: εἰκὸς 
δὲ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐν μέσῳ τῷ πεδίῳ τεθάφθαι 
αὐτόν, ὅτι πρῶτος ἐθάρρησεν ἐν τοῖς πεδίοις 
θέσθαι τὴν κατοικίαν" 

οἱ δὲ map’ Ἴλου σῆμα παλαιοῦ Δαρδανίδαο 
μέσσον Kat πεδίον Tap ἐρινεὸν ἐσσεύοντο. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 25 

eulture, in accordance with the change of manners 
for the better along with the changes in places of 
abode and in modes of life. Now these differences, 
according to Plato,! are suggested by the poet, who 
sets forth as an example of the first stage of civilisa- 
_ tion the life of the Cyclopes, who lived on unculti- 
vated fruits and occupied the mountain-tops, living 
in caves: “but all these things,” he says, “ grow 
unsown and unploughed” for them. ... “And 
they have no assemblies for council, nor appointed 
laws, but they dwell on the tops of high mountains 
in hollow caves, and each is lawgiver to his children 
and his wives.” 2 And as an example of the second 
stage, the life in the time of Dardanus, who “ founded 
Dardania; for not yet had sacred Ilios been builded 
to be a city of mortal men, but they were living on 
the foot-hills of many-fountained Ida.” * And of the 
third stage, the life in the plains in the time of 
Ilus ; 4 for he is the traditional founder of Ilium, and 
it was from him that the city took its name. And 
it is reasonable to suppose, also, that he was buried 
in the middle of the plain for this reason—that he 
was the first to dare to settle in the plains: “ And 
they sped past the tomb of ancient Ilus, son of 
Dardanus, through the middle of the plain past 
the wild fig tree.” 5 Yet even [lus did not have full 

- 2 Laws 3. 680. 
2 Odyssey 9. 109, 112-114 (quoted by Plato in Laws 3. 680). 
® Iliad 20. 216 (quoted by Plato in Laws 3. 681). 
* Laws 3. 682. 5 Iliad 11. 166. 

1 ἐπί, Corais, for ἐκ ; so the later editors. 
2 Instead of ᾧκεον, moz read ἔναιον. 



οὐδ᾽ οὗτος δὲ τελείως ἐθάρρησεν" οὐ yap ἐνταῦθα 
ἵδρυσε τὴν πόλιν, ὅπου νῦν ἐστίν, ἀλλὰ σχεδόν 
τι τριάκοντα σταδίοις ἀνωτέρω πρὸς ἕω καὶ πρὸς 
τὴν Ἴδην καὶ τὴν Δαρδανίαν κατὰ τὴν νῦν 
καλουμένην ᾿Ιλεέων Κώμην. οἱ δὲ νῦν ᾿Ιλιεῖς 
φιλοδοξοῦντες καὶ θέλοντες εἶναι ταύτην τὴν 
παλαιὰν παρεσχήκασι λόγον τοῖς ἐκ τῆς Ὁμήρου 
ποιήσεως τεκμαιρομένοις" οὐ γὰρ ἔοικεν αὕτη 
εἶναι ἡ καθ᾽ “Ὅμηρον. καὶ ἄλλοι δὲ ἱστοροῦσι 
πλείους μεταβεβληκέναι τόπους τὴν πόλιν, 
ὕστατα δ᾽ ἐνταῦθα συμμεῖναι κατὰ ἸΚροῖσον 1 
μάλιστα. τὰς δὴ τοιαύτας μεταβάσεις εἰς τὰ 
κάτω μέρη τὰς τότε συμβαινούσας ὑπολαμβάνω 
καὶ βίων καὶ πολιτειῶν ὑπογράφειν διαφοράς. 
ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν καὶ ἄλλοτε ἐπισκεπτέον. 

20. Τὴν δὲ τῶν ᾿Ιλιέων πόλιν τῶν νῦν τέως 
μὲν κώμην εἶναί φασι, τὸ ἱερὸν ἔχουσαν τῆς 
᾿Αθηνᾶς μικρὸν καὶ εὐτελές, ᾿Αλέξανδρον δὲ 
ἀναβάντα μετὰ τὴν ἐπὶ Γρανίκῳ νίκην, ἀναθήμασί 
τε κοσμῆσαι τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ προσαγορεῦσαι πόλιν 
καὶ οἰκοδομίαις ἀναλαβεῖν προστάξαι τοῖς ἐπι- 
μεληταῖς ἐλευθέραν τε κρῖναι καὶ ἄφορον, ὕστερον 
δὲ μετὰ τὴν κατάλυσιν τῶν Περσῶν ἐπιστολὴν 
καταπέμψαι φιλάνθρωπον, ὑπισχνούμενον πόλιν 
τε ποιῆσαι μεγάλην καὶ ἱερὸν ἐπισημότατον, καὶ 
ἀγῶνα ἀποδείξειν ἱερῦν. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἐκείνου 

1 For Κροῖσον x reads μικρόν, moz χρησμόν. 

1 Schliemann’s excavations, however, identify Hissarlik as 
the site of Homer’s Troy. Hence ‘‘ the site of Homer’s Troy 
at ‘the village of Ilians’ is a mere figment ” (Leaf, ἴ.6., p. 141). 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 25-26 

courage, for he did not found the city at the place 
where it now is, but about thirty stadia higher up 
towards the east, and towards Mt. Ida and Dardania, 
at the place now called “ Village of the Ilians.” ὦ 
But the people of the present Ilium, being fond of 
glory and wishing to show that their Ilium was the 
ancient city, have offered a troublesome argument to 
those who base their evidence on the poetry of 
Homer, for their Ilium does not appear to have been 
the Homeric city. Other inquirers also find that the 
city changed its site several times, but at last settled 
permanently where it now is at about the time of 
Croesus.2 I take for granted, then, that such 
removals into the parts lower down, which took place 
in those times, indicate different stages in modes of 
life and civilisation; but this must be further 
investigated at another time. 

26. It is said that the city of the present Ilians 
was for a time a mere village, having its temple of 
Athena, a small and cheap temple, but that when 
Alexander went up there after his victory at the 
Granicus * River he adorned the temple with votive 
offerings, gave the village the title of city, and 
ordered those in charge to improve it with buildings, 
and that he adjudged it free and exempt from tribute; 
and that later, after the overthrow of the Persians, 
he sent down a kindly letter to the place, promising 
to make a great city of it, and to build a magnificent 
sanctuary, and to proclaim sacred games.* But after 

3 King of Lydia, 560-546 B.c. 

8 The first of the three battles by which he overthrew the 
Persian empire (334 B.c.). 

‘ ¢.g. like the Olympic Games. But his untimely death 
prevented the fulfilment of this promise. 



τελευτὴν Λυσίμαχος μάλιστα τῆς πέλεως ἐπε- 
μελήθη καὶ νεὼν κατεσκεύασε καὶ τεῖχος περιε- 
βάλετο ὅσον τετταράκοντα σταδίων, συνῴκισέ 
τε εἰς αὐτὴν τὰς κύκλῳ πόλεις ἀρχαίας ἤδη 
κεκακωμένας, ὅτε καὶ ᾿Αλεξανδρείας ἤδη ἐπε- 
μελήθη, συνῳκισμένης μὲν ἤδη ὑπ᾽ ᾿Αντιγόνου 
καὶ προσηγορευμένης ᾿Αντιγονίας, μεταβαλούσης 
δὲ τοὔνομα, ἔδοξε γὰρ εὐσεβὲς εἶναι τοὺς ᾿Αλέ- 
Eavdpov διαδεξαμένους ἐκείνου πρότερον κτίζειν 
ἐπωνύμους πόλεις, εἶθ᾽ ἑαυτῶν. καὶ δὴ καὶ 
συνέμεινε καὶ αὔξησιν ἔσχε, νῦν δὲ καὶ Ρωμαίων 
ἀποικίαν δέδεκται καὶ ἔστι τῶν ἐλλογίμων 

C594 27. Καὶ τὸ Ἴλιον δ᾽, ὃ νῦν ἔστι, κωμόπολίς 
τις ἦν, ὅτε πρῶτον Ῥωμαῖοι τῆς ᾿Ασίας ἐπέβησαν 
καὶ ἐξέβαλον ᾿Αντίοχον τὸν μέγαν ἐκ τῆς ἐντὸς 
τοῦ Ταύρου. φησὶ γοῦν Δημήτριος ὁ Σκήψιος, 
μειράκιον ἐπιδημήσας εἰς τὴν πόλιν κατ᾽ ἐκείνους 
τοὺς καιρούς, οὕτως ὠλιγωρημένην ἰδεῖν τὴν 
κατοικίαν, ὥστε μηδὲ κεραμωτὰς ἔχειν τὰς στέγας" 
Ἡγησιάναξ δὲ τοὺς T'adatas περαιωθέντας ἐκ 
τῆς Ἑὐρώπης ἀναβῆναι μὲν εἰς τὴν πόλιν 
δεομένους ἐρύματος, παραχρῆμα δ᾽ ἐκλιπεῖν διὰ 

1 Kither Strabo, or his authority, Demetrius of Scepsis, or 
the Greek text as it now stands, seems guilty of inconsistency 
in the passage ‘‘ devoted special attention to the ἬΝ ΡΝ 
and then cities bearing ὑμὶν own.” Grote (Vol. I, chapter 
xv) rearranges the Greek text in the following order: 
**devoted especial attention to Alexandreia” (not Ilium), 
‘which had indeed already been founded by Antigonus and 
called Antigonia, but changed its name (for it was thought to 
be .. . then cities bearing their own name), and he built a 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 26-27 

his death Lysimachus?/ devoted special attention to 
the city, and built a temple there and surrounded the 
city with a wall about forty stadia in circuit, and also 
incorporated into it the surrounding cities, which 
were now old and in bad plight. At that time he 
had already devoted attention to Alexandreia, which 
had indeed already been founded by Antigonus and 
ealled Antigonia, but had changed its name, for it 
was thought to be a pious thing for the successors of 
Alexander to found cities bearing his name before 
they founded cities bearing their own. And indeed 
the city endured and grew, and at present it not 
only has received a colony of Romans but is one of 
the notable cities of the world. 

27. Also the Ilium of to-day was a kind of village- 
city when the Romans first set foot on Asia and 
expelled Antiochus the Great from the country this 
side of Taurus. At any rate, Demetrius of Scepsis 
says that, when as a lad he visited the city about 
that time, he found the settlement so neglected 
that the buildings did not so much as have tiled 
roofs. And Hegesianax says that when the Galatae 
crossed over from Europe they needed a stronghold 
and went up into the city for that reason, but 

temple . . . forty stadia in circuit.” He omits “‘at that 
time he had already devoted attention to Alexandreia,” and so 
does Leaf (op. cit., p. 142) ; but the latter, instead of rearranging 
the text, simply inserts ‘‘ Alexandreia” after ‘‘ city ” in the 
first clause of the passage. Leaf (p. 143) adds the following 
important argument to those of Grote: ‘‘ There is no trace 
whatever of any great wall at Ilium, though remains of one 
40 stades in length could hardly have escaped notice. But 
there is at Alexandreia such a wall which is exactly the 
length mentioned by Strabo, and which is clearly referred 



τὸ ἀτείχιστον" ὕστερον δ᾽ ἐπανόρθωσιν ἔσχε 
πολλήν. εἶτ᾽ ἐκάκωσαν αὐτὴν πάλιν οἱ μετὰ 
Φιμβρίου Ῥωμαῖοι, λαβόντες ἐκ πολιορκίας ἐν 
τῷ Μιθριδατικῷ πολέμῳ. συνεπέμφθη δὲ ὁ 
Φιμβρίας ὑπάτῳ Οὐαλερίῳ Φλάκκῳ ταμίας, 
προχειρισθέντι ἐπὶ τὸν Μιθριδάτην' καταστα- 
σιάσας δὲ καὶ ἀνελὼν τὸν ὕπατον κατὰ Βιθυνίαν 
αὐτὸς κατεστάθη κύριος τῆς στρατιᾶς, καὶ 
προελθὼν εἰς Ἴλιον, οὐ δεχομένων αὐτὸν τῶν 
᾿Ιλεέων, ὡς λῃστήν, βίαν te} προσφέρει καὶ 
ἑνδεκαταίους ὃ αἱρεῖ: καυχωμένου δ᾽, ὅτι, ἣν 
᾿Αγαμέμνων πόλιν δεκάτῳ ἔτει μόλις εἷλε τὸν 
χιλιόναυν στόλον ἔχων καὶ τὴν “σύμπασαν 
᾿Βλλάδα συστρατεύουσαν, ταύτην αὐτὸς ἑνδεκάτῃ 
ἡμέρᾳ χειρώσαιτο, εἶπέ τις τῶν ᾿Ιλεέων: Οὐ yap 
ἣν “Βκτωρ ὁ ὑπερμαχῶν τῆς πόλεως. τοῦτον 
μὲν οὖν ἐπελθὼν Σύλλας κατέλυσε, καὶ τὸν 
Μιθριδάτην κατὰ συμβάσεις εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν 
ἀπέπεμψε, τοὺς δ᾽ ᾿Ιλεξας παρεμυθήσατο πολλοῖς 
ἐπαι ᾿Ἡρθώμασι. καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς μέντοι Καῖσαρ ὁ ὁ Θεὸς 
πολὺ πλέον αὐτῶν προυνόησε, ζηλώσας ἅμα 
καὶ ᾿Αλέξανδρον" ἐκεῖνος γὰρ κατὰ συγγενείας 
ἀνανέωσιν ὥρμησε προνοεῖν αὐτῶν, ἅμα καὶ 
φιλόμηρος ὦν. φέρεται γοῦν τις διόρθωσις τῆς 
Ὁμήρου ποιήσεως, ἡ ἐκ τοῦ νάρθηκος λεγομένη, 
τοῦ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου μετὰ τῶν περὶ Καλλισθένη καὶ 
᾿Ανάξαρχον ἐπελθόντος καὶ σημειωσαμένου τινά, 
1 βίαν τε, conj. of Casaubon, for μηχανάς τε 4, μάχην Tw, 

ἀνάγκην x, omitted in moz, μάντι other MSS. ; so Meineke, 
2 For ἑνδεκαταίους the Epit. has ἐν ἡμέραιε Bena. 

1 2,6. in 86 B.c. by Cinna the consul, the leader of the 
popular party at Rome. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 27 

left it at once because of its lack of walls. But 
later it was greatly improved. And then it was 
ruined again by the Romans under Fimbria, who 
took it by siege in the course of the Mithridatic 
war. Fimbria had been sent as quaestor with 
Valerius Flaccus the consul when the latter was 
appointed! to the command against Mithridates; 
but Fimbria raised a mutiny and slew the consul 
in the neighbourhood of Bithynia, and was himself 
set up as lord of the army; and when he advanced 
to Ilium, the Ilians would not admit him, as being 
a brigand, and therefore he applied force and cap- 
tured the place on the eleventh day, And when he 
boasted that he himself had overpowered on the 
eleventh day the city which Agamemnon had only 
with difficulty captured in the tenth year, although 
the latter had with him on his expedition the fleet 
of a thousand vessels and the whole of Greece, one 
of the Ilians said: ‘‘ Yes, for the city’s champion 
was no Hector.’’ Now Sulla came over and over- 
threw Fimbria, and on terms of agreement sent 
Mithridates away to his homeland, but he also 
consoled the Ilians by numerous improvements. In 
my time, however, the deified Caesar? was far more 
thoughtful of them, at the same time also emulating 
the example of Alexander; for Alexander set out 
to provide for them on the basis of a renewal of 
ancient kinship, and also because at the same time 
he was fond of Homer; at any rate, we are told of 
a recension of the poetry of Homer, the Recension 
of the Casket, as it is called, which Alexander, along 
with Callisthenes and Anaxarchus, perused and to a 

2 Julius Caesar. 



ἔπειτα καταθέντος eis νάρθηκα, dv ηὗρεν ἐν τῇ 
Περσικῇ γάζῃ, πολυτελῶς κατεσκευασμένον. 
κατά τε δὴ τὸν τοῦ ποιητοῦ ζῆλον καὶ κατὰ τὴν 
συγγένειαν τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν Αἰακιδῶν τῶν ἐν 
Μολοττοῖς βασιλευσάντων, παρ᾽ οἷς καὶ τὴν 
᾿Ανδρομάχην ἱστοροῦσι βασιλεῦσαι, τὴν “Ἑκτορος 
γενομένην γυναῖκα, ἐφιλοφρονεῖτο! πρὸς τοὺς 
Ἰλιέας ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος" ὁ δὲ Καῖσαρ καὶ φιλαλέ- 
Eavdpos ὧν καὶ τῆς πρὸς τοὺς ᾿Ιλιέας συγγενείας 
γνωριμώτερα 3 ἔχων τεκμήρια ἐπερρώσθη πρὸς 
τὴν εὐεργεσίαν νεανικῶς" γνωριμώτερα δέ, πρῶτον 

C595 μὲν ὅτε Ῥωμαῖος" οἱ δὲ Ῥωμαῖοι tov? Αἰνείαν 

ἀρχηγέτην ἡγοῦνται" ἔπειτα ὅτι ᾿Ιούλιος ἀπὸ 
᾿ΙἸούλου Tivos τῶν προγόνων: ἐκεῖνος δ᾽ ἀπὸ 
Ιούλου τὴν προσωνυμίαν" ἔσχε ταύτην, τῶν 
ἀπογόνων εἷς ὧν τῶν ἀπὸ Αἰνείου. χώραν τε 
δὴ προσένειμεν αὐτοῖς καὶ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν καὶ 
τὴν ἀλειτουργησίαν αὐτοῖς συνεφύλαξε, καὶ 
μέχρι νῦν συμμένουσιν ἐν τούτοις. ὅτε δ᾽ οὐκ 
ἐνταῦθα ἵδρυται τὸ παλαιὸν Ἴλιον καθ᾽ 
“Ὅμηρον σκοποῦσιν, ἐκ τῶν τοιῶνδε τεκμαίρονται. 
πρότερον δὲ ὑπογραπτέον τοὺς τόπους ἀπὸ τῆς 
παραλίας ἀρξαμένους, ἀφ᾽ ἧσπερ ἐλίπομεν. 

* All MSS, except Dhi read yap before πρός. 

2 γνωριμώτερα, Corais, for γνωριμώτατα ; so the later editors, 
8 All MSS except oraz have 7’ before Αἰνείαν. 

* ix read Ἴλου instead of Ἰούλου. 

5 F reads προσηγορίαν instead of προσωνυμίαν. 

® Dhi add νῦν after ἐνταῖθα ; h reads ἵδρυτο, and so Corais. 

1 According to Plutarch (Alexander 8), ‘‘ Alexander took 
with him Aristotle’s recension of the poem, called the Iliad 
of the Casket, and always kept it lying beside his dagger 



GEOGRAPHY, 13.1. 27 

certain extent annotated, and then deposited in a 
richly wrought casket which he had found amongst 
the Persian treasures.1_ Accordingly, it was due both 
to his zeal for the poet and to his descent from the 
Aeacidae who reigned as kings of the Molossians— 
where, as we are also told, Andromaché, who had 
been the wife of Hector, reigned as queen—that 
Alexander was kindly disposed towards the Ilians. 
But Caesar, not only being fond of Alexander, but 
also having better known evidences of kinship with 
the Ilians, felt encouraged to bestow kindness upon 
them with all the zest of youth: better known 
evidences, first, because he was a Roman, and 
because the Romans believe Aeneias to have been 
their original founder; and secondly, because the 
name Iulius was derived from that of a certain lulus 
who was one of his ancestors,? and this Iulus got his 
appellation from the Iulus* who was one of the 
descendants of Aeneas. Caesar therefore allotted 
territory to them and also helped them to preserve 
their freedom and their immunity from taxation; 
and to this day they remain in possession of these 
favours. But that this is not the site of the ancient 
Ilium, if one considers the matter in accordance 
with Homer's account, is inferred from the follow- 
ing considerations. But first I must give a general 
description of the region in question, beginning at 
that point on the coast where I left off. 

under his pillow, as Onesicritus informs us”; and “the 
casket was the most precious of the treasures of Dareius” 
(ibid. 26). 

5 i.e. of the Julian gens. 

3 On ‘‘Iulus,” or Ilus, see critical note. 

VOL. VI. c | Bf 


28. Ἔστι τοίνυν pet Αβυδον ἥ τε Δαρδανὶς 
ἄκρα, ἧς μικρὸν πρότερον ἐμνήσθημεν, καὶ ἡ 
πόλις ἡ Δάρδανος, διέχουσα τῆς ᾿Αβύδου 
a be ’ 4 e « / 
ἑβδομήκοντα σταδίους. μεταξύ te ὁ “Podios 
ἐκπίπτει ποταμός, καθ᾽ ὃν ἐν τῇ Χερρονήσῳ τὸ 
Κυνὸς σῆμά ἐστιν, 6 φασιν ‘ExaBns εἶναι τάφον" 
᾿ \ ἈΝ « / > \ ” > [4 
οἱ δὲ τὸν “Podiov εἰς τὸν Αἴσηπον ἐμβάλλειν 
φασίν" εἷς δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ λεγο- 
μένων καὶ οὗτος" 

Ῥῆσός θ᾽ “Ἑπτάπορός τε Ἱζάρησός τε “Podios 

ἡ δὲ Δάρδανος κτίσμα ἀρχαῖον, οὕτω δ᾽ εὐκα- 
ld [2 7 e an e \ 
ταφρόνητον, ὥστε πολλάκις οἱ βασιλεῖς οἱ μὲν 
Ud > \ > ν € εἶ 3 ‘ 
μετῴκιζον αὐτὴν eis "Αβυδον, οἱ δὲ ἀνῳκιζον 
πάλιν εἰς τὸ ἀρχαῖον κτίσμα. ἐνταῦθα δὲ 
συνῆλθον Σύλλας τε Κορνήλιος, ὁ τῶν Ῥωμαίων 
ἡγεμών, καὶ Μιθριδάτης ὁ κληθεὶς Εἰὐπάτωρ, 

\ | \ > / 3 \ / 
καὶ συνέβησαν πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἐπὶ καταλύσει 
τοῦ πολέμου. 


29. Πλησίον δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὸ ᾿Οφρύνιον,3 ἐφ᾽ ᾧ τὸ 
τοῦ Ἕκτορος ἄλσος ἐν περιφανεῖ τόπῳ' καὶ 
ἐφεξῆς λίμνη 8 Πτελεώς. 

80. Εἶτα Ροίτειον πόλις ἐπὶ λόφῳ κειμένη 
καὶ τῷ “Porteiw* συνεχὴς ἠιὼν ἁλιτενής,5 ἐφ᾽ 
ἡ μνῆμα καὶ ἱερὸν Αἴαντος καὶ ἀνδριάς, ὃν 
ἄραντος ᾿Αντωνίου κομισθέντα εἰς Αἴγυπτον 
ἀπέδωκε τοῖς Ῥοιτειεῦσιδ πάλιν, καθάπερ καὶ 

1 moxz read μικρῷ instead of μικρόν. 

2 "Οφρύνιον E and Epit., ᾿᾽᾿Οφρούνιον other MSS. 

8 λίμνη, Leaf (see his note, Zroad, p. 154), following 

Calvert, whom he quotes fully, emends to λιμήν. 
4 “Pyrig CFmoxz, ‘Porrly D, ‘Pouriy hi, Ῥουτείῳ other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 28-30 

28. After Abydus, then, comes the Dardanian 
Promontory, which I mentioned a little while ago,} 
and also the city Dardanus, which is seventy stadia 
distant from Abydus. Between the two places 
empties the Rhodius River, opposite which, in the 
Chersonesus, is Cynos-Sema,? which is said to be 
the tomb of Hecabé. But some say that the 
Rhodius empties into the Aesepus. This too is one 
of the rivers mentioned by the poet: “ Rhesus, 
Heptaporus, Caresus, and Rhodius.”? Dardanus 
was an ancient settlement, but it was held in such 
contempt that it was oftentimes transplanted by 
some of the kings to Abydus and then resettled 
again by others on the ancient site. It was here 
that Cornelius Sulla, the Roman commander, and 
Mithridates surnamed Eupator met and arranged 
the terms for the conclusion of the war. 

29. Near by is Ophrynium, near which, in a 
conspicuous place, is the sacred precinct of Hector. 
And next comes the Lake® of Pteleos, 

30. Then come Rhoeteium, a city situated on a 
hill, and, adjacent to Rhoeteium, a low-lying shore, 
on which are a tomb and temple of Aias, and also a 
statue of him, which was taken up by Antony 
and carried off to Aegypt ; but Augustus Caesar gave 
it back again to the Rhoeteians, just as he gave 

»2:13.1. 11. 

3 See ‘‘ Cynos-Sema” and foot-note in Vol. III, p. 377. 

3 Iliad 12. 20. 

4 On the site of Ophrynium, see Leaf, p. 153. 

5 Leaf, p. 154, following Calvert, emends ‘‘ Lake” to 
** Harbour.” 

5 Αἰάντειον, after ἁλιτενῆς, Jones deletes, 
ὁ Ροιτειεῦσι, the editors, for Ῥυτιεῦσι. 

. Ὁ 

C 596 


ἄλλοις ἄλλους, ὁ Σεβαστὸς Καῖσαρ. τὰ γὰρ 
κάλλιστα ἀναθήματα ἐκ τῶν ἐπιφανεστάτων 
ἱερῶν ὁ μὲν ἦρε, τῇ Αἰγυπτίᾳ χαριζόμενος, ὁ 
δὲ θεοῖς ἀπέδωκε. 

31. Μετὰ δὲ τὸ ἹΡοίτειόν 2 ἐστε τὸ Σίγειον,3 
κατεσπασμένη πόλις, καὶ τὸ ναύσταθμον καὶ ὁ 
᾿Αχαιῶν λιμὴν καὶ τὸ ᾿Αχαϊκὸν στρατόπεδον 
καὶ ἡ Στομαλίμνη καλουμένη καὶ αἱ τοῦ Σκαμάν- 
δρου ἐκβολαί. συμπεσόντες yap ὅ τε Σιμόεις 
καὶ ὁ Σκάμανδρος ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ, πολλὴν κατα- 
φέροντες ἰλύν, προσχοῦσι τὴν παραλίαν καὶ 
τυφλὸν στόμα τε καὶ λιμνοθαλάττας καὶ ἕλη 
ποιοῦσι. κατὰ δὲ τὴν Σιγειάδα Δ ἄκραν ἐστὶν 
ἐν τῇ Χερρονήσῳ τὸ “Ἡρωτεσιλάειον ® καὶ ἡ 
᾿Ελεοῦσσα,δ περὶ ὧν εἰρήκαμεν ἐν τοῖς Θρᾳκίοις. 

32. "Kote δὲ τὸ μῆκος τῆς παραλίας ταύτης, 
ἀπὸ τοῦ Ῥοιτείου Ἶ μέχρι Σιγείου καὶ τοῦ 
᾿Αχιλλέως μνήματος εὐθυπλοούντων, ἑξήκοντα 
σταδίων" ὑποπέπτωκε δὲ τῷ Ἰλίῳ πᾶσα, τῷ μὲν 
νῦν κατὰ τὸν ᾿Αχαιῶν λιμένα ὅσον δώδεκα στα- 
δίους διέχουσα, τῷ δὲ προτέρῳ τριάκοντα ἄλλοις 
σταδίοις ἀνωτέρῳ κατὰ τὸ πρὸς τὴν Ἴδην μέρος. 
τοῦ μὲν οὖν ᾿Αχιλλέως καὶ ἱερόν ἐστι καὶ μνῆμα 
πρὸς τῷ Σιγείῳ, ἸΠατρόκλου δὲ καὶ ᾿Αντιλόχου 
μνήματα, καὶ ἐναγίξουσιν οἱ ᾿᾽ἸΙλιεῖς πᾶσι καὶ 
τούτοις καὶ τῷ Αἴαντι. Ἡρακλέα δ᾽ οὐ τιμῶσιν, 

1 ἄλλους, omitted by the MSS., Kramer inserts (x reads 
ἄλλα) ; so the later editors. 

2 Ῥοίτειον, the editors, for Ῥοίτιον h, ‘Pitiov other MSS., 
except that D has οἱ over υ. 

8 Σίγειον E, Σίγιον other MSS. 

4 Σιγειάδα E, Σιγιάδα other MSS, 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 30-32 

back other statues to their owners. For Antony 
took away the finest dedications from the most 
famous temples, to gratify the Egyptian woman,! 
but Augustus gave them back to the gods. 

31. After Rhoeteium come Sigeium, a destroyed 
city, and the Naval Station and the Harbour of the 
Achaeans and the Achaean Camp and Stomalimné,? 
as it is called, and the outlets of the Scamander ; 
for after the Simoeis and the Scamander meet in 
the plain, they carry down great quantities of 
alluvium, silt up the coast, and form a blind mouth, 
lagoons, and marshes. Opposite the Sigeian Pro- 
montory on the Chersonesus are Eleussa* and the 
temple of Protesilaiis, both of which I have men- 
tioned in my description of Thrace.* 

32. The length of this coast, I mean on a straight 
voyage from Rhoeteium to Sigeium, and the 
monument of Achilles, is sixty stadia; and the 
whole of it lies below Ilium, not only the present 
Ilium, from which, at the Harbour of the Achaeans, 
it is about twelve stadia distant, but also the earlier 
Ilium, which lies thirty stadia farther inland in the 
_ direction of Mt. Ida. Now there are a temple and 
a monument of Achilles near Sigeium, as-also monu- 
ments of Patroclus and Antilochus; and the Ilians 
offer sacrifices to all four heroes, both to these and 
to Aias. But they do not honour Heracles, giving 

1 Cleopatra. 2 ** Mouth-of-the-marsh.” 
8. «*Eleussa” appears to be an error for ‘‘ Eleus.” 
4 Book VII, Frags. 51, 54, 55. 

δ᾽ Πρωτεσιλάειον E, Πρωτεσίλαιον Forz, Πρωτεσιλαίων OC, 
Πρωτεσιλέων Dhi. 

5 »Ελεοῦσσα, Oorais emends to ᾿Ελαιοῦσσα. 

? *Porrtov Dh, Ῥρυτίου CO, Ἱροιτείου other MSS, 



> , \ e > > “ f > >’ > » 
αἰτιώμενοι τὴν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πόρθησιν. ἀλλ᾽ ἐκεῖνος 
μέν, φαίη τις ἄν, οὕτως ἐπόρθησεν, ὥστ᾽ ἀπο- 
λιπεῖν τοῖς ὕστερον ἐκπορθήσουσι κεκακωμένην 
μέν, πόλιν δέ' διὸ καὶ οὕτως εἴρηκεν ὁ ποιητής" 

Ἰλίου ἐξαλάπαξε πόλιν, χήρωσε δ᾽ ἀγυιάς. 

e \ / , ’, 3 > 

ἡ yap ynpeia λειπανδρία τίς ἐστιν, οὐκ 
ἀφανισμὸς τέλειος: οὗτοι 8 ἠφάνισαν τελείως, 
οἷς ἐναγίζειν ἀξιοῦσι καὶ τιμᾶν ὡς θεούς" εἰ μὴ 
τοῦτ᾽ αἰτιάσαιντο, διότι οὗτοι μὲν δίκαιον 

’ ) / > -“ \ »” Ὁ > 
πόλεμον ἐξήνεγκαν, ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἄδικον, ἕνεχ 
ἵππων Λαομέδοντος" πρὸς τοῦτο δὲ πάλιν ἀν- 

, n 7 
τιτίθεται μῦθος" ov yap ἕνεκα ἵππων, ἀλλὰ 
μισθοῦ ὑπὲρ τῆς Ησιόνης καὶ τοῦ κήτους. ἀλλ᾽ 
ἐάσωμεν ταῦτα' εἰς γὰρ μύθων ἀνασκευὰς 
ἐκπίπτει: τάχα δὲ λανθάνουσί τινες ἡμᾶς αἰτίαι 

al ΕῚ »" a 
πιστότεραι, δι᾿ ἃς τοῖς ᾿Ιλιεῦσιν ἐπῆλθε τοὺς 
cal if 
μὲν τιμᾶν, τοὺς δὲ μή. ἔοικε δὲ ὁ ποιητὴς 
μικρὰν ἀποφαίνειν τὴν πόλιν ἐν τῷ περὶ 

Ηρακλέους λόγῳ, εἴπερ 

ἃ Μ \ \ ΔΊΩΝ / / 

ἕξ οἴης σὺν νηυσὶ Kal ἀνδράσι παυροτέροισιν 

Ἰλίου ἐξαλάπαξε πόλιν. 

A , e ͵ A 4 , / 
καὶ φαίνεται o Ilpiawos τῷ τοιούτῳ λόγῳ μέγας 
ἐκ μικροῦ γεγονὼς καὶ βασιλεὺς βασιλέων, ὡς 
ἔφαμεν. μικρὸν δὲ προελθοῦσιν ἀπὸ τῆς παρα- 
λίας ταύτης ἐστὶ τὸ ᾿Αχαίϊον, ἤδη τῆς Τενεδίων 
περαίας ὕπαρχον. 

1 Iliad 5, 642. 2 Tliad 5. 640. 

8 To appease the anger of Poseidon, Laomedon exposed 
his daughter Hesioné on the promontory Agameia (see 
Stephanus s.v.) to be devoured by a sea-monster. Heracles 
promised to kill the monster and save Hesioné if Laomedon 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 32 

as their reason his sacking of the city. But one 
might say that, although Heracles did sack it, yet 
he sacked it in such a way as still to leave it a city, 
even though damaged, for those who were later to 
sack it utterly ; and for this reason the poet states 
it thus: “ He sacked the city of llios and widowed 
her streets’ ;1 for “ widowed” means a loss of the 
male population, not a complete annihilation. But 
the others, whom they think fit to worship with sacri- 
fices and to honour as gods, completely annihilated 
the city. Perhaps they might give as their reason 
for this that these waged a just war, whereas 
Heracles waged an unjust one “on account of the 
horses of Laomedon.’’? But writers set over against 
this reason the myth that it was not on account 
of the horses but of the reward offered for Hesioné 
and the sea-monster.* But let us disregard these 
reasons, for they end merely in controversies about 
myths. And perhaps we fail to notice certain more 
credible reasons why it occurred to the Ilians to 
honour some and not others. And it appears that 
the poet, in what he says about Heracles, represents 
the city as small, if it be true that “ with only six 
_ ships and fewer men he sacked the city of Ilium.” 4 

And it is clearly shown by this statement that 
Priam became great and king of kings from a small 
beginning, as I have said before. Advancing a 
little farther along this shore, one comes to the 
Achaeium, where begins the part of the mainland 
that belongs to Tenedos. 

would give him his immortal horses. Laomedon agreed. 
Heracles fulfilled his promise, but Laomedon refused to give 
up the horses, and hence the war. 

* Jliad 5. 641, » Δ ῶ δι νυ 8 5} 7. 

Ν 63 

C 597 ὃ 


33. Τοιούτων δὲ τῶν ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ τόπων 
ὄντων, ὑπέρκειται τούτων τὸ Τρωικὸν πεδίον 
μέχρι τῆς Ἴδης ἀνῆκον ἐπὶ πολλοὺς σταδίους 
κατὰ τὸ πρὸς ἕω “Μέρος. τούτου δ᾽ ἡ μὲν 
παρώρειός ἐστι στενή, τῇ μὲν ἐπὶ τὴν μεσημβρίαν 
τεταμένη μέχρι τῶν κατὰ Σκῆψιν τόπων, τῇ 

ἐπὶ τὰς ἄρκτους μέχρι τῶν κατὰ Ζέλειαν 
Λυκίων. ταύτην δ᾽ ὁ ποιητὴς ὑπ᾽ Αἰνείᾳ τάττει 
καὶ τοῖς ᾿Αντηνορίδαις, καλεῖ δὲ Δαρδανίαν. 
ὑπὸ δὲ ταύτῃ Κεβρηνία, πεδιὰς ἡ πλείστη, 
παράλληλός πως τῇ Δαρδανίᾳ: ἦν δὲ καὶ πόλις 
ποτὲ Κεβρήνη. ὑπονοεῖ 8 6 Δημήτριος μέχρι 
δεῦρο διατείνειν τὴν περὶ τὸ "ἵλιον χώραν τὴν 
ὑπὸ τῷ “Ἑκτορι, ἀνήκουσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ ναυστάθμου 
μέχρι Κεβρηνίας' τάφον τε γὰρ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου 
δείκνυσθαί φησιν αὐτόθι καὶ Οἰνώνης, ἣν 
ἱστοροῦσι γυναῖκα γεγονέναι τοῦ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου, 
πρὶν Ἑλένην ἁρπάσαι" λέγειν τε τὸν ποιητὴν 

Κεβριόνην νόθον υἱὸν ἀγακλῆος Πριάμοιο, 

ὃν εἰκὸς εἶναι ἐπώνυμον τῆς χώρας ἢ καὶ πόλεως, 
ὅπερ sada τὴν δὲ , Κεβρηνίαν διήκειν 
μέχρι τῆς Σκηψίας, ὅ ὅριον δ᾽ εἶναι τὸν Σκάμανδρον 
μέσον αὐτῶν ῥέοντα" ἔχθραν δ᾽ ἀεὶ καὶ πόλεμον 
εἶναι τοῖς τε KeBpnvots καὶ τοῖς Σκηψίοις, ἕως 
᾿Αντίγονος αὐτοὺς συνῴκισεν εἰς τὴν τότε μὲν 
᾿Αντεγονίαν, νῦν δὲ ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν' τοὺς μὲν οὖν 
Κεβρηνιέας " συμμεῖναι τοῖς ἄλλοις ἐν τῇ 
᾿Αλεξανδρείᾳ, τοὺς δὲ Σκηψίους ἐπανελθεῖν εἰς 
τὴν οἰκείαν, ἐπιτρέψαντος Λυσιμάχου. 

1 λέγειν τε τὸν ποιητήν F, λέγει ὃ ποιητὴς καί x; CDhi omit 

τε, moz read τε καί. 
2. Instead of Κεβρηνιέας imoxz read Κεβρήνους. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 33 

33. Such are the places on the sea. Above these 
lies the Trojan Plain, which extends inland for 
many stadia in the direction of the east as far as 
Mt. Ida. The part of this plain alongside the 
mountain is narrow, extending on one side towards 
the south as far as the region of Scepsis, and on 
the other towards the north as far as the Lycians of 
Zeleia. This is the country which the poet makes 
subject to Aeneias and the sons of Antenor, calling 
it Dardania; and below this is Cebrenia, which is 
level for the most part and lies approximately 
parallel to Dardania; and in it there was once a 
city called Cebrené.1 Demetrius suspects that the 
territory of Ilium subject to Hector extended inland 
from the naval station as far as Cebrenia, for he 
says that the tomb of Alexander? is pointed out 
there, as also that of Oenoné, who, according to 
historians, had been the wife of Alexander before 
he carried off Helen. And, he continues, the poet 
mentions “‘Cebriones, bastard son of glorious Priam,’’* 
after whom, as one may suppose, the country was 
named—or the city too, which is more plausible; 
and Cebrenia extends as far as the territory of 
Scepsis ; and the Scamander, which flows between, 
is the boundary; and the Cebreni and Scepsians 
were always hostile to one another and at war until 
_ Antigonus settled both peoples together in Anti- 
_ gonia, as it was then called, or Alexandreia, as it is 
now called; now the Cebreni, he adds, remained 
with the rest in Alexandreia, but the Scepsians, 
by permission of Lysimachus, went back to their 

1 So the name is spelled in § 47, but ‘* Cebren” in § 52. 
2 Paris. 3 Iliad 16. 738. 



34. "Azo δὲ τῆς κατὰ τούτους τοὺς τόπους 
᾽ ’ lel , a 
Idaias ὀρεινῆς δύο φησὶν ἀγκῶνας ἐκτείνεσθαι 
\ Θ mr \ \ 30 δ ὧδ / 2 \ \ 
πρὸς θάλατταν, τὸν μὲν εὐθὺ ‘Posteion,2 τὸν δὲ 
/ ω ral 
Σιγείου, ποιοῦντας ἐξ ἀμφοῖν γραμμῃν ἡμικυκ- 
, aA > fol fal 
λιώδη: τελευτᾶν δ᾽ ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ, τοσοῦτον 
Ε] ’ “ Ὁ“ 
ἀπέχοντας τῆς θαλάττης, ὅσον τὸ νῦν Ἴλιον. 
lal A \ nr -»" “Ὁ 
τοῦτο μὲν δὴ μεταξὺ τῆς τελευτῆς τῶν λεχθέντων 
> , \ 
ἀγκώνων εἶναι, TO δὲ παλαιὸν κτίσμα μεταξὺ 
τῆς ἀρχῆς" μεταλαμβάνεσθαι8ϑ δ᾽ ἐντὸς τό τε 
, , id 
Σιμοείσιον πεδίον, δι’ οὗ ὁ Σιμόεις φέρεται, καὶ 
τὸ Σκαμάνδριον, δι’ οὗ Σκάμανδρος ῥεῖ. τοῦτο 
δὲ καὶ ἰδίως Τρωικὸν λέγεται, Kal τοὺς πλείστους 
᾽ lal ς n 
ἀγῶνας ὁ ποιητὴς ἐνταῦθα ἀποδίδωσι, πλατύ- 
τερον γάρ ἐστι, καὶ τοὺς ὀνομαζομένους τόπους 
fa) e “ , 
ἐνταῦθα δεικνυμένους ὁρῶμεν, τὸν ᾿Ερινεόν, τὸν 
n > fa) 
tod Αἰσυήτου τάφον, τὴν Βατίειαν, τὸ τοῦ Ἴλου 
σῆμα. οἱ δὲ ποταμοὶ 6 τε Σκάμανδρος καὶ 6 
ς nm 
Σιμόεις, ὁ μὲν TH Σιγείῳ πλησιάσας, ὁ δὲ 
a c / Ν a fal 
τῷ Ροιτείῳ, μικρὸν ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ viv Ἰλίου 
/ Les 2.9 » ES Ν “ > , 
συμβάλλοῦσιν, εἶτ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸ Σίγειον ἐκδιδόασι 
καὶ ποιοῦσε, τὴν Στομαλίμνην καλουμένην. 
διείργει δ᾽ ἑκάτερον τῶν λεχθέντων πεδίων ἀπὸ 
θατέρου μέγας τις αὐχὴν τῶν εἰρημένων ἀγκώνων 
᾽ Ν = - » 
ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας, ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ᾿Ιλίου τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔχων, 
A “ a 
συμφυὴς αὐτῷ, τεινόμενος 8 ἕως τῆς KeBpnvias 
a) \ ‘ 
καὶ ἀποτελῶν TO E γράμμα πρὸς τοὺς ἑκατέρωθεν 
1 τούτους, before τούς, Groskurd inserts ; so Miiller-Diibner, 
Meineke, and Leaf. 
2 ‘Porrefou, the editors, for ‘Porrfou CDFAZ, Ῥυτίου other MSS. 
3 μεταλαμβάνεσθαι, all MSS. except Εἰ, which reads μετα- 
λάσσασθαι, Leaf rightly restores, instead of ἀπολαμβάνεσθαι 
Meiueke, καταλαμβάνεσθαι Corais. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 34 

34. From the mountain range of Ida in this region, 
according to Demetrius, two spurs extend to the 
sea, one straight to Rhoeteium and the other 
straight to Sigeium, forming together a semicircular 
lime, and they end in the plain at the same distance 
from the sea as the present Ilium; this Ilium, 
accordingly, lies between the ends of the two spurs 
mentioned, whereas the old settlement lies between 
their beginnings; and, he adds, the spurs include 
both the Simoeisian Plain, through which the Simoeis 
runs, and the Scamandrian Plain, through which the 
Scamander flows. This is called the Trojan Plain in 
the special sense of the term; and here it is that 
the poet represents most of the fights as taking 
place, for it is wider; and here it is that we see 
pointed out the places named by the poet—Erineus,1 
the tomb of Aesyetes,? Batieia,? and the monument 
of Ilus.4 The Scamander and Simoeis Rivers, after 
running near to Sigeium and Rhoeteium respectively, 
meet a little in front of the present Ilium, and then 
issue towards Sigeium and form Stomalimné,’ as it is 
called. The two plains above mentioned are separated 
from each other by a great neck of land which runs 
in a straight line between the aforesaid spurs, starting 
from the present Ilium, with which it is connected, 
and stretches as far as Cebrenia and, along with 
the spurs on either side, forms a complete letter €.? 

4 “Fig tree.” Iliad 6. 433. 2 Tliad 2. 798. 

3 [liad 2. 813. 4 Iliad 10. 415. 

5 See 13. 1. 31 and foot-note. 

* These spurs forming a semi-circular line, as stated above. 

τ i. the uncial letter written backwards (3). See Leaf’s 
diagram, p. 175. 

* Βατίειαν, Xylander, for Βάτειαν ; so the later editors. 



35. Ὑπὲρ δὲ τούτου μικρὸν ἡ τῶν "Idtéwr 
κώμη ἐστίν, ἐν ἣ νομίζεται τὸ παλαιὸν Ἴλιον 
ἱδρῦσθαι πρότερον, τριάκοντα σταδίους διέχον 
ἀπὸ τῆς νῦν πόλεως. ὑπὲρ δὲ τῆς ᾿Ιλιέων κώμης 
δέκα σταδίοις ἐστὶν ἡ Καλλικολώνη, 9608 τις, 
map ὃν ὁ Σιμόεις ῥεῖ, πενταστάδιον διέχων: 
γίνεται οὖν εὔλογον πρῶτον μὲν τὸ ἐπὶ τοῦ 
“A peos* 

ὦρτο δ᾽ “Apns ἑτέρωθεν ἐρεμνῇ λαίλαπε ἶσος, 
ὀξὺ Kat ἀκροτάτης πόλιος Τρώεσσι κελεύων, 
ἄλλοτε πὰρ Σιμόεντι θέων ἐπὶ Καλλικολώνῃ. 

C598 τῆς γὰρ μάχης ἐπὶ τῷ Σκαμανδρίῳ πεδίῳ 
συντελουμένης, πιθανῶς ἂν 0” Apns ἄλλοτε μὲν τὴν 
ἐγκέλευσιν ἀπὸ τῆς ἀκροπόλεως ποιοῖτο, ἄλλοτε 
δ᾽ ἐκ τῶν πλησίον τόπων τοῦ τε Σιμόεντος καὶ 
τῆς Καλλικολώνης, μέχρι οὗ εἰκὸς καὶ τὴν μάχην 
παρατετάσθαι. τετταράκοντα δὲ σταδίους διε- 

΄ a / > Ν -“ a > / 
Xovons τῆς Καλλεκολώνης ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν [λίου, 
τί χρήσιμον ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον μεταλαμβάνεσθαι τοὺς 
τόπους, ἐφ᾽ ὅσον ἡ διάταξις οὐ διέτεινε ; τό τε 

πρὸς Θύμβρης δ᾽ ἔλαχον Λύκιοι 

οἰκειότερόν ἐστι τῷ παλαιῷ κτίσματι: πλησίον 
γάρ ἐστι τὸ πεδίον ἡ Θύμβρα καὶ ὁ δι᾽ αὐτοῦ 
ῥέων ποταμὸς Θύμβριος, ἐμβάλλων εἰς τὸν 
, Ν \ / > / 
Σκάμανδρον κατὰ τὸ Θυμβραίου ᾿Απόλλωνος 
ἱερόν, τοῦ δὲ νῦν ᾿Ιλίου καὶ πεντήκοντα σταδίους 

1 διέχων, Corais, from conj. of Palmer, for ἔχων ; ὁ has κύκλον 
after ἔχων, and so Eustathius reads (note on Iliad 20. 47, 53). 
The scholiast (quoted by C. Miller, Ind. Var. Lect. p. 1024) 
quotes Demetrius as saying that this hill is ‘‘ five stadia in 




GEOGRAPHY, 13. τ. 35 

35. A little above this! is the Village of the 
Ilians, where the ancient Ilium is thought to have 
been situated in earlier times, at a distance of thirty 
stadia from the present city. And ten stadia above 

_ the Village of the Ilians is Callicoloné, a hill, past 

which, at a distance of five stadia, flows the Simoeis.? 
It therefore becomes easy to understand, first, the 
reference to Ares: “ And over against her leaped 
Ares, like unto a dreadful whirlwind, in shrill tones 
cheering the Trojans from the topmost part of the 
city, and now again as he sped alongside Simoeis 
oer Callicoloné” ;* for if the battle was fought on 
the Scamandrian Plain, it is plausible that Ares 
should at one time shout his cheers from the acropolis 
and at another from the region near the Simoeis and 
Callicoloné, up to which, in all probability, the battle 
would have extended. But since Callicoloné is forty 
stadia distant from the present Ilium, for what 
useful purpose would the poet have taken in places 
so far away that the line of battle could not have 
reached them? Again, the words, “ And towards 
Thymbra fell the lot of the Lycians,’‘4 are more 
suitable to the ancient settlement, for the plain of 
Thymbra is near it, as also the Thymbrius River, 

_ which flows through the plain and empties into the 

Seamander at the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo, 
but Thymbra is actually fifty stadia distant from the 

1 4.e. a little farther inland than the country which has the 

_ shape of the letter in question. 

2 See critical note. 8. Iliad 20. 51. 
* Iliad 10. 430. 
perimeter . . ., five stadia distant from the Simoeis, and ten 

stadia distant from the village of the Llians.” 


διέχει. ὅ τε "Epiveos, τραχύς tis τόπος καὶ 
ἐρινεώδης, τῷ μὲν ἀρχαίῳ κτίσματι ὑποπέπτωκεν, 
ὥστε τὸ 
λαὸν δὲ στῆσον παρ᾽ "Epweor, ἔνθα μάλιστα 
ἄμβατός ἐστι πόλις καὶ ἐπίδρομον ἔπλετο 

οἰκείως ἂν λέγοιϊ ἡ ᾿Ανδρομάχη, τῆς δὲ νῦν 

πόλεως πάμπολυ ἀφέστηκε." καὶ ὁ Φηγὸς δὲ 

μικρὸν κατωτέρω ἐστὶ τοῦ ᾿Ἐρινεοῦ, ἐφ᾽ οὗ φησὶν 
ὁ ᾿Αχιλλεύς, 

ὄφρα δ᾽ ἐγὼ μετ᾽ ᾿Αχαιοῖσιν πολέμιξον, 
οὐκ ἐθέλεσκε μάχην ἀπὸ τείχεος ὀρνύμεν 
ἀλλ᾽ ὅσον ἐς Σκαιάς τε πύλας καὶ Φηγὸν 

36. Καὶ μὴν τό γε ναύσταθμον τὸ νῦν ἔτι 
λεγόμενον πλησίον. οὕτως ἐστὶ τῆς νῦν πόλεως, 
ὥστε θαυμάζειν εἰκότως ἄν τινα τῶν μὲν τῆς 
ἀπονοίας, τῶν δὲ «Τοὐναντίον τῆς ἀψυχίας" ἀπο- 
νοίας μέν, εἰ εἰς 4 τοσοῦτον χρόνον ἀτείχιστον 
αὐτὸ εἶχον, πλησίον οὔσης τῆς πόλεως καὶ 
τοσούτου πλήθους, τοῦ τ᾽ ἐν αὐτῇ καὶ τοῦ 
ἐπικουρικοῦ" νεωστὶ γὰρ γεγονέναι φησὶ τὸ 
τεῖχος (ἢ οὐδ᾽ ἐγένετο, ὁ δὲ πλάσας ποιητὴς 
ἠφάνισεν, ὡς ᾿Αριστοτέλης φησίν)" ἀψυχίας δέ, 
εἰ, γενομένου τοῦ τείχους, ἐτειχομάχουν καὶ ὃ 
εἰσέπεσον εἰς αὐτὸ τὸ ναύσταθμον καὶ προσεμά- 
χοντὸ ταῖς ναυσίν, ἀτείχιστον δὲ ἔχοντες, οὐκ 
ἐθάρρουν προσιόντες πολιορκεῖν, μικροῦ τοῦ 

1 Some of the MSS. read λέγοιτο instead of λέγοι. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. τ. 35-36 

present Ilium. And again, Erineus, a place that is 
rugged and full of wild fig trees, lies at the foot 
of the ancient site, so that Andromaché might 
appropriately say, “Stay thy host beside Erineus, 
where best the city can be approached and the wall 
sealed,’? but Erineus stands at a considerable distance 
from the present Ilium. Further, a little below 
Erineus is Phegus,* in reference to which Achilles 
says, “ But so long as I was carrying on war amid 
the Achaeans, Hector was unwilling to rouse battle 
away from the wall, but would come only as far as 
the Scaean Gates and Phegus.”’ # 

36. However, the Naval Station, still now so 
called, is so near the present Ilium that one might 
reasonably wonder at the witlessness of the Greeks 
and the faint-heartedness of the Trojans; witlessness, 
if the Greeks kept the Naval Station unwalled for 
so long a time, when they were near to the city and 
to so great a multitude, both that in the city and 
that of the allies; for Homer says that the wall had 
only recently been built (or else it was not built at 
all, but fabricated and then abolished by the poet, as 
Aristotle says) ; and faint-heartedness, if the Trojans, 
when the wall was built, could besiege it-and break 
into the Naval Station itself and attack the ships, 
yet did not have the courage to march up and be- 
siege the station when it was still unwalled and only 

1 See foot-note on ‘‘ Erineus,”’ ὃ 34 above. 
2 Iliad 6. 433. 3 Oak tree. 4 Iliad 9. 352. 

3 ἀφέστηκε (the reading of Eustathius, note on Iliad 6. 
433), Casaubon, for ἀπέοικε: so Kramer and Meineke. 

8 ἵκανεν, Xylander, for ἵκοντο ; so the later editors. 

4 εἰς, Meineke omits. 

δ᾽ καί, Meineke and Leaf, from conj. of Kramer, for és. 

: 7% 



διαστήματος ὄντος" ἔστι γὰρ τὸ ναύσταθμον 
πρὸς Σιγείῳ, πλησίον δὲ καὶ ὁ Σκάμανδρος 
ἐκδίδωσι, διέχων τοῦ Ἰλίου σταδίους εἴκοσιν. 
εἰ δὲ φήσει τις τὸν νῦν λεγόμενον ᾿Αχαιῶν 
λιμένα εἶναι τὸ ναύσταθμον, ἐγγυτέρω τινὰ λέξει 
τόπον, ὅσον δώδεκα σταδίους διεστῶτα τῆς 
πόλεως, TO! ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ πεδίον συμπροστιθείς," 
διότι τοῦτο πᾶν πρόσχωμα 3 τῶν ποταμῶν. ἐστί, τὸ 
πρὸ τῆς πόλεως ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ πεδίον" ὥστε, εἰ 
δωδεκαστάδιόν ἐστι νῦν τὸ μεταξύ, τότε καὶ τῷ 
ἡμίσει ἔλαττον ὑπῆρχε. καὶ ἡ διήγησις δ᾽ ἡ 
πρὸς τὸν Εὔμαιον ὑ ὑπὸ τοῦ ᾽Οδυσσέως διασκευασ- 
θεῖσα μέγα ἐμφαίνει τὸ διάστημα τὸ μέχρι 
τῆς πόλεως ἀπὸ τοῦ ναυστάθμου" 

ὡς ὅθ᾽ ὑπὸ Τροίῃ λόχον ἤγομεν" 
φησὶ γὰρ ὑποβάς" 

λίην γὰρ νηῶν ἑκὰς ἤλθομεν. 
ἐπί τε τὴν κατασκοπὴν πέμπονται γνωσόμενοι, 
ποτέρον μενοῦσι παρὰ νηυσὶν ἀπόπροθεν πολὺ 
ἀπεσπασμένοι τοῦ οἰκείου τείχους, 

ἠὲ πόλινδε 

ἂψ ἀναχωρήσουσι. 
καὶ ὁ Πολυδάμας, 

ἀμφὶ μάλα φράζεσθε, φίλοι" κέλομαι γὰρ 

ἄστυδε νῦν ἰέναι, 

paren: ἑκὰς δ᾽ ἀπὸ τείχεός εἶμεν. 
παρατίθησι δ᾽ ὁ Δημήτριος καὶ τὴν ᾿Αλεξανδρινὴν 
‘Eotiaiay μάρτυρα, τὴν συγγράψασαν περὶ τῆς 
Ὁμήρου ᾿Ιλιάδος, πυνθανομένην, εἰ περὶ τὴν νῦν 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 36 

a slight distance away; for it is near Sigeium, and 
the Scamander empties near it, at a distance of only 
twenty stadia from Ilium. But if one shall say that 
the Harbour of Achaeans, as it is now called, is the 
Naval Station, he will be speaking of a place that is 
still closer, only about twelve stadia distant from the 
city, even if one includes the plain by the sea, 
because the whole of this plain is a deposit of the 
rivers—I mean the plain by the sea in front of the 
city; so that, if the distance between the sea and 
the city is now twelve stadia, it must have been 
no more than half as great at that time. Further, 
the feigned story told by Odysseus to Eumaeus 
clearly indicates that the distance from the Naval 
Station to the city is great, for after saying, “as 
when we led our ambush?! beneath the walls of 
Troy,’ he adds a little below, “for we went very 
far from the ships.’ And spies are sent forth to 
find whether the Trojans will stay by the ships “ far 
away, far separated from their own walls, “ or will 
withdraw again to the city.”? And Polydamas 
says, “on both sides, friends, bethink ye well, for I, 
on my own part, bid you now to go to the city; 
afar from the walls are we.” * Demetrius cites also 
Hestiaea of Alexandreia as a witness, a woman who 
wrote a work on Homer's //iad and inquired whether 

_ 1 Odyssey 14. 469. 2 Iliad 10. 209. ® Iliad 18, 254. 

1 +é, before ἐπί, Groskurd inserts ; so the later editors. 

2 συμπροστιθείς, Meineke, for viv προστιθείς ; Leaf omits 
. προστιθείς ; Kramer conj. οὐκ εὖ after προστιθείς. 

8 πρόσχωμα Crwxz, πρόχωμα other MSS. 

. 73 


πόλιν ὁ πόλεμος συνέστη Kall τὸ Τρωικὸν 
πεδίον, ὃ μεταξὺ τῆς πόλεως καὶ τῆς θαλάττης 
ὁ ποιητὴς φράζει" τὸ μὲν γὰρ πρὸ τῆς νῦν 
πόλεως ὁρώμενον πρόσχωμα εἶναι τῶν ποταμῶν 

ὕστερον γεγονός. 

37. Ὅ τε Πολίτης, 

ὃς Τρώων σκοπὸς ἷζε, ποδωκείῃσι πεποιθώς, 

τύμβῳ ἐπ᾽ ἀκροτάτῳ Αἰσυήταο γέροντος, 
μάταιος ἦν. καὶ γὰρ εἰ ἐπ᾽ ἀκροτάτῳ, ὅμως 
? \ 2 \ μὴ / e an > Ud 
ἀπὸ" πολὺ ἂν μείζονος ὕψους τῆς ἀκροπόλεως 
ἐσκόπευεν, ἐξ ἴσου σχεδόν τι διαστήματος, μὴ 
δεόμενος μηδὲν τῆς ποδωκείας τοῦ ἀσφαλοῦς 
χάριν' πέντε γὰρ διέχει σταδίους ὁ νῦν δεικνύ- 
μενος τοῦ Αἰσυήτου τάφος κατὰ τὴν εἰς ᾿Αλε- 
ξάνδρειαν ὁδόν. οὐδ᾽ ἡ τοῦ “Extopos δὲ περι- 
δρομὴ ἡ περὶ τὴν πόλιν ἔχει τι εὔλογον, οὐ γάρ 
ἐστι περίδρομος ἡ νῦν, διὰ τὴν συνεχῆ ῥάχιν" ἡ δὲ 
παλαιὰ ἔχει περιδρομήν. 

38. Οὐδὲν δ᾽ ἴχνος σώζεται τῆς ἀρχαίας 
πόλεως" εἰκότως: ἅτε γὰρ ἐκπεπορθημένων τῶν 
κύκλῳ πόλεων, οὐ τελέως δὲ κατεσπασμένων, 
ταύτης δ᾽ ἐκ βάθρων ἀνατετραμμένης, οἱ λίθοι 
πάντες εἰς τὴν ἐκείνων ἀνάληψιν μετηνέχθησαν. 
᾿Αρχαιάνακτα γοῦν φασι τὸν Μιτυληναῖον ἐκ 
τῶν ἐκεῖθεν λίθων τὸ Σίγειον τειχίσαι. τοῦτο 
δὲ κατέσχον μὲν ᾿Αθηναῖοι, Φρύνωνα τὸν ᾽Ολυμ- 
πιονίκην πέμψαντες, Λεσβίων ἐπιδικαζομένων 
σχεδόν τι τῆς συμπάσης Τρωάδος: ὧν δὴ καὶ 

1 After καὶ Groskurd inserts ποῦ ἐστί, Kramer conj. ποῦ or 

τί, Meineke indicates a lacuna, and Leaf omits altogether 
τὸ Τρωικὸν πεδίον. . . ὕστερον γεγονός. 


GEOGRAPRY, 13. 1. 36-38 

the war took place round the present Ilium and the 
Trojan Plain, which latter the poet places between 
the city and the sea; for, she says, the plain now to 
be seen in front of the present Ilium is a later deposit 
of the rivers. 

37. Again, Polites, “who was wont to sit as a 
sentinel of the Trojans, trusting in his fleetness of 
foot, on the topmost part of the barrow of aged 
Aesyetes,” 1} was doing a foolish thing, for even 
though he sat on the topmost part of it, still he might 
have kept watch from the much greater height of the 
acropolis, at approximately the same distance, with no 
need of fleetness of foot for safety ; for the barrow of 
Aesyetes now pointed out is five stadia distant on the 
road to Alexandreia. Neither is the “clear running 
space ’’* of Hector round the city easy to understand, 
for the present Ilium has no “ clear running space,” 
on account of the ridge that joins it. The ancient city, 
however, has a “ clear running space”’ round it. 

38. But no trace of the ancient city survives; and 
naturally so, for while the cities all round it were 
sacked, but not completely destroyed, yet that city 
was so utterly demolished that all the stones were 
taken from it to rebuild the others. At any rate, 
Archaeanax of Mitylené is said to have built a wall 
round Sigeium with stones taken from there. Sigeium 
was seized by Athenians under Phrynon the Olympian 
victor, although the Lesbians laid claim to almost 
the whole of the Troad. Most of the settlements in 

1 Iliad 2. 792. 2 See Iliad 2. 812. 

2 ἀπό, before πολύ, Corais inserts; and so Meineke. 
Kramer and Leaf insert ἀφ᾽ before ὕψους. 


κτίσματά εἰσιν ai πλεῖσται τῶν κατοικιῶν, ai 
μὲν συμμένουσαι καὶ νῦν, αἱ δ᾽ ἠφανισμέναι. 

C 600 Πιττακὸς δ᾽ ὁ Μιτυληναῖος, εἷς τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφῶν 

λεγομένων, πλεύσας ἐπὶ τὸν Φρύνωνα στρατηγὸν 
διεπολέμει τέως, διατιθεὶς καὶ πάσχων κακῶς, 
ὅτε καὶ ᾿Αλκαῖός φησιν ὁ ποιητής, ἑαυτὸν ἔν 
τινι ἀγῶνι κακῶς φερόμενον τὰ ὅπλα ῥίψαντα 
φυγεῖν: λέγει δὲ πρός τινα κήρυκα, κελεύσας 
> a > » > a , Μ 
ἀγγεῖλαι τοῖς ἐν οἴκῳ, ᾿Αλκαῖος coos “Apert 
ἔντεα δ᾽ ἡ οὐκυτὸν ἁληκτορὶν ἐς Γλαυκωποῦ ἱερὸν 
ἀνεκρέμασαν ᾿Αττικοί, ὕστερον δ᾽ ἐκ μονομα- 
χίας, προκαλεσαμένου3 τοῦ Φρύνωνος, ἁλιευ- 
τικὴν ἀναλαβὼν σκευὴν συνέδραμε, καὶ τῷ μὲν 
ἀμφιβλήστρῳ περιέβαλε, τῇ τριαίνῃ δὲ καὶ τῷ 
ξιφιδίῳ ἔπειρε καὶ ἀνεῖλε. μένοντος δ᾽ ἔτι τοῦ 
/ \ ς ε Ν 

πολέμου, Περίανδρος διαιτητὴς αἱρεθεὶς ὑπὸ 
ἀμφοῖν ἔλυσε τὸν πόλεμον. 

39. Τίμαιον δὲ ψεύσασθαί φησιν ὁ Δημήτριος, 
ε a“ > al , a > ? ’ / 
ἱστοροῦντα ἐκ τῶν λίθων τῶν ἐξ ᾿Γλίου Περίανδρον 
> / 3 » Fee | / fal > θ / 
ἐπιτειχίσαι TO ᾿Αχίλλειον τοῖς ᾿Αθηναίοις, Bon- 
θοῦντα τοῖς περὶ [Ππττακόν' ἐπιτειχισθῆναι μὲν 
γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν Μιτυληναίων τὸν τόπον τοῦτον τῷ 
Σιγείῳ, οὐ μὴν ἐκ λίθων τοιούτων, οὐδ᾽ ὑπὸ τοῦ 

1 Meineke, following conj. of Kramer, ejects ὅτε. ... 
*Atrixol, The passage ᾿Αλκαῖος. .. ᾿Αττικοί, from odos to 
ἀνεκρέμασαν, has been so badly mutilated by the copyists 
that it is impossible to do more in a translation than to give 
the general sense of it. For conjectural restorations see 
Kramer, C. Miiller (Ind. Var. Lect. p. 1025), and Bergk 
(Vol. ITI. Frag. 32 of Alcaeus), who reads ἐνθαδ᾽ οὐκυτὸν ἁληκ- 
τορὶν és γλαυκωπὸν ἱερὸν ὃν ἐκρέμασαν ᾿Αττικοί, Meineke and 
Leaf omit the whole passage. 

3 προκαλεσαμένου F, other MSS. προσκαλεσαμένου. 

8 ἐπιτειχίσαι, Corais, for περιτειχίσαι ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 38-39 

the Troad belong, in fact, to the Lesbians, and some 
endure to this day, while others have disappeared. 
Pittacus of Mitylené, one of the Seven Wise Men, 
as they are called, sailed against Phrynon the 
general! and for a time carried on the war, but with 

r management and ill consequences. It was at 
this time that the poet Alcaeus says that he himself, 
being sorely pressed in a certain battle, threw away 
his arms and fled. He addresses his story to a 
certain herald, whom he had bidden to report to 
the people at home that “ Alcaeus is safe, but his 
arms have been hung up as an offering to Ares by the 
Attic army in the temple of Athena Glaucopis.” 2 But 
later, on being challenged to single combat by 
Phrynon, he took up his fishing-tackle, ran to meet 
him, entangled him in his fishing net, and stabbed 
and slew him with trident and dagger. But since 
the war still went on, Periander was chosen by both 
sides as arbiter and ended it. 

39. Demetrius says that Timaeus falsifies when he 
informs us that Periander fortified Achilleium against 
the Athenians with stones from Ilium, to help the 
army of Pittacus; for this place, he says, was indeed 
fortified by the Mitylenaeans against Sigeium, though 
not with such stones as those, nor yet by Periander. 

1 The Athenian general. 
2 Only this fragment (Bergk 32) of Alcaeus’ poem, ad- 
to Melanippus (see Herodotus 5. 95), is preserved. 
But the text has been so badly mutilated by the copyists 
that none of the conjectural restorations can with certainty 
be adopted; and hence the translator can give only the 
general sense of the passage. However, the whole reference 
to Alcaeus appears to be merely a note that has crept into 
the text from the margin (see critical note). 

. 77 


Περιάνδρου. πῶς yap ἂν αἱρεθῆναι διαιτητὴν 
τὸν προσπολεμοῦντα ; ᾿Αχίλλειον δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὁ 
τόπος, ἐν ᾧ τὸ ᾽Α χιλλέως μνῆμα, κατοικία μικρά. 
κατέσκαπται δὲ καὶ τὸ Σίγειον ὑ ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰλιέων 
ἀπειθοῦν" }} ὑπ᾽ ἐκείνοις γὰρ ἣν ὕστερον 7 
παραλία πᾶσα ἡ μέχρι Δαρδάνου, καὶ νῦν ὑπ᾽ 
ἐκείνοις ἐστί. τὸ δὲ παλαιὸν ὑπὸ τοῖς Αἰολεῦσιν 
ἣν τὰ πλεῖστα, ὥστε Ἔφορος οὐκ ὀκνεῖ πᾶσαν 
τὴν ἀπὸ ᾿Αβύδου μέχρι Κύμης καλεῖν Αἰολίδα. 
Θουκυδίδης δέ φησιν ἀφαιρεθῆναι τὴν Τροίαν 
ὑπὸ ᾿Αθηναίων τοὺς Μετυληναίους ἐν τῷ 
Πελοποννησιακῷ πολέμῳ τῷ Παχητίῳ. 

40, Λέγουσι δ᾽ οἱ νῦν ᾿Ιλιεῖς καὶ τοῦτο, ὡς 
οὐδὲ τελέως ἠφανίσθαι συνέβαινεν 5 τὴν πόλιν 
κατὰ τὴν ἅλωσιν ὑπὸ τῶν ᾿Αχαιῶν, οὐδ᾽ ἐξε- 
λείφθη ὃ οὐδέποτε. αἱ γοῦν Λοκρίδες παρθένοι, 
μικρὸν ὕστερον ἀρξάμεναι, ἐ ἐπέμποντο κατ᾽ ἔτος. 
καὶ ταῦτα δ᾽ οὐ Ὁ μηρικά' οὔτε γὰρ τῆς 
Κασάνδρας φθορὰν οἶδεν " Ὅμηρος, ἀλλ᾽ ὅτι μὲν 
παρθένος ἦν ὑπ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν χρόνον λέγει" 

πέφνε γὰρ ᾿Οθρυονῆα, Καβησόθεν ἔνδον ἐόντα, 
ὅς pa νέον πτολέμοιο μετὰ κλέος εἰληλούθει. 

1 CDFhirwz read ἀπειθούντων instead of ἀπειθοῦν. 

2 mz, and Corais, read συνέβη instead of συνέβαινεν. 

-3 ἐξελείφθη, Corais, for ἐξελήφθη CDF, ἐξηλήφθη hi, 
ἐξηλείφθη γιοῦ. 

1 See 18. 1. 4. 
᾿ # 7,e, the campaign of Paches, the Athenian general, who 
in 427 B.c. captured Mitylené (see Thucydides 3. 18-49). 

5 To appease the wrath of Athena, caused after the Trojan 
War by the sacrilege of Aias the Locrian in her temple (he 




a 7 > 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 39-40 

For how could the opponent of the Athenians have 
been chosen as arbiter? Achilleium is the place 
where stands the monument of Achilles and is only 
a smal] settlement. Sigeium, also, has been rased 
to the ground by the Ilians, because of its dis- 
obedience; for the whole of the coast as far as 
Dardanus was later subject to the Ilians and is now 
subject to them. In ancient times the most of it 
was subject to the Aeolians, so that Ephorus does 
not hesitate to apply the name Aeolis to the whole 
of the coast from Abydus to Cymé.1 Thucydides 
says that Troy was taken away from the Mitylenaeans 
by the Athenians in the Pachetian part? of the 
Peloponnesian War. 

40. The present Ilians further tell us that the city 
was, in fact, not completely wiped out at its capture 
by the Achaeans and that it was never even deserted. 
At any rate the Locrian maidens, beginning a little 
later, were sent every year.? But this too is non- 
Homeric, for Homer knows not of the violation of 
Cassandra, but he says that she was a maiden at 
about that time, “for he* slew Othryoneus, a 
sojourner in Troy from Cabesus, who had but recently 
come, following after the rumour of war,> and he 

dragged Cassandra away from the altar of the Palladium), 
the rians were instructed by an oracle from Delphi to 
send to her temple (as temple slaves) at Ilium two maidens 
every year for a thousand years. It appears that the servi- 
tude of the maidens lasted for only one year, each pair being 
released at the end of the year when the next pair arrived, 
but that upon their return home they were forced to remain 
unmarried (see Leaf, Annual of the British School at Athens, 
XXI, pp. 148-154). 

4 Idomeneus, son of Minos and King of Crete; one of the 
bravest heroes of the war. 

® Or perhaps ‘‘ in quest of war’s renown ” (Leaf). 


C 601 


ἥτεε δὲ Πριάμοιο θυγατρῶν εἶδος ἀρίστην, 
Κασσάνδρην, ἀνάεδνον" 

βίας δὲ οὐδὲ μέμνηται, οὐδ᾽ ὅτι ἡ φθορὰ τοῦ 
Αἴαντος ἐν τῇ ναυαγίᾳ κατὰ μῆνιν ᾿Αθηνᾶς 
συνέβη, ἢ κατὰ τοιαύτην αἰτίαν, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπεχθα- 
νόμενον μὲν τῇ ᾿Αθηνᾷ κατὰ τὸ κοινὸν εἴρηκεν 
ἁπάντων γὰρ εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἀσεβησάντων, ἅ ἅπασιν 
ἐμήνιεν), ἀπολέσθαι δὲ ὑπὸ Ποσειδῶνος μεγα- 
λορρημονήσαντα. τὰς δὲ Λοκρίδας πεμφθῆναι, 

ερσῶν ἤδη κρατούντων, συνέβη. 

41. Οὕτω μὲν δὴ λέγουσιν οἱ Ἰλιεῖς, Ὅμηρος 
δὲ Lab τὸν ἀφανισμὸν ΤῊΣ πόλεως εἴρηκεν" 

ἔσσεται ἦμαρ, ὅταν ποτ᾽ ὀλώλῃ Ἴλιος ἑ ἱρή. 

ἢ γὰρ: καὶ “Πριάμοιο πόλιν διεπέρσαμεν αἰπήν 

βουλῇ 5 καὶ μύθοισι. 

πέρθετο δὲ ΤΠΙριάμοιο πόλις δεκάτῳ ἐνιαυτῷ. 
καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα δὲ τοῦ αὐτοῦ τίθενται τεκμήρια, 
οἷον, ὅτι τῆς ᾿Αθηνᾶς τὸ ξόανον νῦν μὲν ἑστηκὸς 
ὁρᾶται, Ὅμηρος δὲ καθήμενον ἐμφαίνει" πέπλον 
γὰρ κελεύει 

θεῖναι ᾿Αθηναίης ἐπὶ γούνασιν" 
ὡς Kal, 

μή ποτε γούνασιν οἷσιν ἐφέζεσθαι φίλον υἱόν. 
βέλτιον γὰρ οὕτως, ἢ ὥς τινες δέχονται ἀντὶ τοῦ 

1 αὐτὰρ ἐπεί, instead of ἦ γάρ, is the reading in the Odyssey. 

2 The MSS., except moz, which omit βουλῇ καὶ μύθοισι, have 
εἴπερ before these words. 

1 Tliad 13. 368. Homer mentions Cassandra in only two 
other places, Iliad 24. 699 and Odyssey 11. 422. 


a γυυνυνγνυ ν᾿ 

"louie δ 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 40-41 

was asking Cassandra in marriage, the comeliest of 
the daughters of Priam, without gifts of wooing,”? 
and yet he does not so much as mention any viola- 
tion of her or say that the destruction of Aias in 
the shipwreck took place because of the wrath of 
Athena or any such cause; instead, he speaks of 
Aias as “ hated by Athena,’ ? in accordance with her 
general hatred (for since they one and all committed 
sacrilege against her temple, she was angry at them 
all), but says that he was destroyed by Poseidon 
because of his boastful speech.2 But the fact is that 
the Locrian maidens were first sent when the 
Persians were already in power. 

41. So the Ilians tell us, but Homer expressly 
states that the city was wiped out: “The day shall 
eome when sacred Ilios shall perish” ;* and “ surely 
we have utterly destroyed the steep city of Priam,’ 5 
“by means of counsels and persuasiveness”’ ;® “ and 
in the tenth year the city of Priam was destroyed.” 7 
And other such evidences of the same thing are set 
forth ; for example, that the wooden image of Athena 
now to be seen stands upright, whereas Homer 
clearly indicates that it was sitting, for orders are 
given to “put” the robe “upon Athena’s knees” 8 

compare “that never should there sit upon his 
nees a dear child”’).® For it is better to interpret 
it*® in this way than, as some do, to interpret it as 

2 Odyssey 4. 502. 3 Odyssey 4. 500 ff. 

* Iliad 6. 448. 5 Odyssey 3. 130. 

® This phrase is not found in the J/iad or Odyssey, but once 
before (1. 2. 4) Strabo has ascribed it to Homer (see critical 

7 Iliad 12. 15. 8 Iliad 6. 92, 273. ® Iliad 9. 455. 

10 7,.e. the Greek preposition ἐπί, which more naturally 
means *‘ upon” rather than ‘‘ beside.” 


vol. Vi. 


παρὰ τοῖς γόνασι θεῖναι, παρατιθέντες TO 
ε > are / > Ν > lol 
ἡ δ᾽ ἧσται ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάρῃ ἐν πυρὸς αὐγῇ 

> \ a »»ν / / \ xX / ’ 

ἀντὶ τοῦ παρ᾽ ἐσχάρῃ. τίς γὰρ ἂν νοηθείη πέπλου 

ἀνάθεσις παρὰ τοῖς γόνασι; καὶ οἱ τὴν προσῳδίαν 


δὲ διαστρέφοντες, γουνάσιν, ὡς θυιάσιν, ὁποτέρως 
oe 2 , 

ἂν δέξωνται, ἀπεραντολογοῦσιν, εἴθ᾽ ἱκετεύοντές 

τε φρένας. πολλὰ δὲ τῶν ἀρχαίων τῆς ᾿Αθηνᾶς 

ξοάνων καθήμενα δείκνυται, καθάπερ ἐν 

Φωκαίᾳε Μασσαλίᾳ, ι Ῥώμῃ, Χίῳ, ἄλλαις 

a ΄ Ἁ 

πλείοσιν. ὁμολογοῦσι δὲ καὶ οἱ νεώτεροι τὸν 

ἀφανισμὸν τῆς πόλεως, ὧν ἐστὶ καὶ Λυκοῦργος 

ς ε “ ᾽ 

ὁ ῥήτωρ' μνησθεὶς γὰρ τῆς ᾿Ιλεέων πόλεως 

φησί, τίς οὐκ ἀκήκοεν, ws ἅπαξ ὑπὸ τῶν 

€ , / > / Φ 

Ελλήνων κατεσκάφθη, ἀοίκητον οὖσαν ; 

42. Εἰκάζουσι δὲ τοὺς ὕστερον ἀνακτίσαι 
διανοουμένους οἰωνίσασθαι τὸν τόπον ἐκεῖνον, 
εἴτε διὰ τὰς συμφοράς, εἴτε καὶ καταρασαμένου 
τοῦ ᾿Αγαμέμνονος κατὰ παλαιὸν ἔθος (καθάπερ 

Ν ς > \ \ / > € 
καὶ ὁ Κροῖσος ἐξελὼν τὴν Σιδηνήν, eis ἣν ὁ 

/ / Ὕ ’ > \ ” 
τύραννος κατέφυγε Γλαυκίας, ἀρὰς ἔθετο κατὰ 
τῶν τειχιούντων πάλιν τὸν τόπον), ἐκείνου μὲν 
οὖν ἀποστῆναι τοῦ χωρίου, ἕτερον δὲ τειχίσαι. 
πρῶτοι μὲν οὖν ᾿Αστυπαλαιεῖς οἱ τὸ “Ροίτειον 
κατασχόντες συνῴκισαν πρὸς τῷ Σιμόεντι 
Πόλιον, ὃ νῦν καλεῖται ἸΤόλισμα, οὐκ ἐν εὐερκεῖ 

1 The words εἴθ᾽ ἱκετεύοντές τε φρένας are unintelligible. 
Meineke emends to εἴθ᾽ ἱκετείας ἑρμηνεύοντες εἴτε φρένας ; 
Leaf translates (with a question mark) ‘‘whether as sup- 
pliants or mind”! Jones conj. that the words ἐπὶ (or ἐν) τῇ 
τέφρᾳ (‘Sin the ashes”), referring to ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάρῃ, are hidden 
in τε φρένας. 


ee ee ee 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 41-42 

meaning “to put the robe ‘beside’ her knees,” 
comparing the words “ and she sits upon the hearth 
in the light of the fire,” which they take to mean 
“beside” the hearth. For how could one conceive 
of the dedication of a robe “beside” the knees? 
Moreover, others, changing the accent on yovvaow, 
accenting it γουνάσιν," like θυιάσιν 3 (in whichever of 
two ways they interpret it), talk on endlessly. . . .4 
There are to be seen many of the ancient wooden 
images of Athena in a sitting posture, as, for example, 
in Phocaea, Massalia, Rome, Chios, and several other 
places. Also the more recent writers agree that 
the city was wiped out, among whom is the orator 
Lycurgus,® who, in mentioning the city of the Ilians, 
says: “ Who has not heard that once for all it was 
rased to the ground by the Greeks, and is unin- 
habited ?”’ 

42. It is surmised that those who later thought of 
refounding the city regarded that site as ill-omened, 
either on account of its misfortune or also because, 
in accordance with an ancient custom, a curse had 
been laid upon it by Agamemnon, just as Croesus, 
after he destroyed Sidené, whither the tyrant 
Glaucias had fled for refuge, put a curse on any 
persons who should re-fortify the site; and that 
they therefore avoided that place and fortified 
another. Now the Astypalaeans who held possession 
of Rhoeteium were the first to settle Polium, now 
called Polisma, on the Simoeis River, but not on a 

1 “ Knees.” 

2 They obviously took γουνάσιν, if there ever was such a 
word, to mean “‘ female suppliants.” 

3. ** Maenads.” * See critical note. 

5 Against Leocrates, 62. 


C 602 


τόπῳ' διὸ κατεσπάσθη ταχέως. ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν 
Λυδῶν ἡ νῦν ἐκτίσθη κατοικία καὶ τὸ ἱερόν᾽ οὐ 
μὴν πόλις γε ἦν, ἀλλὰ πολλοῖς χρόνοις ὕστερον, 
καὶ κατ᾽ ὀλίγον, ὡς εἴρηται, τὴν αὔξησιν ἔσχεν. 
“Ἑλλάνικος δὲ χαριζόμενος τοῖς ᾿ἸΙλιεῦσιν, οἷος 
ἐκείνου θυμός, συνηγορεῖ τὸ τὴν αὐτὴν εἶναι 
πόλιν τὴν νῦν τῇ τότε. τὴν δὲ χώραν, ἀφανισ- 
θείσης τῆς πόλεως, οἱ τὸ Σίγειον καὶ τὸ Ῥοίτειον 
ἔχοντες διενείμαντο καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὡς ἕκαστοι 
τῶν πλησιοχώρων, ἀπέδοσαν δ᾽ ἀνοικισθείσης. 
48, Πολυπίδακον δὲ τὴν Ἴδην ἰδίως οἴονται 
λέγεσθαι διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἐξ αὐτῆς ῥεόντων 
ποταμῶν, καθ᾽ ἃ μάλιστα ἡ Δαρδανικὴ ὑποπέ- 
πτωκεν αὐτῇ καὶ μέχρι Σκήψεως καὶ τὰ περὶ 

Ἴλιον. ἔμπειρος δ᾽ ὧν τῶν τόπων, ὡς ἂν 

ἐπιχώριος ἀνήρ, ὁ Δημήτριος τοτὲ μὲν οὕτως 
λέγει περὶ αὐτῶν' ἔστι γὰρ λόφος τις τῆς Ἴδης 
Κότυλος: ὑπέρκειται δ᾽ οὗτος ἑκατόν που καὶ 
” / / eg / 
εἴκοσι σταδίοις Σκήψεως, ἐξ οὗ 6 Te Σκάμανδρος 
ῥεῖ καὶ ὁ Τράνικος καὶ Αἴσηπος, οἱ μὲν πρὸς ἄρκτον 
καὶ τὴν Προποντίδα, ἐκ πλειόνων πηγῶν συλλει- 
βόμενοι, ὁ δὲ Σκάμανδρος ἐπὶ δύσιν ἐκ μιᾶς 
fol lal >] > 4 / > 
πηγῆς: πᾶσαν δ᾽ ἀλλήλαις πλησιάζουσιν, ἐν 
, ’ Ὁ 
εἴκοσι σταδίων περιεχόμεναι διαστήματι" πλεῖσ- 
τον δ᾽ ἀφέστηκεν ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς τὸ τοῦ Αἰσήπου 
τέλος, σχεδόν τι καὶ πεντακοσίους σταδίους. 
παρέχει δὲ λόγον, TAS? φησιν ὁ ποιητής" 

1 θυμός, Xylander, for μῦθος ; so the later editors, 
2 πῶς, Corais, for és; so the later editors. 

1 2,6. of Ilium. 2.13.11. 26: 



q GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 42-43 

4 well-protected site; and therefore it was soon de- 
_ molished. It was in the time of the Lydians that 
_ the present settlement! was founded, as also the 
temple. It was not a city, however, and it was 
only after many ages, and gradually, as I have said,? 
_ that it increased. But Hellanicus, to gratify the 
_ Ilians, “such is the spirit of that man,’’? agrees with 
_ them that the present Ilium is the same as the 
_ ancient. When the city was wiped out, its territory 
was divided up between the inhabitants of Sigeium 
and Rhoeteium and several other neighbouring 
peoples, but the territory was given back when the 

_ place was refounded. 
43. The epithet “many-fountained”’* is thought 
_ to be especially applied to Mt. Ida because of the 
great number of rivers that flow from it, particularly 
_ in those parts below it where lie the territory of 
Dardanus—even as far as Scepsis—and the region of 
Ilium. Demetrius, who as a native was acquainted 
_ with the topography of the country, says in one 
‘ place as follows: There is a hill of Ida called 
_ Cotylus; and this hill lies about one hundred and 
᾿ twenty stadia above Scepsis; and from it flow the 
Scamander, the Granicus, and the Aesepus, the two 
_ latter flowing towards the north and the Propontis 
_ and constituting a collection of streams from several 
_ sources, while the Scamander flows towards the west 
from only one source; and all the sources lie close 
_ together, being comprised within a distance of twenty 
_ Stadia; but the end of the Aesepus stands farthest 
_ away from its beginning, approximately five hundred 
_ Stadia. But it is a matter of argument what the poet 
ΟΠ Means when he says: “ And they came to the two 

* A quotation from Iliad 15. 94. * Cf. 13. 1. 5. 




‘ Ἅ “ / Μ Ν / 
κρουνὼ δ᾽ ἵκανον καλιρρόω, ἔνθα δὲ πηγαί 
δοιαὶ ἀναΐσσουσι Σκαμάνδρου δινήεντος" 

ἡ μὲν γάρ θ᾽ ὕδατι λιαρῷ ῥέει, 

7? ? a > / / 
6 ἐστι θερμῷ: ἐπιφέρει dé 
> \ \ Ἁ 
ἀμφὶ δὲ καπνὸς 
γίγνεται ἐξ αὐτῆς, ὡσεὶ πυρός. 
ς ; 7 / “ / > Lal / 
ἡ δ᾽ ἑτέρη θέρεϊ προρέει εἰκυῖα χαλάξῃ 
a / a 
ἢ χιόνι ψυχρῇ. 

ΝΜ \ \ a > a ῇ Sa ἢ wy? ¢ 
οὔτε yap θερμὰ νῦν ἐν τῷ τόπῳ εὑρίσκεται, οὔθ᾽ ἡ 
τοῦ Σκαμάνδρου πηγὴ ἐνταῦθα, ἀλλ᾽ ἐν τῷ ὄρει" 

> \ 
καὶ μία, ἀλλ᾽ ov δύο. τὰ μὲν οὖν θερμὰ ἐκλε- 

“ / 
λεῖφθαι εἰκός, TO δὲ ψυχρὸν κατὰ διάδοσιν 1 
ὑπεκρέον ἐκ τοῦ Σκαμάνδρου κατὰ τοῦτ᾽ ἀνατέλ- 
ew τὸ χωρίον, ἢ καὶ διὰ τὸ πλησίον εἶναι τοῦ 
Σκαμάνδρου καὶ τοῦτο τὸ ὕδωρ λέγεσθαι τοῦ 
Σκαμάνδρου πηγήν" οὕτω γὰρ λέγονται πλείους 
πηγαὶ τοῦ αὐτοῦ ποταμοῦ. 

44, Συμπίπτει δ᾽ εἰς αὐτὸν ὁ ἔΑνδερος ἀπὸ τῆς 
Καρησηνῆς, ὀρεινῆς τινὸς πολλαῖς κώμαις συνοι- 
κουμένης καὶ γεωργουμένης καλῶς, παρακειμένης 
τῇ Δαρδανικῇ μέχρι τῶν περὶ Ζέλειαν καὶ 
ΠιτύειανξΞ τόπων. ὠνομάσθαι δὲ τὴν χώραν 
φασὶν ἀπὸ τοῦ Καρήσου ποταμοῦ, ὃν ὠνόμακεν ὁ 

Ῥῆσός θ᾽ «Ἑπτάπορός te Κάρησός τε Ῥοδίος τε. 

A \ / / \ ε y 2 nr 

τὴν δὲ πόλιν κατεσπάσθαι τὴν ὁμώνυμον τῷ 
aA € ς a 

ποταμῷ. πάλιν δ᾽ οὗτός dyow' ὁ μὲν Ῥῆσος 
n a « 

ποταμὸς νῦν καλεῖται Ῥοείτης, εἰ μὴ ἄρα ὁ εἰς 

\ / ? ΄ © a / >’ «ς / 

τὸν Γράνικον ἐμβάλλων Ῥῆσός ἐστιν. ᾿Επτά- 

1 For διάδοσιν (all MSS. and Eustathius), Corais, Meineke 

Ε΄ 2. — --- 

are re “SEES δον τὰ 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 43-44 

fair-flowing streams, where well up the two springs 
of eddying Scamander; for the one flows with soft 
water’ + (that is, with “hot water”), and the poet 
adds, “and round abouta smoke arises from it as if from 
a blazing fire, whereas the other even in summer flows 
forth cold as hail or chill snow.” But, in the first 
place, no hot waters are now to be found at the site,? 
and, secondly, the source of the Scamander is not to 
be found there, but in the mountain; and it has 
only one source, not two. It is reasonable to sup- 
pose, therefore, that the hot spring has given out, 
and that the cold one is evacuated from the Scamander 
through an underground passage and rises to the 
surface here, or else that because of the nearness of 
the Scamander this water is called a source of the 
Seamander; for people are wont to ascribe several 
sources to one and the same river in this way. 

44. The Scamander is joined by the Andirus, 
which flows from Caresené, a mountainous country 
settled with many villages and beautifully culti- 
vated; it extends alongside Dardania as far as the 
regions of Zeleia and Pityeia. It is said that the 
country was named after the Caresus River, which is 
named by the poet, “ Rhesus, Heptaporus, Caresus, 
and Rhodius,”’ * and that the city of the same name 
as the river was torn down. Again, Demetrius says 
as follows: “The Rhesus River is now called 
Rhoeites, unless it be that the river which empties 
into the Granicus is the Rhesus. The Heptaporus, 

1 Iliad 22. 147. 2 2,6. of Troy. 8 Iliad 12. 20. 

and Leaf, from conj. of Xylander, read diddvow; but the 
emendation is unnecessary. 
3 πιτύειαν, Xylander, for Πιτυίαν ; so the later editors. 


(603 topos δέ, ὃν καὶ Πολύπορον λέγουσιν, ἑπτάκις 

ιαβαινόμενος ἐκ τῶν περὶ τὴν Καλὴν Πεύκην 
χωρίων ἐπὶ Μελαινὰξ κώμην ἰοῦσι καὶ τὸ 
᾿Ασκληπίειον, ἵδρυμα Λυσιμάχου. περὶ δὲ τῆς 
Καλῆς Πεύκης "Ἄτταλος ὁ πρῶτος βασιλεύσας 
οὕτως γράφει" τὴν μὲν περίμετρον εἶναί φησι 
ποδῶν ,Τεττάρων καὶ εἴκοσι, τὸ δὲ ὕ ὕψος ἀπὸ μὲν 
ῥίζης a ἀνιέναι" ἐπὶ ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἑπτὰ πόδας, εἶτ᾽ 
εἰς τρία σχιξομένην ἴ ἰσον ἀλλήλων διέχοντα, εἶτα 
πάλιν συναγομένην εἰς μίαν κορυφήν, ἀποτελοῦ- 
σαν τὸ" πᾶν ὕψος δυεῖν πλέθρων καὶ πεντεκαί- 
δεκα πηχῶν" ᾿Αδραμυττίου δὲ διέχει πρὸς ἄρκτον 
ἑκατὸν καὶ ὀγδοήκοντα σταδίους. Κάρησος δ᾽ 
ἀπὸ Μαλοῦντος ῥεῖ, τόπου τινὸς κειμένου μεταξὺ 
Παλαισκήψεως καὶ ᾿Αχαιίου τῆς Τενεδίων 
περαίας" ἐμβάλλει δὲ εἰς τὸν Αἴσηπον. “Ῥοδίος 
δὲ ἀπὸ Κλεανδρίας καὶ Τόρδου, ἃ διέχει τῆς 
Καλῆς Πεύκης ἑξήκοντα σταδίους" ἐμβάλλει δ᾽ 
εἰς τὸν Αἴνιον. 

45. Τοῦ δ᾽ αὐλῶνος τοῦ περὶ τὸν Αἴσηπον ἐν 
ἀριστερᾷ τῆς ῥύσεως αὐτοῦ πρῶτόν ἐστι Πολίχνα, 
τειχῆρες χωρίον, εἶθ᾽ ἡ Παλαίσκηψις, εἶτ᾽ 
᾿Αλαζόνιον, τοῦτ᾽ ἤδη πεπλασμένον πρὸς τὴν τῶν 
᾿Αλιζώνων. ὑπόθεσιν, περὶ ὧν εἰρήκαμεν" εἶτα 
Κάρησος ἐρήμη καὶ ἡ Καρησηνὴ καὶ ὁμώνυμος 
ποταμός, ποιῶν καὶ αὐτὸς αὐλῶνα ἀξιόλογον, 
ἐλάττω δὲ τοῦ περὶ τὸν Αἴσηπον. τὰ δ᾽ ἑξῆς ἤδη 
τὰ τῆς Ζελείας ἐστὶ πεδία καὶ ὀροπέδια καλῶς 

* ἀνιέναι, Meineke and Leaf, following ὁ, for ἐάν Dgh, 
ἐᾶν C, ἕως moz. 

2 Instead of τό, CDFhi read τότε. 

8 For Atvwy Kramer conj. Αἴσηπον. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 44-45 

also called Polyporus, is crossed seven times by one 
travelling from the region of the Beautiful Pine to 
the village called Melaenae and the Asclepieium 
that was founded by Lysimachus. Concerning the 
Beautiful Pine, King Attalus the First writes as 
follows: “Its circumference is twenty-four feet; 
and its trunk rises to a height of sixty-seven feet 
from the root and then splits into three forks equi- 
distant from one another, and then contracts again 
into one head, thus completing a total height of two 
plethra and fifteen cubits.”1 It is one hundred and 
eighty stadia distant from Adramyttium, to the 
north of it. The Caresus flows from Malus, a place 
situated between Palaescepsis and the Achaeium, 
the part of the mainland that belongs to the Tene- 
dians;* and it empties into the Aesepus. The 
Rhodius flows from Cleandria and Gordus, which 
are sixty stadia distant from the Beautiful Pine; and 
it empties into the Aenius.® 

45. In the dale of the Aesepus, on the left of the 
stream, one comes first to Polichna, a place enclosed 
by walls; and then to Palaescepsis; and then to 
Alizonium (this last name having been fabricated 4 
to support the hypothesis about the Halizones, 
whom I have already discussed);° and then to 
Caresus, which is deserted, and Caresené, and the 
river of the same name,® which also forms a notable 
dale, though smaller than that of the Aesepus; 
and next follow the plains and plateaux of Zeleia, 

1 About 225 feet. 2 See end of § 32. 
8. ** Aenius” appears to be an error for ‘‘ Aesepus,” as 
suggested by Kramer. See Leaf, p. 207. 
i.c. by Demetrius. 5 12. 3. 20-27. 
5 The Caresus, of course. 

VOL. VI. »D 89 


γεωργούμενα" ἐν δεξιᾷ δὲ τοῦ Αἰσήπου μεταξὺ 
ΠΝ τε καὶ Παλαισκήψεως ἡ Νέα! Κώμη 
"Apyupia,2 καὶ τοῦτο πάλιν πλάσμα 8 πρὸς 
τὸ αὐτὴν ὑπόθεσιν, ὅπως σωθείη τὸ 
ὅθεν ἀργύρου ἐστὶ γενέθλη. 
ἡ οὖν ᾿Αλύβη ποῦ, i) ᾿Αλόπη ἢ ὅπως βούλονται 
παρονομάξειν ; ; ἐχρῆν γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο πλάσαι 
παρατριψαμένους τὸ μέτωπον καὶ μὴ χωλὸν ἐᾶν 
καὶ ἕτοιμον “πρὸς ἔλεγχον ἅπαξ ἤδη ἀποτετολμη- 
κότας. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἔνστασιν ἔχει τοιαύτην, 
τἄλλα δὲ ὑπολαμβάνομεν, ἢ τά γε πλεῖστα, δεῖν 
προσέχειν * ὡς ἀνδρὶ ἐ ἐμπείρῳ καὶ ἐντοπίῳ, φροντί- 
σαντί τε τοσοῦτον περὶ τούτων, ὥστε τριάκοντα 
βίβλους συγγράψαι στίχων ἐξήγησιν μικρῷ 
πλειόνων ἑξήκοντα, τοῦ καταλόγου τῶν Τρώων. 
φησὶ δ᾽ οὖν τὴν Παλαίσκηψιν τῆς μὲν Aivéas® 
διέχειν πεντήκοντα σταδίους, τοῦ δὲ ποταμοῦ τοῦ 
Αἰσήπου τριάκοντα, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς Παλαισκήψεως 
ταύτης διατεῖναι τὴν ὁμωνυμίαν καὶ εἰς ἄλλους 
πλείους τόπους. ἐπάνιμεν δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν παραλίαν, 
ὅθενπερ ἀπελίπομεν. 
C604 46. "ἔστι δὴ μετὰ τὴν Σιυγειάδα a “ἄκραν καὶ τὸ 
᾿Αχίλλειον ἡ Τενεδίων περαία, τὸ ᾿Αχαίϊον, καὶ 

1 Νέα appears to be an error for Αἰνέα, and Leaf so reads. 
This appears to be the same village mentioned in the same 
paragraph below (Aivéas) and in 12. 3. 23 ν Ἑνέαν Κώμην). 

2 ᾿Αργυρία, Corais, for 4 ἀργυρεῖα οὔ, ἀργύρια other MSS. 

3 After πλάσμα, F adds τάγματα ἀργύρια, CDhi τάγματα τὰ 
ἀργύρια, τακτέον τὰ ὰ ἀργυρεῖα, x τακτέον. 

4 Professor Capps rightly suspects that αὐτῷ, or Δημητρίῳ, 
has fallen out of the MSS. before προσέχειν. 

5 Instead of Aivéas, CFA read Αἰνείας, # Nelas; Meineke 
reads Νέας. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 45-46 

which are beautifully cultivated. On the right of 
the Aesepus, between Polichna and Palaescepsis, 
one comes to Nea! Comé and Argyria,? and this again 
is a name fabricated to support the same hypo- 
thesis, in order to save the words, “where is the 
birthplace of silver.” ? Now where is Alybé, or Alopé, 
or however they wish to alter the spelling of the 
name?* For having once made their bold venture, 
they should have rubbed their faces® and fabricated 
this name too, instead of leaving it lame and readily 
subject to detection. Now these things are open 
to objections of this kind, but, in the case of the 
others, or at least most of them, I take it for granted 
that we must give heed to him * as a man who was 
acquainted with the region and a native of it, who 
gave enough thought to this subject to write thirty 
books of commentary on a little more than sixty lines 
of Homer, that is, on the Catalogue of the Trojans.’ 
He says, at any rate, that Palaescepsis is fifty stadia 
distant from Aenea and thirty from the Aesepus 
River, and that from this Palaescepsis® the same 
name was extended to several other sites. But [ 
shall return to the coast at the point where [ left off. 

46. After the Sigeian Promontory and the Achil- 
leium one comes to the Achaeium, the part of the 

1 Leaf emends ‘‘ Nea” (‘‘ New”) to ‘* Aenea” (see critical 

2 Silvertown. 3 Iliad 2. 856. 

* See 12. 3. 21. 

5 «.¢.to make them red and thus conceal their blushes of 

5 i.e. Demetrius of Scepsis. 

7 Iliad 2. 816-877. 8 Old Scepsis. 

® δή, Corais, for δ᾽ ἡ ; so Meineke. 


αὐτὴ ἡ Tévedos, ov πλείους τῶν τετταράκοντα 
σταδίων διέχουσα τῆς ἠπείρου: ἔχει δὲ τὴν 
περίμετρον ὅσον ὀγδοήκοντα σταδίων καὶ πόλιν 
Αἰολίδα καὶ λιμένας δύο καὶ ἱερὸν τοῦ Σμινθέως 
᾿Απόλλωνος, καθώπερ καὶ ὁ ποιητὴς μαρτυρεῖ" 

Τενέδοιό τε ἶφι ἀνάσσεις, 

περίκειται δ᾽ αὐτῇ νησία πλείω, καὶ δὴ καὶ δύο, ἃ. 
καλοῦσι Καλύδνας, κειμένας κατὰ τὸν ἐπὶ Λεκτὸν 
πλοῦν" καὶ αὐτὴν δὲ τὴν Τένεδον Κάλυδνάν τινες 
εἶπον, ἄλλοι. δὲ Λεύκοφρυν.1 μυθεύουσι δ᾽ ἐν 
αὐτῇ τὰ περὶ τὸν Τέννην, ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ τοὔνομα τῇ 
νήσῳ, καὶ τὰ περὶ τὸν Κύκνον, Θρᾷκα τὸ γένος, 
πατέρα δ᾽, ὥς τινες, τοῦ Τέννου, βασιλέα δὲ 

41. Ἦν δὲ τῷ ᾿Αχαιίῳ συνεχὴς ἥ τε Λάρισα 
καὶ Κολωναί, τῆς 3 Τενεδίων περαίας οὖσαι πρό- 
τερον, καὶ ἡ νῦν Χρύσα, ἐφ᾽ ὕψους τινὸς πετρώδους 
ὑπὲρ τῆς θαλάττης ἱδρυμένη, καὶ ἡ ᾿Αμαξιτὸς ἡ 
τῷ Λεκτῷ ὑποκειμένη συνεχής" νῦν δ᾽ ἡ ᾿Αλεξάν- 
δρεια συνεχής ἐστι τῷ ᾿Αχαιίῳ" τὰ δὲ πολίσματα 
ἐκεῖνα συνῳκισμένα τυγχάνει, καθάπερ καὶ ἄλλα 
πλείω τῶν φρουρίων, εἰς τὴν ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν. ὧν 
καὶ Κεβρήνη καὶ Νεανδρία ἐστί, καὶ τὴν χώραν 
ἔχουσιν ἐκεῖνοι" ὁ δὲ τόπος, ἐν ᾧ νῦν κεῖται ἡ 
᾿Αλεξάνδρεια, Συγία ἐκαλεῖτο. 

48. Ἐν δὲ τῇ Χρύσῃ ταύτῃ καὶ τὸ τοῦ 

1 After Λεύκοφρυν, moz add εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ἕτερα νησία περὶ 

2 After τῆς there is a lacuna in DFA” of about ten letters 
followed by δίας οὖσαι κτλ. Corais writes Tevediuss but 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 46-48 

mainland that belongs to the Tenedians;! and to 
Tenedos itself, which is not more than forty stadia 
distant from the mainland. It is about eighty stadia 
in circumference, and has an Aeolian city and two 
harbours and a temple of Sminthian Apollo, as the 
poet testifies : “‘ And dost rule mightily over Tenedos, 
O Sminthian.”2 Round it lie several small islands, 
in particular two, which are called the Calydnae and 
are situated on the voyage to Lectum. And some 
give the name Calydna to Tenedos itself, while 
others call it Leucophrys. In it is laid the scene of 
the myth of Tennes,*? after whom the island was 
named, as also that of Cycnus, a Thracian by birth 
and, according to some, father of Tennes and king 
of Colonae.* 

47. Both Larisa and Colonae used to be adjacent 
to the Achaeium, formerly being on the part of the 
mainland that belonged to the Tenedians; and then 
one comes to the present Chrysa, which was founded 
on a rocky height above the sea, and to Hamaxitus, 
which lies below Lectum and adjacent to it. At 
the present time Alexandreia is adjacent to the 
Achaeium; and those other towns, like several 
others of the strongholds, have been incorporated 
with Alexandreia, among them Cebrené and 
Neandria; and Alexandreia holds their territory. 
But the site on which Alexandreia now lies used 
to be called Sigia. 

48. In this Chrysa is also the temple of Sminthian 

1 See end of § 32. 2 Iliad 1. 38. 

® For this myth, see Pausanias 10. 14. 1. 
* On the myth of Cycnus, see Leaf, p. 219. 

Kramer, Meineke, and Leaf write Τενεδίων περαίας, the con- 
vincing conjecture of Groskurd. 


C 605 


Σμινθέως ᾿Απόλλωνός ἐστιν ἱερὸν καὶ τὸ σύμ- 
βολον τὸ τὴν ἐτυμότητα τοῦ ὀνόματος σῶζον, ὁ 
μῦς, ὑπόκειται τῷ ποδὶ τοῦ Eodvov. Σκόπα δ᾽ 
ἐστὶν ἔργα 1 τοῦ Ἰ]αρίου: συνοικειοῦσε δὲ καὶ τὴν 
ἱστορίαν εἴτε μῦθον τούτῳ τῷ τόπῳ τὴν περὶ τῶν 
μυῶν. τοῖς γὰρ ἐκ τῆς Κρήτης ἀφιγμένοις 
Τεύκροις (ods πρῶτος παρέδωκε Καλλῖνος ὁ τῆς 
ἐλεγείας ποιητής, ἠκολούθησαν δὲ πολλοῦ 
χρησμὸς ἦν, αὐτόθι ποιήσασθαι τὴν μονήν, ὅπου 
ἂν οἱ γηγενεῖς αὐτοῖς ἐπιθῶνται: συμβῆναι δὲ 
τοῦτ᾽ αὐτοῖς φασὶ περὶ ᾿Αμαξιτόν: νύκτωρ. yap 
πολὺ πλῆθος ἀρουραίων μνῶν ἐξανθῆσαν διαφαγεῖν 
ὅσα σκύτινα τῶν τε ὅπλων καὶ τῶν χρηστηρίων" 
τοὺς δὲ αὐτόθι μεῖναι" τούτους δὲ καὶ τὴν “Ldnv 
> \ a > / / 4 4 

ἀπὸ τῆς ἐν Κρήτῃ προσονομάσαι.Σ Ἡρακλείδης 
δ᾽ ὁ Ποντικὸς πληθύοντάς φησι τοὺς μύας περὶ 
τὸ ἱερὸν νομισθῆναί τε ἱεροὺς καὶ τὸ ξόανον οὕτω 
κατασκευασθῆναι βεβηκὸς ἐπὶ τῷ μυΐ. ἄλλοι δ᾽ 
ἐκ τῆς ᾿Αττικῆς ἀφῖχθαί τινα Τεῦκρόν φασιν ἐκ 
δήμου Τρώων, ὃς νῦν οἱ Ἐξυπετεῶνες 3 λέγεται, 
Τεύκρους δὲ μηδένας ἐλθεῖν ἐκ τῆς Κρήτης. τῆς 
δὲ πρὸς τοὺς ᾿Αττικοὺς ἐπιπλοκῆς τῶν Τρώων 
τιθέασι σημεῖον καὶ τὸ παρ᾽ ἀμφοτέροις ᾽ἜἜρι- 
χθόνιόν τινα γενέσθαι τῶν ἀρχηγετῶν. λέγουσι 
μὲν οὖν οὕτως οἱ νεώτεροι, τοῖς δ᾽ Ομήρου μᾶλλον 
ἔπεσι συμφωνεῖ τὰ ἐν τῷ Θήβης πεδίῳ καὶ τῇ 
αὐτόθι Χρύσῃ ἱδρυμένῃ ποτὲ δεικνύμενα ἴχνη, 

1 Instead of ἔργα, Eustathius reads ἔργον ; so Leaf. 

2 Instead of προσονομάσαι, moz and Eustathius read παρονο- 
μάσαι ; the editors before Kramer, κατονομάσαι. . 

3 of Humereaves, Meineke, for ὁδξυπετεῶν ; 6 Ἐυπετεών, 
Tzschucke and Corais. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. τ. 48 

Apollo; and the symbol which preserves the 
etymology of the name,'! I mean the mouse, lies 
beneath the foot of his image. These are the works 
of Scopas of Paros; and also the history, or myth, 
about the mice is associated with this place: When 
the Teucrians arrived from Crete (Callinus the 
elegiac poet was the first to hand down an account 
of these people, and many have followed him), they 
had an oracle which bade them to “stay on the 
spot where the earth-born should attack them” ; 
and, he says, the attack took place round Hamaxitus, 
for by night a great multitude of field-mice swarmed 
out of the ground and ate up all the leather in their 
arms and equipment; and the Teucrians remained 
there ; and it was they who gave its name to Mt. Ida, 
naming it after the mountain in Crete. Heracleides 
of Pontus says that the mice which swarmed round 
the temple were regarded as sacred, and that for 
this reason the image was designed with its foot 
upon the mouse. Others say that a certain Teucer 
came from the deme ot Troes, now called 
Xypeteones, in Attica, but that no Teucrians came 
from Crete. As a further sign of the close re- 
lationship of the Trojans with the people of Attica 
they record the fact that Erichthonius was one 
of the original founders in both tribes. Now this 
is the account of the more recent writers; but 
more in agreement with Homer are the traces to be 
seen in the plain of Thebé and in the Chrysa 
which was once founded there, which I shall soon 

1 Sminthian means ‘‘ Mouse-god.” 

* Instead of τῶν ἀρχηγετῶν moz read ἀρχηγέτην. 


περὶ ὧν αὐτίκα ἐροῦμεν. πολλαχοῦ δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὸ 
τοῦ Σμινθέως ὄνομα" καὶ γὰρ περὶ αὐτὴν τὴν 
¢ \ \ “ \ \ e \ Ψ rd 
Apakitov χωρὶς τοῦ κατὰ TO ἱερὸν Σμινθίου δύο 
τόποι καλοῦνται Σμίνθια- καὶ ἄλλοι δ᾽ ἐν τῇ 
πλησίον Aapicaia: καὶ ἐν τῇ Παριανῇ δ᾽ ἐστὶ 
χωρίον τὰ Σμίνθια καλούμενον καὶ ἐν Ῥόδῳ καὶ 
ἐν Λίνδῳ καὶ ἄλλοθι δὲ πολλαχοῦ: καλοῦσι δὲ 
νῦν τὸ ἱερὸν Σμίνθιον. χωρὶς γοῦν καὶ τὸ 
“Ax / 9 OL Ε] / 2 x 3 “ lal A 
ἥσιον " πεδίον ov μέγα ἐντὸς 8 τοῦ Λεκτοῦ καὶ 
τὸ Τραγασαῖον ἁλοπήγιον αὐτόματον τοῖς ἐτησίαις 
« lal a lal 
πηγνύμενον πρὸς ᾿Αμαξιτᾷ. ἐπὶ δὲ TO Asal 
βωμὸς τῶν δώδεκα θεῶν δείκνυται, καλοῦσι 
᾿Αγαμέμνονος ἵδρυμα: ἐν ἐπόψει δὲ τῷ Ἰλίῳ 
ἐστὶ τὰ χωρία ταῦτα, ws ἐν διακοσίοις σταδίοις ἢ 
μικρῷ πλείοσιν: ὡς δ᾽ αὕτως καὶ τὰ περὶ "Αβυδον 
ἐκ θατέρου μέρους, μικρὸν δ᾽ ὅμως ἐγγυτέρω ἡ 
49. Κάμψαντι δὲ τὸ Λεκτὸν ἐλλογιμώταται 
, lal ? 4 \ ΦΧ ὃ \ U 
πόλεις τῶν Αἰολέων καὶ ὁ ᾿Αδραμυττηνὸς κόλπος 
ἐκδέχεται, ἐν ᾧ τοὺς πλείους τῶν Λελέγων κατοι- 
κίζων ὁ ποιητὴς φαίνεται καὶ τοὺς Κίλικας, 
διττοὺς ὄντας. ἐνταῦθα δὲ καὶ ὁ τῶν Μιτυληναίων 
ἐστὶν αἰγιαλός, κώμας τινὰς ἔχων τῶν κατὰ τὴν 
ἤπειρον τῶν Μιτυληναίων. τὸν δὲ αὐτὸν κόλπον 
καὶ ᾿Ιδαῖον λέγουσιν: ἡ γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Λεκτοῦ 
ῥάχις, ἀνατείνουσα πρὸς τὴν Ἴδην, ὑπέρκειται 
τῶν πρώτων τοῦ κόλπου μερῶν’ ἐν οἷς πρῶτον 
e e 
τοὺς Λέλεγας ἱδρυμένους ὁ ποιητὴς πεποίηκεν. 
1 Leaf omits the words καλοῦσι. . . γοῦν, and indicates a 
2 "“Αλήσιον E and the editors, ᾿Αλίσιον DCFhaz, ᾿Αλύσιον moz. 

ὃ ἐντός, Tyrwhitt, for ἐν τοῖς ; so the later editors. 
4 ray, before κατά, hi, Corais and Leaf omit. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 48-49 

discuss. The name of Smintheus is used in many 
places, for in the neighbourhood of Hamaxitus 
itself, apart from the Sminthium at the temple, 
there are two places called Sminthia; and there 
are others in the neighbouring territory of Larisa. 
And also in the territory of Parium there is a 
place called Sminthia, as also in Rhodes and in 
Lindus and in many other places. And they now 
call the temple Sminthium. Apart, at any rate, lie 
both the Halesian Plain, of no great size, and inland 
from Lectum, and the Tragasaean salt-pan near 
Hamaxitus, where salt is naturally caused to con- 
geal by the Etesian winds. On Lectum is to be 
seen an altar of the twelve gods, said to have been 
founded by Agamemnon. These places are all in 
sight of Ilium, at a distance of about two hundred 
stadia or a little more; and the same is the case 
with the places round Abydus on the other side, 
although Abydus is a little closer. 

49. On doubling Lectum one comes next to the 
most notable cities of the Aeolians, and to the Gulf 
of Adramyttium, on which the poet obviously places 
the majority of the Leleges, as also the Cilicians, 
who were twofold.* Here too is the shore-land of 
the Mitylenaeans, with certain villages* belonging 
to the Mitylenaeans who live on the mainland. 
The same gulf is also called the Idaean Gulf, for 
the ridge which extends from Lectum to Mt. Ida 
lies above the first part of the gulf, where the poet 
represents the Leleges as first settled.* 

1 The Greek for these four words seems to be corrupt. 
2 See 13. 1. 7, 60. 

3. Coryphantis and Heracleia are named in ὃ 51, 

4 Iliad 10, 429. 



50. Εὔρηται δὲ περὶ αὐτῶν καὶ πρότερον" καὶ 
νῦν δὲ προσληπτέον, ὅτι Πήδασόν twa λέγει 
πόλιν αὐτῶν ὑπὸ "Αλτῃ τεταγμένην" ἢ 

ἴἼΛλτεω, ὃς Λελέγεσσι φιλοπτολέμοισιν ἀνάσ- 
/ > ld » > \ / 
Πήδασον αἰπήεσσαν ἔχων ἐπὶ Σατνιόεντι. 

καὶ νῦν ὁ τόπος δείκνυται τῆς πόλεως ἔρημος. 
γράφουσι δέ τινες οὐκ εὖ ὑπὸ Σατνιόεντι, ὡς ὑπὸ 
ὄρει Σατνιόεντι κειμένης τῆς πόλεως" οὐδὲν δ᾽ 
ἐστὶν ὄρος ἐνταῦθα Σατνιόεις πρασαγορευόμενον, 
ἀλλὰ ποταμός, ἐφ᾽ ἃ ἵδρυται ἡ πόλις" νῦν δ᾽ 
ἐστὶν ἐρήμη. ὀνομάζει δὲ τὸν ποταμὸν ὁ ποιη- 
Σάτνιον yap? οὔτασε δουρὶ 

Oivoridny,® ὃν ἄρα νύμφη τέκε Νηὶς ἀμύμων 

Οἴνοπι" βουκολέοντι παρ᾽ ὄχθαις Σατνιόεντος" 
καὶ πάλιν" 

C606 ναῖε δὲ Σατνιόεντος édppeitao παρ᾽ ὄχθαις 
Πήδασον αἰπεινήν. 

Σατνιόεντα δ᾽ ὕστερον εἶπον, οἱ δὲ Σαφνιόεντα. 
ἔστι δὲ χείμαρρος μέγας" ἄξιον δὲ μνήμης πεποίη- 
κεν ὀνομάξων ὁ ὁ ποιητὴς αὐτόν. οὗτοι δ᾽ οἱ πόποι 
συνεχεῖς εἰσὶ τῇ Δαρδανίᾳ καὶ τῇ Σκηψίᾳ, ὥσπερ 
ἄλλη τις Δαρδανία, ταπεινοτέρα δέ. 

51. ᾿Ασσίων δ᾽ ἐστὶ νῦν καὶ Tapyapéwv τὰ ὃ ἕως 
τῆς κατὰ Λέσβον θαλάττης περιεχόμενα τῇ τε 

1 Instead οὗ τεταγμένην, CDhia read τεταγμένων. 
2 yap, after Σάτνιον, omitted by other editors. 
8. Instead of Oinentbar: the editors before Kramer, follow- 
ing the MSS. of Jiiad 14. 443, read *HvomiSnv. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 50-51 

50. But I have already discussed these matters. 
I must now add that Homer speaks of a Pedasus, a 
city of the Leleges, as subject to lord Altes: “Of 
Altes, who is lord over the war-loving Leleges, who 
hold steep Pedasus on the Satnioeis.”? And the 
site of the place, now deserted, is still to be seen. 
Some write, though wrongly, “at the foot of 
Satnioeis,’* as though the city lay at the foot of 
a mountain called Satnioeis; but there is no 
mountain here called Satnioeis, but only a river 
of that name, on which the city is situated; but 
the city is now deserted. The poet names the 
river, for, according to him, “he wounded Satnius 
with a thrust of his spear, even the son of Oenops, 
whom a peerless Naiad nymph bore unto Oenops, 
as he tended his herds by the banks of the Sat- 
nioeis’’;* and again: “ And he dwelt by the banks 
of the fair-flowing Satnioeis in steep Pedasus.”’® 
And in later times it was called Satnioeis, though 
some called it Saphnioeis. It is only a large 
winter torrent, but the naming of it by the poet 
has made it worthy of mention. These places 
are continuous with Dardania and Scepsia, and 
are, as it were, a second Dardania, but it is lower- 
lying. ; 

51. Tothe Assians and the Gargarians now belong 
all the parts as far as the sea off Lesbos that are sur- 

Σ 13. 1. 7. Ξ Iliad 21. 86. 
3 2,6, ὑπό for ἐπί in the Homeric passage quoted, 
4 Iliad 14. 443. 5 Iliad 6. 34. 

4 Instead of Οἴνοπι, CDF and the editors before Kramer, 
following Jliad 14, 444, read Ἤνοπι. 
5 Leaf inserts ra before ἕως, 



᾿Αντανδρίᾳ καὶ τῇ Κεβρηνίων καὶ Νεανδριέξων καὶ 
‘Apakitéwv. τῆς μὲν γὰρ ᾿Αμαξιτοῦ Νεανδριεῖς 
ὑπέρκεινται, καὶ αὐτοὶ ὄντες ἐντὸς Λεκτοῦ, μεσο- 
γειότεροι δὲ; καὶ πλησιαίτεροι τῷ ᾿Ιλίῳ- διέχουσι 
γὰρ ἑκατὸν καὶ τριάκοντα σταδίους. τούτων δὲ 
καθύπερθε Κεβρήνιοι, τούτων δὲ Δαρδάνιοι μέχρι 
Παλαισκήψεως καὶ αὐτῆς τῆς Σκήψεως. τὴν δὲ 
ἼΑντανδρον ᾿Αλκαῖος μὲν καλεῖ Λελέγων πόλιν" 
πρῶτα 3 μὲν "Αντανδρος Λελέγων πόλις. 

ὁ δὲ Σκήψιος ἐν ταῖς παρακειμέναις τίθησιν, ὥστ᾽ 
ἐκπίπτοι ἂν εἰς τὴν τῶν Κιλίκων: οὗτοι γάρ 
εἰσι συνεχεῖς τοῖς Λέλεξι, μᾶλλόν πως τὸ νότιον 
πλευρὸν τῆς "Ἴδης ἀφορίζοντες" ταπεινοὶ δ᾽ ὅμως 
καὶ οὗτοι καὶ 5 τῇ παραλίᾳ συνάπτοντες μᾶλλον 
τῇ κατὰ ᾿Αδραμύττιον. μετὰ γὰρ τὸ Λεκτὸν τὸ 
Πολυμήδιόν ἐστι χωρίον te ἐν τετταράκοντα 
σταδίοις, εἶτ᾽ ἐν ὀγδοήκοντα “Acaos,* μικρὸν ὑπὲρ 
τῆς θαλάττης, εἶτ᾽ ἐν ἑκατὸν καὶ τετταράκοντα 

1 δέ, Corais, for τε. 

2 For πρῶτα, Leaf, as his translation (p. 253) shows, must 
have intended to read πρώτα (πρώτη). 

8 oi, before τῇ, Corais rejects; so Kramer, Meineke, and 

4 *Agoos, Tzschucke, from conj. of Mannert, for ἄλσος ; so 
the later editors. 

1 Frag. 65 (Bergk). Leaf translates: ‘‘ Antandros, first 
city of the Leleges” (see critical note). 

2 Leaf translates: ‘* But Demetrios puts it in the district 
adjacent (to the Leleges), so that it would fall within the 
territory of the Kilikes”; and in his commentary (p. 255) 
he says: ‘‘As the words stand, Strabo says that ‘ Demetrios 
places Antandros (not at Antandros but) in the neighbour- 
hood of Antandros.’ That is nonsense however we look at 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 51 

rounded by the territory of Antandrus and that of 
the Cebrenians and Neandrians and Hamaxitans ; for 
the Antandrians are situated above Hamaxitus, like 
it being situated inside Lectum, though farther 
inland and nearer to Ilium, for they are one hundred 
and thirty stadia distant from Ilium. Higher up 
than these are the Cebrenians, and still higher up 
than the latter are the Dardanians, who extend as 
far as Palaescepsis and Scepsis itself. Antandrus is 
called by Alcaeus “city of the Leleges”: “ First, 
Antandrus, city of the Leleges’’;1 but it is placed 
by the Scepsian among the cities adjacent to their 
territory,” so that it would fall within the territory 
of the Cilicians ; for the territory of the Cilicians is 
continuous with that of the Leleges, the former, 
rather than the latter, marking off the southern 
flank of Mt. Ida. But still the territory of the 
Cilicians also lies low and, rather than that of the 
Leleges, joins the part of the coast that is near 
Adramyttium.? For after Lectum one comes to a 
place called Polymedium, at a distance of forty stadia; 
then, at a distance of eighty,4 to Assus, slightly above 
the sea; and then, at a distance of one hundred and 

it.” Yet the Greek cannot mean that Demetrius transfers 
Antandrus, ‘‘a fixed point,” to ‘‘the adjacent district,” as 
Leaf interprets, but that he includes it among the cities 
(ταῖς παρακειμέναι5) which he enumerates as Cilician, 

38 The interpretation of the Greek for this last sentence is 
somewhat doubtful. Cf. translation and commentary of 
Leaf (pp. 254-255), who regards the text as corrupt. 

4 i.e. eighty stadia from Polymedium, not from ποθι 
as thought by Thatcher Clark (American Journal of 
Archaeology, 4. 291 ff., quoted by Leaf). His interpretation, 
neither accepted nor definitely rejected by Leaf (p. 257), is 
not in accordance with Strabo’s manner of enumerating 
distances, a fact apparently overlooked by both scholars. 


C 607 


Γάργαρα" κεῖται δὲ τὰ Γάργαρα ἐπ᾽ ἄκρας ποιού- 
σης τὸν ἰδίως ᾿Αδραμυττηνὸν καλούμενον κόλπον, 
λέγεται γὰρ καὶ πᾶσα ἡ ἀπὸ Λεκτοῦ μέχρι 
Κανῶν παραλία τῷ αὐτῷ τούτῳ ὀνόματι, ἐν ᾧ καὶ 
ὁ ᾿Ελαϊτικὸς περιλαμβάνεται" ἰδίως μέντοι τοῦτόν 
φασιν ᾿Αδραμυττηνόν, τὸν κλειόμενον ὑπὸ ταύτης 
τε τῆς ἄκρας, ἐφ᾽ 7 τὰ T'apyapa, καὶ τῆς Πυρρᾶς 
ἄκρας προσαγορευομένης, ἐφ᾽ ἡ καὶ ᾿Αφροδίσιον 
ἵδρυται. πλάτος δὲ τοῦ στόματός ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς 
ἄκρας ἐπὶ τὴν ἄκραν δίαρμα ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι 
σταδίων. ἐντὸς δὲ ἥ τε ᾿Αντανδρός ἐστιν, ὑπερ- 
κείμενον ἔχουσα ὄρος, ὃ καλοῦσιν ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν, 
ὅπου τὰς θεὰς κριθῆναί φασιν ὑπὸ τοῦ Πάριδος, 
καὶ ὁ ᾿Ασπανεύς, τὸ ὑλοτόμιον τῆς ᾿Ιδαίας ὕλης" 
ἐνταῦθα γὰρ διατίθενται κατάγοντες τοῖς δεο- 
μένοις. εἶτ᾽ Αστυρα, κώμη καὶ ἄλσος τῆς 
᾿Αστυρηνῆς ᾿Αρτέμιδος ἅ ἅγιον. πλησίον δ᾽ εὐθὺς 
τὸ ᾿Αδραμύττιον, ᾿Αθηναίων ἄποικος πόλις, 
ἔχουσα καὶ λιμένα καὶ ναύσταθμον: ἔξω δὲ τοῦ 
κόλπου καὶ τῆς Πυρρᾶς ἄκρας ἥ τε Κισθήνη ἐστὶ 
πόλις ἔρημος, ἔχουσα λεμένα. ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἐν τῇ 
μεσογαίᾳ τό τε τοῦ χαλκοῦ μέταλλον καὶ 
Περπερηνὴ ; καὶ Τράριον καὶ ἄλλαι τοιαῦται 
κατοικίαι. ἐν δὲ τῇ παραλίᾳ τῇ ἐφεξῆς αἱ τῶν 
Μιτυληναίων κῶμαι Kopugartis τε Kal Ἡράκλεια, 
καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα "Artea, εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αταρνεὺς καὶ 
Πιτάνη καὶ αἱ τοῦ Καΐκου ἐκβολαί" ταῦτα δ᾽ 
ἤδη τοῦ ᾿Ελαϊτῶν κόλπου: καὶ ἔστιν ἐν τῇ 

1 Περπερηνή, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, for Περπερήνα, 

1 See preceding foot-note. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. τ. 51 

twenty, to Gargara, which lies on a promontory? 
that forms the Adramyttene Gulf, in the special sense 
of that term ; for the whole of the coast from Lectum 
to Canae is also called by this same name, in which is 
also included the Elaitic Gulf. In the special sense 
of the term, however, only that part of it is called 
Adramyttene which is enclosed by that promontory 
on which Gargara lies and the promontory called 
Pyrrha, on which the Aphrodisium® is situated. 
The breadth of the mouth across from promon- 
tory to promontory is a distance of one hundred 
and twenty stadia. Inside is Antandrus, above 
which lies a mountain called Alexandreia, where 
the Judgment of Paris is said to have taken place, 
as also Aspaneus, the market for the timber from 
Mt. Ida; for here people bring it down and sell it 
to those who want it. And then comes Astyra, a 
village with a precinct sacred to the Astyrene 
Artemis. And quite near Astyra is Adramyttium, 
a city colonised by the Athenians, which has both 
a harbour and a naval station. Outside the gulf 
and the promontory called Pyrrha lies Cisthené, a 
deserted city with a harbour. Above it, in the 
interior, lie the copper mine and Perperené and 
Trarium and other settlements like these two. On 
the next stretch of coast one comes to the villages 
of the Mitylenaeans, I mean Coryphantis and Hera- 
cleia; and after these places to Attea, and then 
to Atarneus and Pitané and the outlets of the 
Caicus River; and here we have already reached 
the Elaitic Gulf. On the far side of the river lie 

2 So Clark ; or ‘‘ona height,” as Leaf translates (see his 
3 Temple of Aphrodite. 


περαίᾳ ἡ ᾿Ελαία καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς μέχρι Κανῶν 
κόλπος. λέγωμεν δὲ ἀναλαβόντες περὶ τῶν καθ᾽ 
ἕκαστα πάλιν, € τι παραλέλειπται μνήμης ἄξιον, 
καὶ πρῶτον περὶ τῆς Σκήψεως. 

52. "ἔστι δ᾽ ἡ μὲν Παλαίσκηψιες ἐπάνω 
Κεβρῆνος κατὰ τὸ μετεωρότατον τῆς Ἴδης ἐ ἐγγὺς 
Πολέχνης" ἐκαλεῖτο δὲ τότε Leyes, | εἴτ᾽ ἄλλως, 
εἴτ᾽ ἀπὸ τοῦ περίσκεπτον. εἶναι τὸν τόπον, εἰ δεῖ 
τὰ παρὰ τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐν τῷ τότε ὀνόματα ταῖς 
Ἑλληνικαῖς ἐτυμολογεῖσθαι φωναῖς" ὕστερων δὲ 
κατωτέρω σταδίοις ° ἑξήκοντα εἰς τὴν νῦν Σκῆψιν 
μετῳκίσθησαν ὑπὸ Σκαμανδρίου τε τοῦ “Ἕκτορος 
καὶ ᾿Ασκανίου τοῦ Αἰνείου παιδός: καὶ δύο γένη 
ταῦτα βασιλεῦσαι πολὺν χρόνον ἐν τῇ Σκήψει 
λέγεται" μετὰ ταῦτα δ᾽ εἰς ὀλιγαρχίαν μετέστη- 
σαν, εἶτα Μιλήσιοι" 8 συνεπολιτεύθησαν. αὐτοῖς * 
καὶ δημοκρατικῶς ὥκουν" οἱ δ᾽ ἀπὸ τοῦ γένους 
οὐδὲν ἧττον ἐκαλοῦντο βασιλεῖς, ἔχοντές Twas 
sa εἶτ᾽ εἰς THY AX εξάνδρειαν συνεπόλισε τοὺς 
Σκηψίους ᾿Αντίγονος, εἶτ᾽ ἀπέλυσε Λυσίμαχος καὶ 
ἐπανῆλθον εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν. 

53. Οἴεται δ᾽ ὁ Σκήψιος καὶ βασίλειον τοῦ Ai- 
νείου γεγονέναι τὴν Σκῆψιν, μέσην οὖσαν τῆς τε 
ὑπὸ τῷ Αἰνείᾳ καὶ Λυρνησσοῦ, εἰς ἣν φυγεῖν 
εἴρηται διωκόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ ᾿Αχιλλέως" φησὶ γοῦν 
ὁ ᾿Αχιλλεύς: 

1 Ἐλαία, Tzschucke, from conj. of Casaubon, for Μελαία 
CF raz, Μελέα 1). Μελήα h, MeAla i. 

* After σταδίοις, Leaf inserts διακοσίοις καί (ἴ.6. σταδίοισσξ' 
instead of σταδίοισξ'). 

3 Μιλήσιοι, Corais, following Ald., for Μιλησίοιξ. 

4 For αὐτοῖς, moz and Corais read veel: 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 51-53 

Elaea and the rest of the gulf as faras Canae. But 
let me go back and again discuss in detail the 
several places, if anything worthy of mention has 
been passed over; and first of all, Scepsis. 

52. Palaescepsis lies above Cebren near the highest 
part of Mt. Ida, near Polichna; and it was then 
called Scepsis (whether for another reason or from 
the fact that the place is visible all round, if it is 
right to derive from Greek words names then used 
by barbarians),' but later the inhabitants were re- 
moved sixty stadia? lower down to the present 
Scepsis by Scamandrius the son of Hector and 
Ascanius the son of Aeneias; and their two families 
are said to have held the kingship over Scepsis 
for a long time. After this they changed to an 
oligarchy, and then Milesians settled with them as 
fellow-citizens ;* and they began to live under a 
democracy. But the heirs of the royal family none 
the less continued to be called kings and retained 
certain prerogatives. Then the Scepsians were in- 
corporated into Alexandreia by Antigonus; and then 
they were released by Lysimachus and went back to 
their home-land. 

53. Demetrius thinks that Scepsis was also the royal 
residence of Aeneias, since it lies midway between 
the territory subject to Aeneias and Lyrnessus, to 
which latter he fled, according to Homer's state- 
ment, when he was being pursued by Achilles. At 

1 The Greek word ‘‘scepsis’”’ means ‘‘a viewing,” ‘‘an 

* Leaf emends to ‘‘two hundred and sixty stadia” (see 
critical note). 

3 See 14, 1, 6. 



ἢ οὐ μέμνῃ, ὅτε πέρ σε Body ἄπο μοῦνον 
σεῦα κατ᾽ ᾿Ιδαίων ὀρέων ταχέεσσι πόδεσσι, 
κεῖθεν δ᾽ ἐς Λυρνησσὸν ὑπέκφυγες" αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ 
πέρσα, μεθορμηθείς. 
οὐχ ὁμολογεῖ δὲ τῷ περὶ τῶν ἀρχηγετῶν τῆς 
Σκήψεως λόγῳ τῷ λεχθέντι νῦν τὰ περὶ τοῦ 
Αἰνείου θρυλούμενα. περιγενέσθαι γὰρ δὴ τοῦτόν 
φασιν ἐκ τοῦ πολέμου διὰ τὴν πρὸς Πρίαμον 

ἀεὶ γὰρ Πριάμῳ ἐπεμήνιε δίῳ, 
οὕνεκ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἐσθλὸν ἐόντα pet ἀνδράσιν οὔ τι 
τίεσ κε" 

τοὺς δὲ συνάρχοντας ᾿Αντηνορίδας καὶ αὐτὸν τὸν 
᾿Αντήνορα διὰ τὴν Μενελάου παρ᾽ αὐτῷ ἕενίαν. 
C 608 Σοφοκλῆς γοῦν ἐν τῇ ἁλώσει τοῦ Ἰλίου παρδαλέαν 
φησὶ πρὸ τῆς θύρας τοῦ ᾿Αντήνορος προτεθῆναι 
σύμβολον τοῦ ἀπόρθητον ἐαθῆναι τὴν οἰκίαν. 
τὸν μὲν οὖν ᾿Αντήνορα καὶ τοὺς παῖδας μετὰ τῶν 
περιγενομένων  ᾿Ενετῶν εἰς τὴν Θράκην περι- 
σωθῆναι," κἀκεῖθεν διαπεσεῖν εἰς τὴν λεγομένην 
κατὰ τὸν ᾿Αδρίαν ἱΕνετεκήν' τὸν δὲ Αἰνείαν μετ᾽ 
᾿Αγχίσου τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ παιδὸς ᾿Ασκανίου 
λαὸν ἀθροίσαντα πλεῦσαι, καὶ οἱ μὲν οἰκῆσαι 
περὶ τὸν Μακεδονικὸν "Ολυμπόν φασιν, οἱ δὲ 
περὶ Μαντίνειαν τῆς ᾿Αρκαδίας κτίσαι Καπύας, 
ἀπὸ Κάπυος θέμενον τοὔνομα τῷ πολίσματι, οἱ 
δ᾽ εἰς Αἴγεσταν κατᾶραι τῆς Σικελίας σὺν ᾿Ελύ- 

1 περιγενομένων, Rustathius and the editors, for παραγενο- 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 53 

any rate, Achilles says: “ Dost thou not remember 
how from the kine, when thou wast all alone, I 
made thee run down the Idaean mountains with 
swift feet? And thence thou didst escape to 
Lyrnessus, but I rushed in pursuit of thee and 
sacked it.”1 However, the oft-repeated stories of 
Aeneias are not in agreement with the account 
which I have just given of the founders of Scepsis. 
For according to these stories he survived the war 
because of his enmity to Priam: “For always he 
was wroth against goodly Priam, because, although 
he was brave amid warriors, Priam would not honour 
him at all” ;2 and his fellow-rulers, the sons of 
Antenor and Antenor himself, survived because of 
the hospitality shown Menelaiis at Antenor’s house. 
At any rate, Sophocles*® says that at the capture of 
Troy a leopard’s skin was put before the doors of 
Antenor as a sign that his house was to be left 
unpillaged; and Antenor and his children safely 
escaped to Thrace with the survivors of the Heneti, 
and from there got across to the Adriatic Heneticé,4 
as it is called, whereas Aeneias collected a host of 
followers and set sail with his father Anchises and 
his son Ascanius; and some say that he took up his 
abode near the Macedonian Olympus, others that he 
founded Capyae near Mantineia in Arcadia, deriving 
the name he gave the settlement from Capys, and 
others say that he landed at Aegesta in Sicily with 

τ Iliad 20. 188. 2 Iliad 13. 460. 
3 Frag. 10 (Nauck). 
* As distinguished from that in Paphlagonia (see 5. 1. 4). 

μένων Dhi, λεγομένων rwx, . . . νομένων C; word omitted by 
2 For περισωθῆναι Corais reads περαιωθῆναι. 


pot Tpwi καὶ “Epuca καὶ Λιλύβαιον κατασχεῖν, 
καὶ ποταμοὺς περὶ Αἴγεσταν προσαγορεῦσαι δ κά. 
μανδρον καὶ Σιμόεντα" ἔνθεν δ᾽ εἰς τὴν Λατίνην 
ἐλθόντα μεῖναι κατά τι λόγιον τὸ κελεῦοι' μένειν, 
ὅπου ἂν τὴν τράπεζαν καταφάγῃ" συμβῆναι δὲ 
τῆς Λατίνης 5 περὶ τὸ Aaoviviov τοῦτο, ἄρτου 
μεγάλου τεθέντος ἀντὶ τραπέζης κατὰ ἀπορίαν 3 
καὶ ἅμα ἀναλωθέντος τοῖς ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ κρέασιν. 
Ὅμηρος μέντοι συνηγορεῖν οὐδετέροις ἔοικεν, οὐδὲ 
τοῖς περὶ τῶν ἀρχηγετῶν τῆς Σκήψεως λεχθεῖσιν" 
ἐμφαίνει γὰρ μεμενηκότα τὸν Αἰνείαν ἐν τῇ 
Τροίᾳ καὶ διαδεδεγμένον τὴν ἀρχὴν καὶ παρα- 
δεδωκότα παισὶ παίδων τὴν διαδοχὴν αὐτῆς, 
ἠφανισμένου τοῦ τῶν ἸΠριαμιδῶν γένους" 

ἤδη γὰρ Πριάμου γενεὴν ἤχθηρε Kpoviwv: 

νῦν δὲ δὴ Αἰνείαο βίη Τρώεσσιν ἀνάξει 

καὶ παίδων παῖδες, Tot κεν μετόπισθε γέ- 

a > 
οὕτω δ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἡ τοῦ Σκαμανδρίου διαδοχὴ σώζοιτ 
ἄν. πολὺ δὲ μᾶλλον τοῖς ἑτέροις διαφωνεῖ τοῖς 

’ \ 3 ’ > fal \ / / 
μέχρι καὶ ᾿Ιταλίας αὐτοῦ τὴν πλάνην λέγουσι 
καὶ αὐτόθι ποιοῦσι τὴν καταστροφὴν τοῦ βίου. 
τινὲς δὲ γράφουσιν 

Αἰνείαο γένος πάντεσσιν ἀνάξει, 
καὶ παῖδες παίδων, 
τοὺς Ρωμαίους λέγοντες. 
54. Ἔκ δὲ τῆς Σκήψεως οἵ τε Σωκρατικοὶ 

1 Ἑλύμῳ F, Ἐλύμνῳ other MSS, 
2 Instead of τῆς Λατίνης, D(pr. man.)irw have τοῖς Λατίνοις, 
moz ἐν τῇ Aativy. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 53-54 

Elymus the Trojan and took possession of Eryx 
and Lilybaeum, and gave the names Scamander and 
Simoeis to rivers near Aegesta, and that thence he 
went into the Latin country and made it his abode, 
in accordance with an oracle which bade him 
abide where he should eat up his table, and that 
this took place in the Latin country in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lavinium, where a large loaf of bread 
was put down for a table, for want of a better table, 
and eaten up along with the meats upon it. Homer, 
however, appears not to be in agreement with either 
of the two stories, nor yet with the above account 
of the founders of Scepsis; for he clearly indicates 
that Aeneias remained in Troy and succeeded to the 
empire and bequeathed the succession thereto to 
his sons’ sons, the family of the Priamidae having 
been wiped out: “ For already the race of Priam was 
hated by the son of Cronus; and now verily the 
mighty Aeneias will rule over the Trojans, and his 
sons’ sons that are hereafter to be born.””"? And in 
this case one cannot even save from rejection the 
succession of Scamandrius.2, And Homer is in far 
greater disagreement with those who speak of 
Aeneias as having wandered even as far as Italy 
and make him die there. Some write, “the family 
of Aeneias will rule over all,? and his sons’ sons,” 
meaning the Romans. 

54. From Scepsis came the Socratic philosophers 

1 Iliad 20. 306. 

2 The son of Hector, who, along with Ascanius, was said 
to have been king of Scepsis (§ 52). 

3 i.e. they emend ‘‘ Trojans” (Τρώεσσιν) to “all” (πάντεσ- 
σιν) in the Homeric passage. 

8 ἀπορίαν, Casaubon, for ἀπειρίαν ; so the later editors. 


γεγόνασιν “Epaotos καὶ Κορίσκος καὶ ὁ τοῦ 
Κορίσκου υἱὸς Νηλεύς, ἀνὴρ καὶ ᾿Αριστοτέλους 
ἠκροαμένος καὶ Θεοφράστου, διαδεδεγμένος δὲ 
τὴν βιβλιοθήκην τοῦ Θεοφράστου, ἐν ἣ ἦν καὶ 
ἡ τοῦ ᾿Αριστοτέλους" ὁ γοῦν ᾿Αριστοτέλης τὴν 
ἑαυτοῦ Θεοφράστῳ παρέδωκεν, ᾧπερ καὶ τὴν 
σχολὴν ἀπέλιπε, πρῶτος, ὧν ἴσμεν, συναγαγὼν 
βιβλία καὶ διδάξας τοὺς ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ βασιλέας 
C 609 βιβλιοθήκης σύνταξιν. Θεόφραστος δὲ Νηλεῖ 
παρέδωκεν: ὁ δ᾽ εἰς Σκῆψιν κομίσας τοῖς μετ᾽ 
αὐτὸν παρέδωκεν, ἰδιώταις ἀνθρώποις, οἱ κατά- 
κλειστα εἶχον τὰ βιβλία, οὐδ᾽ ἐπιμελῶς κείμενα" 
ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἤσθοντο τὴν σπουδὴν τῶν ᾿Ατταλικῶν 
βασιλέων, ὑφ᾽ οἷς ἦν ἡ πόλις, ζητούντων βιβλία 
εἰς τὴν κατασκευὴν τῆς ἐν Περγάμῳ βιβλιοθήκης, 
κατὰ γῆς ἔκρυψαν ἐν διώρυγί τινι ὑπὸ δὲ νοτίας 
καὶ σητῶν κακωθέντα ὀψέ ποτε ἀπέδοντο οἱ ἀπὸ 
τοῦ γένους ᾿Απελλικῶντι τῷ Τηίῳ πολλῶν 
ἀργυρίων τά τε ᾿Αριστοτέλους καὶ τὰ τοῦ 
Θεοφράστου βιβλία: ἣν δὲ ὁ ᾿Απελλικῶν φιλό- 
βιβλος μᾶλλον ἢ φιλόσοφος" διὸ καὶ ἕξητῶν 
ἐπανόρθωσιν τῶν διαβρωμάτων εἰς ἀντίγραφα 
καινὰ μετήνεγκε τὴν γραφήν, ἀναπληρῶν ovK 
εὖ, καὶ ἐξέδωκεν ἁμαρτάδων πλήρη τὰ βιβλία. 
συνέβη δὲ τοῖς ἐκ τῶν περιπάτων τοῖς μὲν πάλαι 
τοῖς μετὰ Θεόφραστον οὐκ ἔχουσιν ὅλως τὰ 
βιβλία πλὴν ὀλίγων, καὶ μάλιστα τῶν ἐξω- 
τερικῶν, μηδὲν ἔχειν φιλοσοφεῖν πραγματικῶς, 
ἀλλὰ θέσεις ληκυθίζειν: τοῖς δ᾽ ὕστερον, ἀφ᾽ 
οὗ τὰ βιβλία ταῦτα προῆλθεν, ἄμεινον μὲν 

1 Strabo refers to Eumenes II, who reigned 197-159 8,0, 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 54 

Erastus and Coriscus and Neleus the son of Coriscus, 
this last a man who not only was a pupil of Aristotle 
and Theophrastus, but also inherited the library of 
Theophrastus, which included that of Aristotle. At 
any rate, Aristotle bequeathed his own library to 
Theophrastus, to whom he also left his school; and 
he is the first man. so far as I know, to have collected 
books and to have taught the kings in Egypt how to 
arrange a library. Theophrastus bequeathed it to 
Neleus; and Neleus took it to Scepsis and be- 
queathed it to his heirs, ordinary people, who kept 
the books locked up and not even carefully stored. 
But when they heard how zealously the Attalic 
kings! to whom the city was subject were searching 
for books to build up the library in Pergamum, they 
hid their books underground in a kind of trench. 
But much later, when the books had been damaged 
by moisture and moths, their descendants sold them 
to Apellicon? of Teos for a large sum of money, both 
the books of Aristotle and those of Theophrastus. 
But Apellicon was a bibliophile rather than a philo- 
sopher; and therefore, seeking a restoration of the 
parts that had been eaten through, he made new 
copies of the text, filling up the gaps incorrectly, and 
published the books full of errors. The result was 
that the earlier school of Peripatetics who came after 
Theophrastus had no books at all, with the exception 
of only a few, mostly exoteric works, and were there- 
fore able to philosophise about nothing in a practical 
way, but only to talk bombast about commonplace 
propositions, whereas the later school, from the time 
the books in question appeared, though better able 

2 Died about 84 5.6. 


ἐκείνων φιλοσοφεῖν καὶ ἀριστοτελίξειν, ἀναγκά- 
ζεσθαι μέντοι τὰ πολλὰ εἰκότα λέγειν διὰ τὸ 
πλῆθος τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν. πολὺ δὲ εἰς τοῦτο καὶ 
ἡ Ῥώμη προσελάβετο' εὐθὺς γὰρ μετὰ τὴν 
᾿Απελλικῶντος τελευτὴν Σύλλας ἦρε τὴν ᾿Απελ- 
λικῶντος βιβλιοθήκην ὁ τὰς ᾿Αθήνας ἑλών, 
δεῦρο δὲ κομισθεῖσαν Tupavviwy τε ὁ γραμματικὸς 
διεχειρίσατο φιλαριστοτέλης ὦν, θεραπεύσας τὸν 
ἐπὶ τῆς βιβλιοθήκης, καὶ βιβλιοπῶλαί τινες 
γραφεῦσι φαύλοις χρώμενον καὶ οὐκ ἀντι- 
βάλλοντες, ὅπερ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων συμβαίνει 
τῶν εἰς πρᾶσιν γραφομένων βιβλίων καὶ ἐνθάδε 
καὶ ἐν ᾿Αλεξανδρείᾳ. περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων ἀπόχρη. 

55. "Ex δὲ τῆς Σκήψεως καὶ ὁ Δημήτριός 
ἐστιν, οὗ μεμνήμεθα πολλάκις, ὁ τὸν Τρωικὸν 
διάκοσμον ἐξηγησάμενος γραμματικός, κατὰ τὸν 
αὐτὸν χρόνον γεγονὼς Κράτητι καὶ ᾿Αριστάρχῳ' 
καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο M ἡτρόδωρος, ἀνὴρ ἐκ τοῦ 
φιλοσόφου μεταβεβληκὼς ἐπὶ τὸν πολιτικὸν 
βίον καὶ ᾿ῥητορεύων τὸ πλέον ἐν τοῖς συγγράμ- 
μασιν' ἐχρήσατο δὲ φράσεώς τινι χαρακτῆρι 
καινῷ καὶ κατεπλήξατο πολλούς" διὰ δὲ τὴν 
δόξαν ἐν Χαλκηδόνι γάμου λαμπροῦ πένης ἂν 
ἔτυχε καὶ ἐχρημάτιζε Χαλκηδόνιος" Μιθριδάτην 
δὲ θεραπεύσας τὸν Εὐπάτορα συναπῆρεν εἰς τὸν 
Πόντον ἐκείνῳ μετὰ τῆς γυναικὸς καὶ ἐτιμήθη 

C 610 διαφερόντως, ταχθεὶς ἐ ἐπὶ τῆς δικαιοδοσίας, ἀφ᾽ 3 

ἧς οὐκ ἣν τῷ κριθέντε ἀναβολὴ 3 τῆς δίκης ἐπὶ 
τὸν βασιλέα. οὐ μέντοι διηυτύχησεν, ἀλλ᾽ 

1 Instead of κατεπλήξατο, F reads κατεπλήξαντο, moxz κατέ- 
πληξε (so Corais, who inserts τούς before πολλού5). 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 54-55 

to philosophise and Aristotelise, were forced to call 
most of their statements probabilities, because of 
the large number of errors.1_ Rome also contributed 
much to this; for, immediately after the death of 
Apellicon, Sulla, who had captured Athens, carried 
off Apellicon’s library to Rome, where Tyrannion the 
grammarian, who was fond of Aristotle, got it in his 
hands by paying court to the librarian, as did also 
certan booksellers who used bad copyists and would 
not collate the texts—a thing that also takes place 
in the case of the other books that are copied for 
selling, both here? and at Alexandria. However, 
this is enough about these men. 

55. From Scepsis came also Demetrius, whom I 
often mention, the grammarian who wrote a com- 
mentary on The Marshalling of the Trojan Forces, and 
was born at about the same time as Crates and 
Aristarchus; and later, Metrodorus, a man who 
changed from his pursuit of philosophy to political 
life, and taught rhetoric, for the most part, in his 
written works; and he used a brand-new style and 
dazzled many. On account of his reputation he 
succeeded, though a poor man, in marrying brilliantly 
in Chalcedon; and he passed for a Chalcedonian. 
And having paid court to Mithridates Eupator, he 
with his wife sailed away with him to Pontus; and 
he was treated with exceptional honour, being 
appointed to the judgeship from which there was no 
appeal to the king. However, his good fortune did 

1 7.e. errors in the available texts of Aristotle. 
2 2,4. at Rome. 

2 ag’, Casaubon, for ἐφ᾽ ; so the later editors. 
8 ἀναβολή, Casaubon, for βουλή ; so the later editors. 



ἐμπεσὼν εἰς ἔχθραν ἀδικωτέρων ἀνθρώπων 
ἀπέστη τοῦ βασιλέως κατὰ τὴν πρὸς Τιγράνην 
τὸν ᾿Αρμένιον πρεσβείαν: ὁ δ᾽ ἄκοντα ἀνέπεμψεν 
αὐτὸν τῷ Εὐπάτορι, φεύγοντι ἤδη τὴν προγονικήν, 
κατὰ δὲ τὴν ὁδὸν κατέστρεψε τὸν βίον εἴθ᾽ ὑπὸ 
τοῦ βασιλέως, εἴθ᾽ ὑπὸ νόσου: λέγεται yap 
ἀμφότερα. περὶ μὲν τῶν Σκηψίων ταῦτα. 

56. Μετὰ δὲ Σκῆψιν Ανδειρα καὶ Πιονίαι 
καὶ ἡ Γαργαρίς. ἔστι δὲ λίθος περὶ τὰ ΓΑνδειρα, 
ὃς καιόμενος σίδηρος γίνεται" εἶτα μετὰ γῆς τινὸς 
καμινευθεὶς ἀποστάζει ψευδάργυρον, ἣ προσλα- 
βοῦσα χαλκὸν τὸ καλούμενον γίνεται κρᾶμα, ὅ 
τινες ὀρείχαλκον καλοῦσι" γίνεται δὲ ψευδάργυρος 
καὶ περὶ τὸν μῶλον. ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὰ χωρία, 
ἃ οἱ Λέλεγες κατεῖχον" ὡς δ᾽ αὕτως καὶ τὰ περὶ 

57. "ἔστι δὲ ἡ ἴΑσσος ἐρυμνὴ καὶ εὐτειχής, 
ἀπὸ θαλάττης καὶ τοῦ λιμένος ὀρθίαν καὶ μακρὰν 
ἀνάβασιν ἔχουσα" ὥστ᾽ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῆς οἰκείως εἰρῆσθαι 
δοκεῖ τὸ τοῦ Στρατονίκου τοῦ κιθαριστοῦ" 

"Accor ἴθ᾽, ὥς κεν θᾶσσον ὀλέθρου πείραθ᾽ 

ὁ δὲ λιμὴν χώματι κατεσκεύασται μεγάλῳ. 
> ΄σ ΕΥ ᾽ὕ ς \ / ε 
ἐντεῦθεν ἣν Κλεάνθης, ὁ στωικὸς φιλόσοφος ὁ 
διαδεξάμενος τὴν Ζήνωνος τοῦ Κιτιέως σχολήν, 

\ \ r / fal n Ε “ \ 
καταλιπὼν δὲ Χρυσίππῳ τῷ Σολεῖ: ἐνταῦθα δὲ 

\? / / \ \ \ c / 

καὶ ᾿Αριστοτέλης διέτριψε διὰ τὴν πρὸς “Eppetav 
τὸν τύραννον κηδείαν. ἣν δὲ “Ἑρμείας εὐνοῦχος, 
τραπεζίτου τινὸς οἰκέτης γενόμενος δ᾽ ᾿Αθήνησιν 

1 Instead of ἔάνδειρα, DERi and Epit. read ἴΑνδηρα. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 55-57 

not continue, but he incurred the enmity of men less 
just than himself and revolted from the king when 
he was on the embassy to Tigranes the Armenian. 
And Tigranes sent him back against his will to 
Eupator, who was already in flight from his ancestral 
realm; but Metrodorus died on the way, whether by 
order of the king? or from disease; for both accounts 
are given of his death. So much for the Scepsians. 

56. After Scepsis come Andeira and Pioniae and 
the territory of Gargara. There is a stone in the 
neighbourhood of Andeira which, when burned, 
becomes iron, and then, when heated in a furnace 
with a certain earth, distils mock-silver ;* and this, 
with the addition of copper, makes the “ mixture,” 
as it is called, which by some is called “ mountain- 
copper.’ * These are the places which the Leleges 
occupied ; and the same is true of the places in the 
neighbourhood of Assus. 

57. Assus is by nature strong and well-fortified ; 
and the ascent to it from the sea and the harbour is 
very steep and long, so that the statement of 
Stratonicus the citharist in regard to it seems appro- 
priate: ‘‘Go to Assus, in order that thou mayest 
more quickly come to the doom of death.”® The 
harbour is formed by a great mole. From Assus 
came Cleanthes, the Stoic philosopher who succeeded 
Zeno of Citium as head of the school and left it to 
Chrysippus of Soli. Here too Aristotle tarried, 
because of his relationship by marriage with the 
tyrant Hermeias. Hermeias was a eunuch, the slave 
of a certain banker ;® and on his arrival at Athens he 

1 For the story see Plutarch, Lucullus 22. 2 Tigranes. 

3. ἡ, ὁ. zinc. * The Latin term is orichalewm. 

° A precise quotation of Jliad 6. 143 except that Homer’s 

ἄσσον ((** nearer”) is changed to ἴΑσσον (‘‘ to Assus”). 
5 Eubulus. 




ἠκροάσατο καὶ Πλάτωνος καὶ ᾿Αριστοτέλους" 
ἐπανελθὼν δὲ τῷ δεσπότῃ συνετυράννησε, πρῶτον 
ἐπιθεμένῳ τοῖς περὶ ᾿Αταρνέα καὶ Ασσον 
χωρίοις" ἔπειτα διεδέξατο ἐκεῖνον, καὶ μετε- 
πέμψατο τόν τε ᾿Αριστοτέλην καὶ Ἐενοκράτην 
καὶ ἐπεμελήθη αὐτῶν' τῷ δ᾽ ᾿Αριστοτέλει καὶ 
θυγατέρα ἀδελφοῦ συνῴκισε. Μέμνων δ΄. ὁ 
Ῥόδιος ὑπηρετῶν τότε τοῖς Πέρσαις καὶ ᾿ στρατη- 
γῶν, προσποιησάμενος φιλίαν καλεῖ πρὸς ἑαυτὸν 
ξενίας τε ἅμα καὶ πραγμάτων προσποιητῶν 
χάριν, συλλαβὼν δ᾽ cueweutioae ὡς τὸν a eg 
κἀκεῖ κρεμασθεὶς ἀπώλετο" i φιλόσοφοι ὃ 
ἐσώθησαν, φεύγοντες τὰ Ἀμάν τ ἃ οἱ Ilépoac 

58. Φησὶ δὲ Μυρσίλος Μηθυμναίων κτίσμα 
εἶναι τὴν λσσον, ‘EXXaviKds τε καὶ Αἰολίδα 
φησίν, ὥσπερ 3 καὶ τὰ Γάργαρα καὶ ἡ Λαμπωνία 
Αἰολέων. ᾿Ασσίων γάρ ἐστι κτίσμα τὰ Γάργαρα, 
οὐκ εὖ συνοικούμενα" ἐποίκους “γὰρ οἱ βασιλεῖς 
εἰσήγαγον ἐκ Μιλητουπόλεως, ἐρημώσαντες ἐκεί- 
νην, ὥστε ἡμιβαρβάρους γενέσθαι φησὶ Δημήτριος 
αὐτοὺς ὁ Σκήψιος ἀντὶ Αἰολέων. καθ᾽ Ὅμηρον 
μέντοι ταῦτα πάντα ἣν Λελέγων, οὕς τινες μὲν 
Κᾶρας ἀποφαίνουσιν, Ὅμηρος δὲ χωρίζει. 

πρὸς μὲν ἁλὸς Κᾶρες καὶ Παίονες ἀγκυλότοξοι 
καὶ Λέλεγες καὶ Καύκωνες. 

Ψ \ / lal a e n » Ν 
ἕτεροι μὲν τοίνυν τῶν Καρῶν ὑπῆρξαν: ῴκουν δὲ 

1 Instead of ἅμα, moz read ὀνόματι. 
2 ὥσπερ, Meineke, for és re; others omit re. 

1 The historian of Methymna, who appears to have 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 57-58 

became a pupil of both Plato and Aristotle. On his 
return he shared the tyranny with his master, who 
had already laid hold of the districts of Atarneus and 
Assus; and then Hermeias succeeded him and sent 
for both Aristotle and Xenocrates and took care of 
them; and he also married his brother's daughter to 
Aristotle. Memnon of Rhodes, who was at that 
time serving the Persians as general, made a pre- 
tence of friendship for Hermeias, and then invited 
him to come for a visit, both in the name of hos- 
pitality and at the same time for pretended business 
reasons ; but he arrested him and sent him up to the 
king, where he was put to death by hanging. But 
the philosophers safely escaped by flight from the 
districts above-mentioned, which were seized by the 

58. Myrsilus! says that Assus was founded by 
the Methymnaeans; and Hellanicus too calls it an 
Aeolian city, just as also Gargara and Lamponia 
belonged to the Aeolians. For Gargara was founded 
by the Assians; but it was not well peopled, for the 
kings brought into it colonists from Miletopolis when 
they devastated that city, so that instead of Aeolians, 
according to Demetrius of Scepsis, the inhabitants 
of Gargara became semi-barbarians. According to 
Homer, however, all these places belonged to the 
Leleges, who by some are represented to be Carians, 
although by Homer they are mentioned apart: “ To- 
wards the sea are the Carians and the Paeonians 
of the curved bow and the Leleges and the 
Cauconians.”’? They were therefore a different 
people from the Carians; and they lived between 

flourished about 300 3B.c.; only fragments of his works 
remain, 2 Iliad 10, 428. 



\ A © \ a > / \ A / 
μεταξὺ τῶν ὑπὸ τῷ Αἰνείᾳ καὶ τῶν καλουμένων 
ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ Κιλίκων" ἐκπορθηθέντες δὲ ὑπὸ 
τοῦ ᾿Αχιλλέως μετέστησαν εἰς τὴν Kapiav, καὶ 
κατέσχον τὰ περὶ τὴν νῦν ᾿Αλικαρνασὸν ' χωρΐἴα. 

59. Ἢ μέντοι νῦν ἐκλειφθεῖσα ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν πόλις 
Πήδασος οὐκέτ᾽ ἐστίν. ἐν δὲ τῇ μεσογαίᾳ τῶν 
‘A ΄ 2 \ Π δ eta φ' Alias 

λικαρνασέων“ τὰ Ilnoaca ὑπ αὑτῶν ὀνο- 

-“" Al 

μασθέντα ἣν πόλις, Kal ἡ νῦν χώρα Πηδασὶς 
λέγεται. φασὶ δ᾽ ἐν αὐτῇ καὶ ὀκτὼ πόλεις 
ὠκίσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν Λελέγων πρότερον εὐανδρη- 
σάντων, ὥστε καὶ τῆς Καρίας κατασχεῖν τῆς 
μέχρι Μύνδου καὶ Βαργυλίων, καὶ τῆς 1Πισιδίας 
ἀποτεμέσθαι πολλήν. ὕστερον δ᾽ ἅμα τοῖς Καρσὶ 
στρατευόμενοι κατεμερίσθησαν εἰς ὅλην τὴν 
em / \ > , \ ΄ a » \ 
Ελλάδα καὶ ἠφανίσθη τὸ γένος, τῶν δ᾽ ὀκτὼ 

/ \ a ΄ > , \ c 
πόλεων τὰς ἕξ Μαύσωλος εἰς μίαν τὴν ᾿Αλι- 
καρνασὸν ὃ συνήγαγεν, ὡς Καλλισθένης ἱστορεῖ" 
Συάγγελα ὁ δὲ καὶ Μύνδον διεφύλαξε. τοῖς δὲ 

- \ ¢ 
Πηδασεῦσι τούτοις φησὶν Ἡρόδοτος ὅτε μέλλοι 
τι ἀνεπιτήδειον ὅ ἔσεσθαι καὶ τοῖς περιοίκοις, τὴν 
ἱέρειαν τῆς ᾿Αθηνᾶς πώγωνα ἴσχειν" ὃ τρὶς δὲ 
συμβῆναι τοῦτο αὐτοῖς. ἸΠήδασον Ἷ δὲ καὶ ἐν τῇ 
νῦν Στρατονικέων πολίχνιόν ἐστιν. ἐν ὅλῃ δὲ 

1 "Αλικαρνασόν, Dhxz, ᾿Αλικαρνασσόν other MSS. 

3 "Αλικαρνασσέων CF ; ᾿Αλικαρνασέων other MSS, 

8 ᾿Αλικαρνασσόν, all MSS., but see two preceding notes ; 
also see 8. 6. 14 (where all MSS. have ᾿Αλικαρνασόν) and 
14. 2. 16. 

4 Sudyyeaa, Kramer, for συναγέλα CDz, σὺν ἀγέλαι hmowz, 
συναγελας F (Σουάγελα Tzschucke and Corais, from conj. of 
Casaubon) ; so Miiller-Diibner, Meineke, and ᾿ 

5 ἀνεπιτήδειον, Xylander, for ἐπιτήδειον; so the later 

ὃ ἴσχειν, Corais, for σχεῖν ; so the later editors, 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 58-59. 

the people subject to Aeneias and the people whom 
the poet called Cilicians, but when they were pillaged 
by Achilles they migrated to Caria and took posses- 
sion of the district round the present Halicarnassus.! 

59. However, the city Pedasus, now abandoned 
by them, is no longer in existence; but in the 
inland territory of the Halicarnassians there used to 
be a city Pedasa, so named by them; and the present 
territory is called Pedasis. It is said that as many 
as eight cities were settled in this territory by the 
Leleges, who in earlier times were so numerous that 
they not only took possession of that part of Caria 
which extends to Myndus and Bargylia, but also cut 
off for themselves a large portion of Pisidia. But later, 
when they went out on expeditions with the Carians, 
they became distributed throughout the whole of 
Greece, and the tribe disappeared. Of the eight 
cities, Mausolus? united six into one city, Halicarnas- 
sus, as Callisthenes tells us, but kept Syangela and 
Myndus as they were. These are the Pedasians of 
whom Herodotus? says that when any misfortune was 
about to come upon them and their neighbours, the 
priestess of Athena would grow a beard; and that 
this happened to them three times. And there is also 
a small town called Pedasum in the present territory 
of Stratoniceia. And throughout the whole of Caria 

1 Cf. 7.7.2. On the variant spellings of ‘‘ Halicarnas(s)us” 
see critical note. 

2 King of Caria 377-353 B.c. The first ‘‘ Mausoleum” was 
so named after him. 

3 1. 175, 8. 104. 

7 Instead of Πήδασον, moz have Πήδασος (see Stephanus, 8.0. 


C 612 


Καρίᾳ καὶ ἐν Μιλήτῳ Λελέγων τάφοι καὶ épv- 
ματα καὶ ἴχνη κατοικιῶν δείκνυται. 

60. Μετὰ δὲ τοὺς Λέλεγας τὴν ἑξῆς παραλίαν 
κουν Κίλικες καθ᾽ Ὅμηρον, ἣν νῦν ἔχουσιν 
᾿Αδραμυττηνοΐ τε καὶ ᾿Αταρνεῖται καὶ Πιταναῖοι 
μέχρι τῆς ἐκβολῆς τοῦ Καΐκου. διήρηντο δ᾽ εἰς 
δύο δυναστείας οἱ Κίλικες, καθάπερ εἴπομεν, τήν 
τε ὑπὸ τῷ Ἠετίωνι καὶ τὴν ὑπὸ Μύνητι. 

61. Τοῦ μὲν οὖν ᾿Ηετίωνος λέγει πόλεν Θήβην" 

5] , ee | / e \ “id ᾽ , 

ὠχόμεθ᾽ ἐς Θήβην ἱερὴν πόλιν ᾿Ηετίωνος. 

/ δὲ \ \ / \ v 2 \ 
τούτου δὲ καὶ τὴν Χρύσαν τὴν Exovcav? τὸ 
e \ a / , Ud > / Μ 
ἱερὸν τοῦ Σμινθέως ᾿Απόλλωνος ἐμφαίνει, εἴπερ 
ἡ Χρυσηὶς ἐκ τῆς Θήβης ἑάλω" 

ὠχόμεθα γάρ, φησίν, ἐς Θήβην, 

\ / / \ ’ / la 
τὴν δὲ διεπραάθομέν τε Kal ἤγομεν ἐνθάδε πάντα, 
καὶ τὰ μὲν εὖ δάσσαντο μετὰ σφίσιν, 

b > of. ’ / / 

ἐκ δ᾽ ἕλον ᾿Ατρείδῃ Χρυσηίδα. 

a \ ΄, \ / b \ 
τοῦ δὲ Μύνητος τὴν Λυρνησσόν' ἐπειδὴ 

Λυρνησσὸν διαπορθήσας καὶ τείχεα Θήβης 
tov τε Μύνητα καὶ τὸν ᾿᾿ῇ7πίστροφον ἀνεῖλεν 
’ 4 Ὁ“ cd lel ς ’ὔ 
Αχιλλεύς: ὥστε, ὅταν φῇ ἡ Bptonis, 

οὐδέ μ᾽ ἔασκες, ὅτ᾽ ἄνδρ᾽ ἐμὸν ὠκὺς ᾿Αχιλλεὺς 
ἔκτεινεν, πέρσεν δὲ πόλιν θείοιο Μύνητος, 
οὐ τὴν Θήβην λέγοι ἄν (αὕτη γὰρ ᾿Ηετίωνος), 
> \ \ / > ld ’ Ss > A 
ἀλλὰ τὴν Λυρνησσόν' ἀμφότεραι δ᾽ ἦσαν ἐν τῷ 
κληθέντι μετὰ ταῦτα Θήβης πεδίῳ, ὃ διὰ τὴν 
ἀρετὴν περιμάχητον γενέσθαι φασὶ Μυσοῖς μὲν 

1 ἐν Μιλήτῳ, omitted by Dhi. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 59-61 

and in Miletus are to be seen tombs, fortifications, 
and traces of settlements of the Leleges. 

60. After the Leleges, on the next stretch of coast, 
lived the Cilicians, according to Homer; I mean the 
stretch of coast now held by the Adramytteni and 
Atarneitae and Pitanaei, as far as the outlet of the 
Caicus. The Cilicians, as I have said,! were divided 
into two dynasties,” one subject to Eétion and one to 

61. Now Homer calls Thebé the city of EKétion: 
*‘We went into Thebé, the sacred city of Eétion”’ ; 8 
and he clearly indicates that also Chrysa, which had 
the temple of Sminthian Apollo, belonged to Eétion, 
if it be true that Chryseis was taken captive at Thebé, 
for he says, ‘‘ We went into Thebé, and laid it waste 
and brought hither all the spoil. And this they 
divided aright among themselves, but they chose 
out Chryseis for the son of Atreus”;4 and that 
Lyrnessus belonged to Mynes, since Achilles “laid 
waste Lyrnessus and the walls of Thebé’’5 and slew 
both Mynes and Epistrophus; so that when Briseis 
says, “thou wouldst not even let me,® when swift 
Achilles slew my husband and sacked the city of 
divine Mynes,’? Homer cannot mean Thebé (for 
this belonged to Eétion), but Lyrnessus. Both were 
situated in what was afterwards called the Plain of 
Thebé, which, on account of its fertility, is said to 
have been an object of contention between the 

1 13. 1. 7, 49. 2 But cf. 13. 1. 70. 
3 Iliad 1. 366. 4 Iliad 1. 366 ff. 

5 Tliad 2. 691. ὁ sc. “weep.” 

7 Iliad 19. 295. 

2 τὴν ἔχουσαν, added from moz, 
VOL. VI. E 91 


καὶ Λυδοῖς τὸ πρότερον, τοῖς δ᾽ “Ἕλλησιν ὕστερον 
τοῖς ἐποικήσασιν ἐκ τῆς Αἰολίδος καὶ τῆς Λέσβου. 
ΝΜ \ r ᾽ \ \ / ΕῚ lol 
ἔχουσι δὲ viv ᾿Αδραμυττηνοὶ τὸ πλέον" ἐνταῦθα 
yap καὶ ἡ Θήβη καὶ ἡ Λυρνησσός, ἐρυμνὸν 
, Μ > , , PD 9 

χωρίον" ἔρημοι δ᾽ ἀμφότεραι" διέχουσι δὲ ᾿Αδρα- 
μυττίου σταδίους ἡ μὲν ἑξήκοντα, ἡ δὲ ὀγδοήκοντα 
καὶ ὀκτὼ ἐπὶ θάτερα.3 

62. Ἔν δὲ τῇ ᾿Αδραμυττηνῇ ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ Χρῦσα 
καὶ ἡ Κίλλα' πλησίον οὖν τῆς Θήβης ere? νῦν 
Κίλλα τις τόπος λέγεται. ἐν ᾧ Κιλλαίου ® ᾿Απόλ- 
λωνός ἐστιν ἱερόν: παραρρεῖ δ᾽ αὐτῷ ἐξ Ἴδης 

e lal 

φερόμενος ὁ Κίλλαιοςθ ποταμός" ταῦτα 8 ἐστὶ 

\ \ > ’ \ \ > \ 
kata τὴν ᾿Αντανδρίαν' καὶ τὸ ἐν Λέσβῳ δὲ 
Κίώλλαιον ἀπὸ ταύτης τῆς Κίλλης ὠνόμασται" 
Μ \ \ / Μ \ ͵ \ 
ἔστι δὲ καὶ Κίλλαιον ὄρος μεταξὺ Γαργάρων καὶ 
᾿Αντάνδρου. φησὶ δὲ Δάης ὁ Κολωναεὺς ἐν 
Κολωναῖς ἱδρυθῆναι πρῶτον ὑπὸ τῶν ἐκ τῆς 
“Ελλάδος πλευσάντων Αἰολέων τὸ τοῦ Κιλλαίου 
᾽ , « / \ ᾽ 4 \ / 
Απόλλωνος ἱερόν: καὶ ἐν Χρύσῃ δὲ λέγουσι 
Κώλλαιον ᾿Απόλλωνα ἱδρῦσθαι, ἄδηλον, εἴτε τὸν 
αὐτὸν τῷ Σμινθεῖ, εἴθ᾽ ἕτερον. 

63. Ἢ δὲ Χρῦσα ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ πολίχνιον ἦν 
ἔχον λιμένα, πλησίον δὲ ὑπέρκειται ἡ Θήβη: 
> “ ᾽ 95 \ \ ς \ “ ἢ 7 > / 
ἐνταῦθα δ᾽ ἦν Kal TO ἱερὸν τοῦ Σμινθέως ᾿Απόλ- 

1 τό, before πρότερον, Meineke, for τοῖς. Corais omits the 
τοῖς, and so Leaf. 

2 Leaf omits the words καὶ ὀκτὼ ἐπὶ θάτερα (see his critical 
note on text, p. 36). 

3 ἔτι, Meineke, for ἔστι. 

4 Instead of λέγεται, moz read λεγόμενος. 

5 Κιλλαίου, Casaubon and later editors, for Κιλλεούς C, 
Κιλλέους Dhrur, Κιλλεός F, Κιλλέου mozxz. 

6 “Κίχλαιος, Kramer and later editors, for KiAAeds F, Κίλλεος 
other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 61-63 

Mysians and Lydians in earlier times, and later 
between the Greeks who colonised it from Aeolis 
and Lesbos. But the greater part of it is now held 
by the Adramytteni, for here lie both Thebé and 
Lyrnessus, the latter a natural stronghold; but both 
places are deserted. From Adramyttium the former 
is distant sixty stadia and the latter eighty-eight, 
in opposite directions. 

62. In the territory of Adramyttium lie also 
Chrysa and Cilla. At any rate there is still to-day 
a place near Thebé called Cilla, where is a temple 
of the Cillaean Apollo; and the Cillaeus River, 
which runs from Mt. Ida, flows past it. These 
places lie near the territory of Antandrus. The 
Cillaeum in Lesbos is named after this Cilla; and 
there is also a Mt. Cillaeum between Gargara and 
Antandrus. Daés of Colonae says that the temple 
of the Cillaean Apollo was first founded in Colonae 
by the Aeolians who sailed from Greece ; it is also 
said that a temple of Cillaean Apollo was established 
at Chrysa, though it is not clear whether he is the 
same as the Sminthian Apollo or distinct from him. 

63. Chrysa was a small town on the sea, with a 
harbour; and near by, above it, lies Thebé. Here 
too was the temple of the Sminthian Apollo; and 

1 The site of Thebé has been definitely identified with 
that of the modern Edremid (see Leaf, p. 322). But that of 
Lyrnessus is uncertain. Leaf (p. 308), regarding the text as 
corrupt, reads merely ‘“‘eighty” instead of ‘ eighty-eight,” 
and omits ‘‘in opposite directions” (see critical note). 

7 Κίλλαιον, Tzschucke and later editors, for Κιλλέου ; and 
so in the three subsequent instances the MSS. have « instead 
of at. 



Awvos Kai ἡ Xpvoniss ἠρήμωται δὲ νῦν TO χωρίον 
τελέως" εἰς δὲ τὴν νῦν Χρῦσαν τὴν κατὰ Apakerov 
μεθίδρυται τὸ ἱερὸν τῶν Κιλίκων τῶν μὲν εἰς τὴν 
Παμφυλίαν ἐκπεσόντων, τῶν δὲ εἰς ᾿Αμαξιτόν. 
οἱ δ᾽ ἀπειρότεροι τῶν παλαιῶν ἱστοριῶν ἐνταῦθα 
τὸν Χρύσην καὶ τὴν Χρυσηίδα γεγονέναι φασὶ 
καὶ τὸν Ὅμηρον τούτου τοῦ τόπου μεμνῆσθαι. 
ἀλλ᾽ οὔτε λιμήν ἐστιν ἐνταῦθα, ἐκεῖνος δέ φησιν" 
οἱ δ᾽ ὅτε δὴ λιμένος πολυβενθέος ἐντὸς ἵκοντο. 
οὔτ᾽ ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ τὸ ἱερόν ἐστιν, ἐκεῖνος δ᾽ ἐπὶ 
θαλάττῃ ποιεῖ τὸ ἱερόν" 
ἐκ δὲ Χρυσηὶς νηὸς βῆ ποντοπόροιο" 
Ο018 τὴν μὲν ἔπειτ᾽ ἐπὶ βωμὸν ἄγων πολύμητις 
\ / > / 
πατρὶ φίλῳ ἐν χερσὶ τίθει" 

οὐδὲ Θήβης πλησίον, ἐκεῖνος δὲ πλησίον' ἐκεῖθεν 
γοῦν ἁλοῦσαν λέγει τὴν Χρυσηίδα. ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ 
Κίλλα τόπος οὐδεὶς ἐν τῇ ᾿Αλεξανδρέων χώρᾳ 
δείκνυται, οὐδὲ Κιλλαίου ᾿Απόλλωνος ἱερόν" ὁ 
ποιητὴς δὲ συζεύγνυσιν" 

ὃς Χρύσην ἀμφιβέβηκας 
Κώλλαν τε ζαθέην" 
ἐν δὲ τῷ Θήβης πεδίῳ δείκνυται πλησίον" ὅ τε 
a > \ \ n / 4 > \ 
πλοῦς ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς Κιλικίου Χρύσης ἐπὶ τὸ 
ναύσταθμον ἑπτακοσίων που σταδίων ἐστὶν 
e / / [τς ’ 4 1] 
ἡμερήσιός πως, ὅσον φαίνεται πλεύσας ὁ Ὀδυσ- 
σεύς. ἐκβὰς γὰρ εὐθὺς παρίστησι τὴν θυσίαν 
τῷ θεῷ καὶ τῆς ἑσπέρας ἐπιλαβούσης μένει 
lay : τὰ \) «8 a Drie , ¢ a \ 
αὐτόθι, πρωὶ δὲ ἀποπλεῖ: ἀπὸ δὲ ᾿Αμαξιτοῦ τὸ 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 63 

here lived Chryseis. But the place is now utterly 
deserted; and the temple was transferred to the 
present Chrysa near Hamaxitus when the Cilicians 
were driven out, partly to Pamphylia! and partly to 
Hamaxitus. Those who are less acquainted with 
ancient history say that it was at this Chrysa that 
Chryses and Chryseis lived, and that Homer mentions 
this place; but, in the first place, there is no harbour 
here, and yet Homer says, ‘And when they had 
now arrived inside the deep harbour” ;* and, secondly, 
the temple is not on the sea, though Homer makes 
it on the sea, “and out from the seafaring ship 
stepped Chryseis. Her then did Odysseus of many 
wiles lead to the altar, and place in the arms of her 
dear father” ;* neither is it near Thebé, though 
Homer makes it near; at any rate, he speaks of 
Chryseis as having been taken captive there. Again, 
neither is there any place called Cilla to be seen in 
the territory of the Alexandreians, nor any temple 
of Cillaean Apollo; but the poet couples the two, 
“who dost stand over Chrysa and sacred Cilla.” 4 
But it is to be seen near by in the Plain of Thebé. 
And the voyage from the Cilician Chrysa to the Naval 
Station is about seven hundred stadia, approximately 
a day’s voyage, such a distance, obviously, as that 
sailed by Odysseus ;° for immediately upon disem- 
barking he offered the sacrifice to the god, and since 
evening overtook him he remained on the spot and 
sailed away the next morning. But the distance 
from Hamaxitus is scarcely a third of that above 

1 Cf. 14, 4. 1. 2 Iliad 1. 482. 8. Iliad 1. 438. 
4 Tliad 1. 37. 5 See Iliad 1. 430 ff. 

1 εὐθύς xz, εὐθύ other MSS. 


τρίτον μόλις τοῦ λεχθέντος διαστήματός ἐστιν, 
ὥστε “παρῆν τῷ Ὀδυσσεῖ αὐθημερὸν ἀναπλεῖν 
ἐπὶ τὸ ναύσταθμον τελέσαντι τὴν θυσίαν. ἔστι 
δὲ καὶ Κύίλλου μνῆμα περὶ τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Κιλλαίου 
᾿Απόλλωνος, χῶμα μέγα" ἡνίοχον δὲ τοῦτον Πέλο- 
πός φασιν ἡ ἡγησάμενον τῶν τόπων, ἀφ᾽ οὗ ἴσως ἡ 
Κιλικία ἢ ἔμπαλιν. 

θέ. Τὰ οὖν περὶ τοὺς Τεύκρους καὶ τοὺς μύας, 
ad ὧν ὁ Σμινθεύς, ἐπειδὴ σμίνθοι" οἱ μύες, δεῦρο 
μετενεκτέον. παραμυθοῦνται δὲ τὴν ἀπὸ μικρῶν 
ἐπίκλησιν τοιούτοις τισί: καὶ γὰρ ἀπὸ τῶν 
παρνόπων, ods οἱ Οἰταῖοι 3 ᾿κόρνοπας͵ λέγουσι, 
Κορνοπίωνα ὃ τιμᾶσθαι παρ᾽ ἐκείνοις Ἡρακλέα 
ἀπαλλαγῆς ἀκρίδων χάριν' Ἰποκτόνον δὲ παρ᾽ 
᾿Ερυθραίοις τοῖς τὸν Μίμαντα ἃ οἰκοῦσιν, ὅτι 
φθαρτικὸς τῶν ἀμπελοφάγων ἰπῶν" καὶ δὴ παρ᾽ 
ἐκείνοις μόνοις τῶν ᾿Ερυθραίων τὸ θηρίον τοῦτο 
μὴ γίνεσθαι. “Ῥόδιοι δὲ ᾿Ερυθιβίου ᾿Απόλλωνος 
ἔχουσιν ἐν τῇ χώρα ἱερόν, τὴν ἐρυσίβην καλοῦντες 
ἐρυθίβην: παρ᾽ Αἰολεῦσι δὲ τοῖς ἐν ᾿Ασίᾳ μείς 
τις ὃ καλεῖται Πορνοπίων, οὕτω τοὺς πάρνοπας 
καλούντων Βοιωτῶν, καὶ θυσία συντελεῖται 
Πορνοπίωνι ᾿Απόλλωνι. 

65. Μυσία μὲν οὖν ἐστὶν ἡ περὶ τὸ ᾿Αδραμύτ- 
τιον, ἣν δέ ποτε ὑπὸ Λυδοῖς, καὶ νῦν Πύλαι 
Λύδιαι καλοῦνται ἐν ᾿Αδραμυττίῳ, Λυδῶν, ὥς 

1 σμίνθοι, Meineke, for σμίνθιοι. 

2 Οἰταῖοι E, *Oréo: other MSS. 

3 E inserts τινα before τιμᾶσθαι. 

4 Μίμαντα, Corais, for Μελιοῦντα (see 14. 1. 33); so the 
later editors. 

5 γίνεσθαι, moz and Corais and Meineke, for γενέσθαι. 
6 “ , . 
μνείς τις EF, pts τις Dmorz, μύσων τις hi, μιστις C. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 63-65 

mentioned, so that Odysseus could have completed 
the sacrifice and sailed back to the Naval Station 
on the same day. There is also a tomb of Cillus in 
the neighbourhood of the temple of the Cillaean 
Apollo, a great barrow. He is said to have been 
the charioteer of Pelops and to have ruled over 
this region; and perhaps it was after him that 
Cilicia was named, or vice versa. 

64. Now the story of the Teucrians and the mice— | 
whence the epithet “Sminthian,”? since “sminthi” — 
means “mice’’—must be transferred to this place. 
And writers excuse this giving of epithets from small 
creatures by such examples as the following: It is 
from locusts,? they say, which the Oetaeans call 
“cornopes,’ that Heracles is worshipped among 
the Oetaeans as “Cornopion,” for ridding them of 
locusts; and he is worshipped among the Erythraeans 
who live in Mimas as “ Ipoctonus,’’* because he is the 
destroyer of the vine-eating ips ;* and in fact, they 
add, these are the only Erythraeans in whose 
country this creature is not to be found. And the 
Rhodians, who call erysibé® “erythibé,” have a 
temple of Apollo “ Erythibius” in their country; and 
among the Aeolians in Asia a certain month is called 
Pornopion, since the Boeotians so call the locusts, 
and a sacrifice is offered to Apollo Pornopion. 

65. Now the territory round Adramyttium is 
Mysian, though it was once subject to the Lydians ; 
and to-day there is a gate in Adramyttium which 
is called the Lydian Gate because, as they say, the 

1 i.e. the “‘Sminthian” Apollo (J/iad 1. 39). 
2 <* Parnopes.” 3 **Tps-slayer.” 
$ A kind of cynips, 5 ** Mildew.” 



φασι, τὴν πόλιν ἐκτικότων. Μυσίας δὲ Αστυρα 
τὴν πλησίον κώμην φασίν. ἦν δὲ πολίχνη ποτέ, 
ἐν 7) τὸ τῆς ᾿Αστυρηνῆς ᾿Αρτέμιδος ἱ ἱερὸν ἐν ἄλσει, 
προστατούμενον μετὰ ἁγιστείας ὑπ᾽ ᾿Αντανδρίων, 
οἷς μᾶλλον γειτνιᾷ" διέχει δὲ τῆς παλαιᾶς Χρύσης 
εἴκοσι σταδίους, καὶ αὐτῆς ἐν ἄλσει τὸ ἱερὸν 
ἐχούσης. αὐτοῦ δὲ καὶ ὁ ᾿Αχίλλειος άραξ' ἐν 
δὲ τῇ μεσογαίᾳ ἀπὸ πεντήκοντα σταδίων ἐστὶν 
C 614 ἡ Θήβη ἔ ἔρημος,1 ἥν φησιν ὁ ποιητὴς ὑπὸ Πλάκῳ 
ὑληέσσῃ" οὔτε δὲ Πλάκος ἢ ἢ Πλὰξ ἐ ἐκεῖ τι λέγεται, 
οὔθ᾽ ὕλη ὑπέρκειται, καΐτοι πρὸς τῇ Ἴδη. ᾿Αστύ- 
ων δ᾽ ἡ Θήβη διέχει εἰς ἑβδομήκοντα σταδίους, 
Ανδείρων 5 δὲ ἑξήκοντα. πάντα δὲ ταῦτᾶ ἐστι 
τὰ ὀνόματα τόπων ἐρήμων ἢ φαύλως οἰκουμένων 
ἢ ποταμῶν χειμάρρων' τεθρύληται δὲ διὰ τὰς 
παλαιὰς ἱστορίας. 

66. Πόλεις δ᾽ εἰσὶν ἀξιόλογοι ἼΛσσος τε καὶ 
᾿Αδραμύττιον. ἠτύχησε δὲ τὸ ᾿Αδραμύττιον ἐν 
τῷ Μιθριδατικῷ πολέμῳ" τὴν γὰρ βουλὴν ἀπέ- 
σφαξε τῶν πολιτῶν Διόδωρος στρατηγός, χαριξζό- 
μενος τῷ βασιλεῖ, προσποιούμενος δ᾽ ἅμα τῶν τε 
ef ᾿Ακαδημίας φιλοσόφων εἶναι καὶ δίκας λέγειν 
καὶ σοφιστεύειν τὰ ῥητορικά' καὶ δὴ καὶ συνα- 
πῆρεν εἰς τὸν Πόντον τῷ βασιλεῖ" καταλυθέντος 
δὲ τοῦ βασιλέως, ἔτισε δίκας τοῖς ἀδικηθεῖσιν'" 
ἐγκλημάτων γὰρ ἐπενεχθέντων ἅμα πολλῶν, 
ἀπεκαρτέρησεν αἰσχρῶς, οὐ φέρων τὴν δυσφη- 
μίαν, ἐν τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ πόλει. ἀνὴρ δὲ ᾿Αδραμυτ- 

1 ἔρημος, moz omit. 
2 For ᾿Ανδείρων, DEi read ᾿Ανδήρων, in D corrected to 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 65-66 

city was founded by Lydians. And they say that 
the neighbouring village Astyra belongs to Mysia. 
It was once a small town, where, in a sacred pre- 
cinect, was the temple of the Astyrene Artemis, 
which was superintended, along with holy rites, by 
the Antandrians, who were its nearer neighbours. 
It is twenty stadia distant from the ancient Chrysa, 
which also had its temple in a sacred precinct. 
Here too was the Palisade of Achilles. And in the 
interior, fifty stadia away, is Thebé, now deserted, 
which the poet speaks of as “beneath wooded 
Placus” ; but, in the first place, the name “ Placus”’ 
or “ Plax” is not found there at all, and, secondly, 
no wooded place lies above it, though it is near 
Mt. Ida. Thebé is as much as seventy stadia distant 
from Astyra and sixty from Andeira. But all these 
are names of deserted or scantily peopled places, or 
of winter torrents; and they are often mentioned 
only because of their ancient history. 

66. Both Assus and Adramyttium are notable 
cities. But misfortune befell Adramyttium in the 
Mithridatic War, for the members of the city council 
were slaughtered, to please the king, by Diodorus? 
the general, who pretended at the same time to be 
a philosopher of the Academy, a dispenser of justice, 
and a teacher of rhetoric. And indeed he also 
joined the king on his journey to Pontus; but when 
the king was overthrown he paid the penalty for his 
misdeeds; for many charges were brought against 
him, all at the same time, and, being unable to bear 
the ignominy, he shamefully starved himself to death, 
in my own city. Another inhabitant of Adramyttium 

1 Jliad 6. 396. 
2 This Diodorus is otherwise unknown. 
E 2 


τηνὸς ῥήτωρ ἐπιφανὴς γεγένηται Ξενοκλῆς, τοῦ 
μὲν ᾿Ασιανοῦ αρακτῆρος, ἀγωνιστὴς δέ, εἴ τις 
ἄλλος, καὶ εἰρηκὼς ὑπὲρ τῆς ᾿Ασίας ἐπὶ τῆς 
συγκλήτου, καθ᾽ ὃν καιρὸν αἰτίαν εἶχε Μιθρι- 

61. Πρὸς δὲ τοῖς ᾿Αστύροις λίμνη καλεῖται 
Σάπρα βαραθρώδης, εἰς ῥαχιώδη τῆς θαλάττης 
αἰγιαλὸν τὸ ἔκρηγμα ἔχουσα. ὑπὸ δὲ τοῖς 
᾿Ανδείροις ἱερόν ἐστι Μητρὸς θεῶν ᾿Ανδειρηνῆς 
ἅγιον καὶ ἄντρον ὑπόνομον μέχρι Παλαιᾶς. ἔστι 
δ᾽ ἡ Παλαιὰ κατοικία τις οὕτω καλουμένη, διέ- 
χουσα τῶν ᾿Ανδείρων ἑκατὸν καὶ. τριάκοντα 
σταδίους" ἔδειξε, δὲ τὴν ὑπονομὴν χίμαρος ἐμπε- 
σὼν εἰς τὸ στόμα καὶ ἀνευρεθεὶς τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ 
κατὰ "Avderpa ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιμένος κατὰ τύχην 
ἐπὶ θυσίαν ἥκοντος. ᾿Αταρνεὺς δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὸ τοῦ 
Ἑρμείου " τυραννεῖον, εἶτα Πιτάνη, πόλις Αἰολική, 
δύο ἔχουσα λιμένας, καὶ ὁ παραρρέων αὐτὴν 
ποταμὸς Εὔηνος, ἐξ οὗ τὸ ὑδραγωγεῖον πεποίηται 
τοῖς ᾿Αδραμυττηνοῖς. ἐκ δὲ τῆς Πιτάνης ἐστὶν 
᾿Αρκεσίλαος, ὁ ἐκ τῆς ᾿Ακαδημίας, Ζήνωνος τοῦ 
Κιτιέως συσχολαστὴς παρὰ Πολέμωνι. καλεῖται 
δὲ καὶ ἐν τῇ Πιτάνῃ τίς τόπος ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ 
᾿Αταρνεὺς ὑπὸ τῇ Πιτάνῃ, κατὰ τὴν καλουμένην 
νῆσον ᾿Ελεοῦσσαν.3 φασὶ δ᾽ ἐν τῇ Πιτάνῃ τὰς 
πλίνθους ἐπιπολάξειν ἐν τοῖς ὕδασι, καθάπερ καὶ 
ἐν τῇ Τυρρηνίᾳ γῆ τις 4 πέπονθε: _Kouporépa yap 
ἡ γῆ τοῦ ἐπισόγκου ὕδατός ἐστιν, ὥστ᾽ ἐποχεῖσθαι. 

1 Instead of “Avdeipa, CDA read ἤάλνδιρα. 

2 ‘Eppuetov F, ‘Eputvov other MSS. 

8 "Ἐλεοῦσσαν, Palmer, for ἔχουσαν ; so later editors, except 
Meineke and Leaf, who read ᾿Ἐλαιοῦσσαν. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 66-67 

was the famous orator Xenocles,!} who belonged to 
the Asiatic school and was as able a debater as ever 
lived, having even made a speech on behalf of Asia 
before the Senate,” at the time when Asia was accused 
of Mithridatism. 

67. Near Astyra is an abysmal lake called Sapra, 
which has an outbreak into a reefy seashore. Below 
Andeira is a temple sacred to the Andeirene Mother 
of the gods, and also a cave that runs underground 
as far as Palaea. Palaea is a settlement so named,? 
at a distance of one hundred and thirty stadia from 
Andeira. The underground passage became known 
through the fact that a goat fell into the mouth of it 
and was found on the following day near Andeira by 
a shepherd who happened to have come to make sacri- 
fice. Atarneus is the abode of the tyrant Hermeias ; 
and then one comes to Pitané, an Aeolic city, which 
has two harbours, and the Evenus River, which flows 
past it, whence the aqueduct has been built by the 
Adramytteni. From Pitané came Arcesilaiis, of the 
Academy, a fellow-student with Zeno of Citium 
under Polemon. In Pitané there is also a place on 
the sea called “ Atarneus below Pitané,” opposite 
the island called Eleussa. It is said that in Pitané 
bricks float on water, as is also the case with a 
certain earth* in Tyrrhenia, for the earth is lighter 
than an equal bulk of water, so that it-floats. And 

1 This Xenocles is otherwise unknown except for a reference 

to him by Cicero (Brutus 91). 
2 The Roman Senate. i.e. “" Old Settlement.” 

4 ** Rotten-stone.” 

* γῇ τις, Corais, for νησίς ; so Leaf. 


C 615 


ἐν ᾿Ιβηρίᾳ δέ φησιν ἰδεῖν Ποσειδώνιος ἔκ τινος 
γῆς ἀργιλώδους, ἣ ἧ τὰ ἀργυρώματα ἐκμάττεται, 
πλίνθους πηγνυμένας καὶ ἐπιπλεούσας. μετὰ δὲ 
τὴν Πιτάνην ὁ Κάϊκος εἰς τὸν ᾿Ελαΐτην καλούμενον 
κόλπον ἐν τριάκοντα σταδίοις ἐκδίδωσιν. ἐν δὲ 
τῷ πέραν τοῦ Καΐκου, δώδεκα διέχουσα τοῦ 
ποταμοῦ σταδίους ᾿Ελαία πόλις Αἰολικὴ καὶ 
αὕτη Περγαμηνῶν ἐπίνειον, ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι 
σταδίους διέχουσα. τοῦ Περγάμου. 

θ8. Kir’ ἐν ἑκατὸν σταδίοις ἡ ἡ ΚΚάνη, τὸ ἀνταῖρον 
ἀκρωτήριον τῷ Λεκτῷ καὶ ποιοῦν τὸν ᾿Αδραμυτ- 
τηνὸν κόλπον, οὗ μέρος καὶ ὁ ᾿Ελαϊτικός ἐστι. 
Κάναι δὲ πολίχνιον Λοκρῶν τῶν ἐκ Κύνου κατὰ 
τὰ ἄκρα τῆς Λέσβου τὰ νοτιώτατα κείμενον ἐν 
τῇ Καναίᾳ' αὕτη δὲ μέχρι τῶν ᾿Αργινόυσσῶν 
διήκει καὶ τῆς ὑπερκειμένης ἄκρας, ἣν Αἶγά τινες 
ὀνομάξουσιν ὁμωνύμως τῷ ξώῳ: δεῖ δὲ μακρῶς 
τὴν δευτέραν συλλαβὴν ἐκφέρειν Aiydy,? ὡς 
᾿Ακτὰν καὶ ᾿Αρχάν' οὕτω γὰρ καὶ τὸ ὄρος ὅλον 
ὠνομάξετο, ὃ νῦν Κάνην καὶ Κάνας λέγουσι. 
κύκλῳ δὲ περὶ τὸ ὄρος πρὸς νότον μὲν καὶ δύσιν 
ἡ θάλαττα, πρὸς ἕω δὲ τὸ Καΐκου πεδίον ὑπό- 
κειται, πρὸς ἄρκτον δὲ ἡ ᾿Ελαΐτις" αὐτὸ δὲ καθ' 
αὑτὸ ἱκανῶς συνέσταλται, “προσνεύει δὲ ἐπὶ τὸ 
Αἰγαῖον πέλαγος, ὅθεν αὐτῷ καὶ τοὔνομα" 3 ὕστε- 

1 Instead of Alya, D reads Aiya, hoz Αἶγαν, Epit. Αἴγα, 
Meineke Aiydv. 

2 Αἰγάν Ez; so Meineke and Leaf. 

. Leaf brackets the words ὅ ὕστερον. . . Κάναι. 

1 2,6. Att, ‘‘ goat.” 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 67-68 

Poseidonius says that in Iberia he saw bricks moulded 
from a clay-like earth, with which silver is cleaned, 
and that they floated on water. After Pitané one 
comes to the Caicus River, which empties at a 
distance of thirty stadia into the Elaitic Gulf, as 
it is called. On the far side of the Caicus, twelve 
stadia distant from the river, is Elaea, an Aeolic 
city, which also is a seaport of the Pergamenians, 
being one hundred and twenty stadia distant from 

68. Then, at a distance of a hundred stadia, one 
comes to Cané, the promontory which rises opposite 
Lectum and forms the Adramyttene Gulf, of which 
the Elaitic Gulf is a part. Canae is a small town 
of Locrians from Cynus, and lies in the Canaean 
territory opposite the southernmost ends of Lesbos. 
This territory extends as far as the Arginussae 
Islands and the promontory above them, which 
some call Aega, making it the same as the word 
for the animal ;+ but the second syllable should be 
pronounced long, that is, “ Aega,” like Acta and 
Archa, for Aega used to be the name of the whole 
of the mountain which is now called Cané or Canae. 
The mountain is surrounded on the south and west 
by the sea, and on the east by the plain of the 
Caicus, which lies below it, and on the north by 
the territory of Elaea. This mountain forms a fairly 
compact mass off to itself, though it slopes towards 
the Aegaean Sea, whence it got its name.” Later 

3 It is not clear in the Greek whether Strabo says that the 
Aegean Sea got its name from Aega or vice versa. Elsewhere 
(8. 7. 4) he speaks of ‘‘ Aegae in Boeotia, from which it is 
probable that the Aegean Sea got its name.” 



pov δὲ αὐτὸ τὸ ἀκρωτήριον Aliya! κεκλῆσθαι," 
ὡς Σαπφώ φησινβδ τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν Κάνη καὶ 

69. Μεταξὺ δὲ ᾿Ελαίας τε καὶ Πιτάνης καὶ 
> / / / > , 
Atapvéws καὶ Περγάμου TevOpavia ἐστί, διέ- 
χουσα οὐδεμιᾶς αὐτῶν ὑπὲρ ἑβδομήκοντα σταδίους 
ἐντὸς τοῦ Καΐκου, καὶ ὁ Τεύθρας Κιλίκων καὶ 

an ᾽ 
Μυσῶν ἱστόρηται βασιλεύς. Εὐριπίδης δ᾽ ὑπὸ 
᾿Αλέου ὁ φησί, τοῦ τῆς Αὔγης πατρός, εἰς λάρνακα 
τὴν Αὔγην κατατεθεῖσαν ἅμα τῷ παιδὶ Τηλέφῳ 
καταποντωθῆναι, φωράσαντος τὴν ἐξ “Ηρακλέους 
φθοράν" ᾿Αθηνᾶς δὲ προνοίᾳ τὴν λάρνακα περαιω- 
θεῖσαν ἐκπεσεῖν εἰς τὸ στόμα τοῦ Καΐκου, τὸν δὲ 
Τεύθραντα, ἀναλαβόντα τὰ σώματα, τῇ μὲν ὡς 
a na want a / a 

γαμετῇ χρήσασθαι, τῷ δ᾽ ὡς ἑαυτοῦ παιδί. τοῦτο 
μὲν οὖν μῦθος, ἄλλην δέ τινα δεῖ γεγονέναι συντυ- 

i > ἃ ς na? / ΄ A a 
χίαν, δι’ ἣν ἡ τοῦ ᾿Αρκάδος θυγάτηρ τῷ Μυσῶν 
βασιλεῖ συνῆλθε καὶ ὁ ἐξ αὐτῆς διεδέξατο τὴν 
ἐκείνου βασιλείαν. πεπίστευται δ᾽ οὖν, ὅτι καὶ 
ε 7 ς 7 > / n , 
ὁ Τεύθρας καὶ ὁ Τήλεφος ἐβασίλευσαν τῆς χώρας 
τῆς περὶ τὴν Τευθρανίαν καὶ τὸν Κάϊκον, ὁ δὲ 
ποιητὴς ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον μέμνηται μόνον τῆς ἱστορίας 

ἀλλ᾽ οἷον τὸν Τηλεφίδην κατενήρατο χαλκῷ 

“ > Pt ἐν \ 3.» > >= N ε n 

ἥρω᾽ Ἐὐρύπυλον, πολλοὶ δ᾽ ἀμφ᾽ αὐτὸν ἑταῖροι 

Κήτειοι κτείνοντο γυναίων εἵνεκα δώρων" 

C616 αἴνιγμα τιθεὶς ἡμῖν μᾶλλον ἢ λέγων τι σαφές. 

1 Αἰγά, Meineke, for A?ya DE, Αὐγᾷ other MSS. 

2 For κεκλῆσθαι Miiller-Diibner write ἐκλήθη. . 

3 φησιν, after Ξαπφώ, moz insert; but Meineke, following 
conj. of Kramer, omits ὡς Σαπφώ, 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 68-69 

the promontory itself was called Aega, as in Sappho,} 
but the rest was called Cané or Canae. 

69. Between Elaea, Pitané, Atarneus, and Per- 
gamum lies Teuthrania, which is at no greater 
distance than seventy stadia from any of them and 
is this side the Caicus River; and the story told 
is that Teuthras was king of the Cilicians and 
Mysians. Euripides? says that Augé, with her 
child Telephus, was put by Aleus, her father, into 
a chest and submerged in the sea when he had 
detected her ruin by Heracles, but that by the 
providence of Athena the chest was carried across 
the sea and cast ashore at the mouth of the Caicus, 
and that Teuthras rescued the prisoners, and treated 
the mother as his wife and the child as his own son. 
Now this is the myth, but there must have been 
some other issue of fortune through which the 
daughter of the Arcadian consorted with the king of 
the Mysians and her son succeeded to his kingdom. 
It is believed, at any rate, that both Teuthras and 
Telephus reigned as kings over the country round 
Teuthrania and the Caicus, though Homer goes 
only so far as to mention the story thus: “ But 
what a man was the son of Telephus, the hero 
Eurypylus, whom he slew with the bronze; and 
round him were slain many comrades, Ceteians, on 
account of a woman's gifts.”’* The poet thus sets 
before us a puzzle instead of making a clear state- 
ment; for we neither know whom we should under- 

1 A fragment otherwise unknown (Bergk Frag. 131). 
2 Fray. 696 (Nauck). 8 Οἱ. 12.8.2,4. 4 Odyssey 11.521. 

4 *Addov, Xylander, for ’AAdvov F, ’AAalov other MSS. ; so 
the later editors. 



οὔτε γὰρ τοὺς Κητείους ἴ ἴσμεν, οὕστινας δέξασθαι 
δεῖ, οὔτε τὸ γυναίων εἵνεκα δώρων" ἀλλὰ καὶ οἱ 
γραμματικοὶ μυθάρια παραβάλλοντες εὑρεσιλο- 
γοῦσι μᾶλλον ἢ λύουσι τὰ ζητούμενα. 
71. lal a 

10. "EacOm δὴ ταῦτα, ἐκεῖνο δ᾽, ὅπερ ἐστὶ 
“ > a , / Ὁ > 
μᾶλλον ἐν φανερῷ, λαβόντες λέγωμεν, ὅτι ἐν 
τοῖς περὶ τὸν Κάϊκον τόποις φαίνεται βεβασι- 
λευκὼς καθ᾽ “Ὅμηρον ὁ Εὐρύπυλος, ὥστ᾽ ἴσως 
καὶ τῶν Κιλίκων τι μέρος ἣν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῷ, καὶ οὐ 
δύο δυναστεῖαι μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τρεῖς ὑπῆρξαν 
ἐν αὐτοῖς. τῷ δὲ λόγῳ τούτῳ συνηγορεῖ τὸ ἐν 
τῇ ᾿Ελαΐτιδι χειμαρρῶδες ποτάμιον δείκνυσθαι 
Κήτειον: ἐμπίπτει δ᾽ οὗτος εἰς ἄλλον ὅμοιον, 
C JOG Κὰὰ / \ ? Ν 7. e 
εἶτ᾽ ἄλλον, καταστρέφουσι δὲ εἰς τὸν Κάϊκον: ὁ 
δὲ Κάϊκος οὐκ ἀπὸ τῆς “Ids ῥεῖ, καθάπερ εἴρηκε 
Βακχυλίδης, οὐδ᾽ ὀρθῶς 1 Ἐὐριπίδης τὸν Μαρσύαν 

τὰς διωνομασμένας 
/ \ > ΄ v / 
ναίειν Κελαινὰς ἐσχάτοις “Idns τόποις" 

πολὺ γὰρ τῆς Ἴδης ἄπωθεν αἱ Κελαιναΐί, πολὺ 
δὲ καὶ αἱ τοῦ Καΐκου πηγαί: δείκνυνται γὰρ ἐν 
πεδίῳ. “Ῥῆμνον " δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὄρος, ὃ διορίξει τοῦτό 
τε καὶ τὸ καλούμενον ᾿Απίας πεδίον, ὃ ὃ ὑπέρκειται 
ἐν τῇ μεσογαίᾳ τοῦ Θήβης πεδίου" ῥεῖ δ᾽ ἐκ τοῦ 
Τήμνου 3 ποταμὸς Μύσιος, ἐμβάλλων εἰς τὸν 
Κάϊκον ὑπὸ ταῖς πηγαῖς αὐτοῦ, ad’ οὗ δέχονταί 

1 οὐδ᾽ ὀρθῶς, Jones, for οὐχ ὡς F, οὔθ᾽ other MSS.; οὔτ᾽ ὀρθῶς 
conj. Meineke ; Groskurd conj. οὔτ' ἀληθῶς. Kramer would 
omit the negative before ὡς. 

* Τῆμνον, Xylander, for Tijxvoy. 

8 τοῦ Thuvov, Xylander, for τοῦ Thxvov Dhimoz, τῶν 5 Thever 
ΟΕ σα. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 69-70 

stand the poet to mean by the “Ceteians” nor 
what he means by “on account of the gifts of a 
woman” ;! but the grammarians too throw in petty 
myths, more to show their inventiveness than to 
solve questions. 

70. However, let us dismiss these; and let us, 
taking that which is more obvious, say that, according 
to Homer, Eurypylus clearly reigned in the region of 
the Caicus, so that per haps a part of the Cilicians 
were subject to him, in which case there were three 
dynasties among them and not merely two.? This 
statement is supported by the fact that there is to 
be seen in the territory of Elaea a torrential stream 
called the Ceteius; this empties into another like it, 
and this again into another, and they all end in the 
Caicus. But the Caicus does not flow from Ida, as 
Bacchylides ὃ states; neither is Euripides ¢ correct 
in saying that Marsyas ‘‘dwells in widely-famed 
Celaenae, in the farthermost region of Ida”; for 
Celaenae is very far from Ida, and the sources of the 
Caicus are also very far, for they are to be seen in 
a plain. Temnus is a mountain which forms the 
boundary between this plain and the Plain of Apia, 
as it is called, which lies in the interior above the 
Plain of Thebé. From Temnus flows a river called 
Mysius, which empties into the Caicus below its 
sources ; and it was from this fact, as some interpret 

1 On the variant myths of Augé and Telephus see Eusta- 
thius (note on Od., l.c.) ; also Leaf’s note and references (p. 

3 Cf. 13. 1. 7, 67. 

ae fragment otherwise unknown (Bergk 66). 
* Frag. 1085 (Nauck). 



tives εἰπεῖν Αἰσχύλον κατὰ τὴν εἰσβολὴν τοῦ 
ἐν Μυρμιδόσι προλόγου" 

ἰὼ Κάϊκε Μύσιαί τ᾽ ἐπιρροαί. 
ἐγγὺς δὲ τῶν πηγῶν κώμη Γέργιθά ' ἐστιν, εἰς 
ἣν μετῴκισεν "Attados τοὺς ἐν τῇ Τρωάδι, τὸ 
χωρίον ἐξελών. 


1. "Exel? δὲ τῇ παραλίᾳ τῇ ἀπὸ Λεκτοῦ μέχρι 
Κανῶν ἀντιπαρατέταται νῆσος ἡ “Λέσβος, λόγου 
ἀξία πλείστου (περίκειται δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ νησία, τὰ 
μὲν ἔξωθεν, τὰ δὲ καὶ ἐν τῷϑ μεταξὺ αὐτῆς τε 
καὶ τῆς ἠπείρου), καιρὸς ἤδη περὶ τούτων εἰπεῖν᾽ 
καὶ γὰρ ταῦτά ἐστιν Αἰολικά, σχεδὸν δέ τι καὶ 

μητρόπολις ἡ “Λέσβος ὑπάρχει τῶν Αἰολικῶν 
πόλεων. ἀρκτέον δ᾽ ἀφ᾽ ὧνπερ καὶ τὴν παραλίαν 
ἐπήλθομεν τὴν κατ᾽ αὐτήν. 

2. "Amo Λεκτοῦ τοίνυν ἐπὶ "Άσσον πλέουσιν 
ἀρχὴ τῆς Λεσβίας ἐστὶ κατὰ Σίγριον τὸ πρὸς 
ἄρκτον αὐτῆς ἄκρον. ἐνταῦθα δέ που καὶ 
Μήθυμνα πόλις Λεσβίων ἐστὶν ἀπὸ ἑξήκοντα 
σταδίων τῆς ἐκ ἸΠολυμηδίου πρὸς τὴν Ασσον 
παραλίας. οὔσης δὲ τῆς περιμέτρου σταδίων 
χιλίων ἑκατόν, ἣν ἡ σύμπασα ἐκπληροῖ νῆσος, 
τὰ καθέκαστα οὕτως ἔχει: aro Μηθύμνης εἰς 
Μαλίαν τὸ νοτιώτατον ἄκρον ἐν δεξιᾷ ἔχουσι 

1 Τ᾽ Ῥγιθα, Corais, for Γέ 
2 éwel oz; ἐπί other MSS. 
8 +g, Corais, for τῇ. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 70-2. 2 

the passage, that Aeschylus said at the opening of 
the prologue to the Myrmidons, “Oh! thou Caicus 
and ye Mysian in-flows.” Near the sources is a 
village called Gergitha, to which Attalus transferred 
the Gergithians of the Troad when he had destroyed 
their place. 


1. Since Lesbos, an island worthy of a full account, 
lies alongside and opposite the coast which extends 
from Lectum to Canae, and also has small islands 
lying round it, some outside it and some between it 
and the mainland, it is now time to describe these; 
for these are Aeolian, and I might almost say that 
Lesbos is the metropolis of the Aeolian cities. But 
I must begin at the point whence 1 began to traverse 
the coast that lies opposite the island. 

2. Now as one sails from Lectum to Assus, the 
Lesbian country begins at Sigrium, its promontory 
on the north.” In this general neighbourhood is 
also Methymna, a city of the Lesbians, sixty stadia 
distant from the coast that stretches from Poly- 
medium to Assus. But while the perimeter which 
is filled out by the island as a whole is eleven 
hundred stadia, the several distances are as follows: 
From Methymna to Malia, the southernmost? pro- 
montory to one keeping the island on the right, I 

1 Frag. 143 (Nauck). | 

2 But Sigrium was the westernmost promontory of the 

8 More accurately, ‘‘southwesternmost.” 



C617 τὴν νῆσον, καθ᾽ ὃ ai Κάναι μάλιστα ἀντίκεινται 
τῇ νήσῳ καὶ συναπαρτίζουσι, στάδιοί εἰσι 
τριακόσιοι τετταράκοντα: ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ ἐπὶ Σίγριον, 
ὅπερ ἐστὶ τῆς νήσου τὸ μῆκος, πεντακόσιοι 
ἑξήκοντα' εἶτ᾽ ἐπὶ τὴν Μήθυμναν 1 διακόσιοι 
δέκα. Μιτυλήνη δὲ κεῖται μεταξὺ Μηθύμνης καὶ 
τῆς Μαλίας ἡ μεγίστη πόλις, διέχουσα τῆς 
Μαλίας ἑβδομήκοντα σταδίους, τῶν δὲ Κανῶν 
ἑκατὸν εἴκοσιν, ὅσους καὶ τῶν ᾿Αργινουσσῶν, αἱ 
τρεῖς μέν εἰσιν οὐ μεγάλαι νῆσοι, πλησιάζουσι δὲ 
τῇ ἠπείρῳ, παρακείμεναι3 ταῖς Κάναις. ἐν δὲ 
τῷ μεταξὺ Μιτυλήνης καὶ τῆς Μηθύμνης κατὰ 
κώμην τῆς Μηθυμναίας, καλουμένην Αἴγειρον, 
στενωτάτη ἐστὶν ἡ νῆσος, ὑπέρβασιν ἔχουσα 
eis τὸν Πυρραίων Ἐὔριπον σταδίων εἴκοσιν. 
ἵδρυται δ᾽ ἡ Πύρρα ἐν τῷ ἑσπερίῳ πλευρῷ τῆς 
Λέσβου, διέχουσα τῆς Μαλίας ἑκατόν. ἔχει δ᾽ ἡ 
Μιτυλήνη λιμένας δύο, ὧν ὁ νότιος κλειστὸς 
τριηρικὸς ὃ ναυσὶ πεντήκοντα, ὁ δὲ βόρειος μέγας 
καὶ βαθύς, χώματι σκεπαζόμενος" πρόκειται 
ἀμφοῖν νησίον, μέρος τῆς πόλεως ἔχον αὐτόθι 
συνοικούμενον: κατεσκεύασται δὲ τοῖς πᾶσι 

8. "Avépas δ᾽ ἔσχεν ἐνδόξους, τὸ παλαιὸν μὲν 
Πιττακόν, ἕνα τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφῶν, καὶ τὸν ποιητὴν 
᾿Αλκαῖον καὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ᾿Αντειμενίδαν, ὅν φησιν 
᾿Αλκαῖος Βαβυλωνίοις συμμαχοῦντα τελέσαι 

1 Μήθυμναν, Kramer, for Μηθυμναίαν. 

2 δέ, after παρακείμεναι, omitted by moz and ejected by 
Corais and later editors, 

3 rpinpixds, Meineke, for τριήρεικαί. Wesseling conj. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 2-3 

mean at the point where Canae lies most directly 
opposite the island and precisely corresponds with 
it, the distance is three hundred and forty stadia ; 
thence to Sigrium, which is the length of the island, 
five hundred and sixty ; and then to Methymna, two 
hundred and ten. Mitylene, the largest city, lies 
between Methymna and Malia, being seventy stadia 
distant from Malia, one hundred and twenty from 
Canae, and the same distance from the Arginussae, 
which are three small islands lying near the mainland 
alongside Canae. In the interval between Mitylene 
and Methymna, in the neighbourhood of a village 
called Aegeirus in the Methymnaean territory, the 
island is narrowest, with a passage of only twenty 
stadia over to the Euripus of the Pyrrhaeans. 
Pyrrha is situated on the western side of Lesbos at 
a distance of one hundred stadia from Malia. Mity- 
lene has two harbours, of which the southern can 
be closed and holds only fifty triremes, but the 
northern is large and deep, and is sheltered by a 
mole. Off both lies a small island, which contains 
a part of the city that is settled there. And the 
city is well equipped with everything. 

3. Mitylene has produced famous men: in early 
times, Pittacus, one of the Seven Wise Men; and 
the poet Alcaeus, and his brother Antimenidas, who, 
according to Alcaeus, won a great struggle when 
fighting on the side of the Babylonians, and rescued 

1 The total, 1110, being ten more than the round number 
given above. 

τριηρικὺς καὶ ναύσταθμον, the complete phrase found in 14. 
2. 15. 



/ “. \ > , > A 7 
μέγαν ἄθλον καὶ ἐκ πόνων αὐτοὺς ῥύσασθαι, 
ἄνδρα μαχαίταν, βασιλήιον } 
, , 
παλαστὰν 5 (ὥς φησι) ἀπολείποντα 3 μόνον 
7 > \ / 5 
παχέων ἀπὺ πέμπων. 

συνήκμασε δὲ τούτοις καὶ ἡ Σαπφώ, θαυμαστόν 
TL χρῆμα" οὐ γὰρ ἴσμεν ἐν τῷ τοσούτῳ χρόνῳ τῷ 
μνημονευομένῳ φανεῖσάν τινα γυναῖκα ἐνάμιλλον, 
οὐδὲ κατὰ μικρόν, ἐκείνῃ ποιήσεως χάριν. ἐτυ- 
ραννήθη δὲ ἡ πόλις κατὰ τοὺς χρόνους τούτους 
ὑπὸ πλειόνων διὰ τὰς διχοστασίας, καὶ τὰ 
στασιωτικὰ καλούμενα τοῦ ᾿Αλκαίου ποιήματα 
περὶ τούτων ἐστίν: ἐν δὲ τοῖς τυράννοις καὶ ὁ 
Πιττακὸς éyévero. ᾿Αλκαῖος μὲν οὖν ὁμοίως 
ἐλοιδορεῖτο καὶ τούτῳ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις, Μυρσίλῳ 
καὶ Μελάγχρῳϑ καὶ τοῖς Κλεανακτίδαις καὶ 
ἄλλοις τισίν, οὐδ᾽ αὐτὸς καθαρεύων τῶν τοιούτων 
νεωτερισμῶν. Πιττακὸς δ᾽ εἰς μὲν τὴν τῶν δυνα- 
στειῶν κατάλυσιν ἐχρήσατο τῇ μοναρχίᾳ καὶ 
αὐτός, καταλύσας δὲ ἀπέδωκε τὴν αὐτονομίαν τῇ 
πόλει. ὕστερον δ᾽ ἐγένετο χρόνοις πολλοῖς 
Διοφάνης ὁ ῥήτωρ' καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς δὲ Ποτάμων καὶ 
Λεσβοκλῆς καὶ Κριναγόρας καὶ ὁ συγγραφεὺς 
Θεοφάνης. οὗτος δὲ καὶ πολιτικὸς ἀνὴρ ὑπῆρξε 
καὶ Πομπηΐῳ τῷ Μάγνῳ κατέστη φίλος, μάλιστα 
διὰ τὴν ἀρετὴν αὐτήν, καὶ πάσας συγκατώρθωσεν 

1 βασιλήιον, Ὁ, Miller (quoted by Bergk, who prefers 
βασιληίων), for βασιλήων. 

2 παλαστάν DFAi and Kramer (παλάσταν Meineke) ; παλαί 
oray other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 3 

them from their toils by killing “a warrior, the royal 
wrestler” (as he says), “ who was but one short of 
five cubits in height.”1 And along with these 
flourished also Sappho, a marvellous woman; for in 
all the time of which we have record I do not know 
of the appearance of any woman who could rival] 
Sappho, even in a slight degree, in the matter of 
poetry. The city was in those times ruled over by 
several tyrants because of the dissensions among 
the inhabitants; and these dissensions are the sub- 
ject of the Stasiotic? poems, as they are called, of 
Aleaeus. And also Pittacus* was one of the 
tyrants. Now Alcaeus would rail alike at both 
Pittacus and the rest, Myrsilus and Melanchrus 
and the Cleanactidae and certain others, though 
even he himself was not innocent of revolu- 
tionary attempts; but even Pittacus himself used 
monarchy for the overthrow of the oligarchs, and 
then, after overthrowing them, restored to the city its 
independence. Diophanes the rhetorician was born 
much later; but Potamon, Lesbocles, Crinagoras, and 
Theophanes the historian in my time. ‘Theophanes 
was also a statesman; and he became a friend to 
Pompey the Great, mostly through his very ability, 
and helped him to succeed in all his achievements ; 

1 Frag. 33 (Bergk). 2 Seditious. 
8 Reigned 589-579 B.o. 

8 ἀπολείποντα, Miiller, for ἀπολιπόντα : so Kramer and 

4 μίαν, Miiller, for ἀνίαν ; so Kramer and Meineke. 

5 ἀπὺ πέμπων (ἀπυπέμπων ΕἾ, Miiller, for ἀποπέμπων ; so 
Kramer and Meineke. 

δ. MeAdyxpy, Groskurd and other editors, for Μελάνδρῳ F, 
Μεγαλογύρῳ other MSS. 


C 618 


αὐτῷ τὰς πράξεις" ἀφ᾽ ὧν τήν τε πατρίδα 
ἐκόσμησε τὰ μὲν δι’ ἐκείνου, τὰ δὲ δι’ ἑαυτοῦ, καὶ 
ἑαυτὸν πάντων τῶν “EXAnvev ἐπιφανέστατον 
ἀνέδειξεν" υἱόν τε ἀπέλιπε Μάρκον Πομπήιον, 
ὃν τῆς ᾿Ασίας ἐ ἐπίτροπον κατέστησέ ποτε Καῖσαρ 
ὁ Σεβαστός, καὶ νῦν ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις ἐξετάζεται 
τῶν Τιβερίου φίλων. ᾿Αθηναῖοι δ᾽ ἐκινδύνευσαν 
μὲν ἀνηκέστῳ wWoyo περιπεσεῖν, ψηφισάμενοι 
Μιτυληναίους ἡβηδὸν ἀποσφαγῆναι, μετέγνωσαν 
δέ, καὶ ἔφθη μιᾷ θᾶττον ἡμέρᾳ τὸ ψήφισμα 
ἀφιγμένον ὡς τοὺς στρατηγοὺς πρὶν ἢ πρᾶξαι τὸ 

4. Ἡ δὲ Πύρρα, κατέστραπται, τὸ δὲ προάσ- 
τειον οἰκεῖται καὶ ἔχει λιμένα, ὅθεν εἰς Μιτυλή- 
νην ὑπέρβασις σταδίων ὀγδοήκοντα. εἶτ᾽ ᾽ἔρεσ- 
σός ἐστι μετὰ τὴν Πύρραν' ἵδρυται δ᾽ ἐπὶ λόφου 
καθήκει τε ἐπὶ θάλατταν' εἶτ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸ Σίέγριον 
ἐντεῦθεν στάδιοι εἰκοσιοκτώξ ἐξ ᾿Ἐρεσσοῦ & 
ἦσαν Θεόφραστός τε καὶ Φανίας, οἱ ἐκ τῶν 
περιπάτων φιλόσοφοι, ᾿Αριστοτέλους γνώριμοι. 
Τύρταμος δ᾽ ἐκαλεῖτο ἔμπροσθεν ὁ Θεόφραστος, 
μετωνόμασε δ᾽ αὐτὸν ᾿Αριστοτέλης Θεόφραστον, 
ἅμα μὲν φεύγων τὴν τοῦ προτέρου ὀνόματος 
κακοφωνίαν, ἅμα δὲ τὸν τῆς φράσεως αὐτοῦ 
ξῆλον ἐπισημαινόμενος" ἅπαντας μὲν γὰρ λογίους 
ἐποίησε τοὺς μαθητὰς ᾿Αριστοτέλης, λογιώτατον 
δὲ Θεόφραστον. "Αντίσσα δ᾽ ἐφεξῆς ἐστὶ τῷ 
Σιεγρίῳ πόλις, ἔχουσα λιμένα" ἔπειτα Μήθυμνα, 
ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ ἣν ᾿Αρίων ὁ ἐπὶ τῷ δελφῖνι μυθευο- 
μενος ὑπὸ τῶν περὶ Ἡρόδοτον εἰς Ταίναρον 
σωθῆναι, καταποντωθεὶς ὑ ὑπὸ τῶν λῃστῶν' οὗτος 
μὲν οὖν κιθαρῳδός. καὶ Τέρπανδρον δὲ τῆς αὐτῆς 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 3-4 

whence he not only adorned his native land, parily 
through Pompey and partly through himself, but 
also rendered himself the most illustrious of all the 
Greeks. He left a son, Marcus Pompey, whom 
Augustus Caesar once set up as Procurator of Asia, 
and who is now counted among the first of the 
friends of Tiberius. The Athenians were in danger 
of suffering an irreparable disgrace when they voted 
that all Mitylenaeans from youth upwards should be 
slain, but they changed their minds and their counter- 
decree reached the generals only one day before the 
order was to be executed. 

4. Pyrrha has been rased to the ground, but its 
suburb is inhabited and has a harbour, whence there 
is a passage of eighty stadia over hills to Mitylene. 
Then, after Pyrrha, one comes to Eressus; it is 
situated on a hill and extends down to the sea. 
Then to Sigrium, twenty-eight stadia from Eressus. 
Both Theophrastus and Phanias, the peripatetic 
philosophers, disciples of Aristotle, were from 
Eressus. Theophrastus was at first called Tyrtamus, 
but Aristotle changed his name to Theophrastus, at 
the same time avoiding the cacophony of his former 
name and signifying the fervour of his speech; for 
Aristotle made all his pupils eloquent, but Theo- 
phrastus most eloquent of all. Antissa, a city witha 
harbour, comes next in order after Sigrium. And 
then Methymna, whence came Arion, who, accord- 
ing to a myth told by Herodotus and his followers, 
safely escaped on a dolphin to Taenarum after being 
thrown into the sea by the pirates. Now Arion 
played, and sang to, the cithara; and Terpander, 


C 619 


μουσικῆς τεχνέτην γεγονέναι φασὶ καὶ τῆς αὐτῆς 
νήσου, τὸν πρῶτον ἀντὶ τῆς τετραχόρδου λύρας 
ἑπταχόρδῳ χρησάμενον: καθάπερ καὶ ἐν τοῖς 
ἀναφερομένοις ἔπεσιν εἰς αὐτὸν λέγεται" 

σοὶ δ᾽ ἡμεῖς τετράγηρυν ἀποστρέψαντες ἀοιδήν, 
ἑπτατόνῳ φόρμιγγι νέους κελαδήσομεν ὕμνους. 

καὶ Ἑλλάνικος δὲ Λέσβιος συγγραφεὺς καὶ 
Καλλίας ὁ τὴν Σαπφὼ καὶ τὸν ᾿Αλκαῖον ἐξηγη- 

ὅ. Κατὰ δὲ τὸν πορθμὸν τὸν μεταξὺ τῆς 
᾿Ασίας καὶ τῆς Λέσβου νησία ἐστὶ περὶ εἴκοσεν, 
ὡς δὲ Τιμοσθένης φησί, τετταράκοντα καλοῦνται 
δ᾽ “Εκατόννησοι συνθέτως, ὡς Πελοπόννησος, 
κατὰ ἔθος τε τοῦ N γράμματος πλεονάζξοντος ἐν 
τοῖς τοιούτοις, ὡς Μυόννησος καὶ ἹΠροκόννησος 
λέγεται καὶ ᾿Αλόννησος, ὥστε ‘Exarovynooi 
εἰσιν, οἷον ᾿Απολλωνόννησοι, “Exatos γὰρ ὁ 
᾿Απόλλων' παρὰ πᾶσαν γὰρ δὴ τὴν παραλίαν 
ταύτην ὁ ᾿Απόλλων ἐκτετίμηται μέχρι Τενέδου, 
Σμινθεὺς ἢ Κιλλαῖος καλούμενος ἢ Γρυνεὺς ἤ 
τινα ἄλλην ἐπωνυμίαν ἔχων. πλησίον δὲ τούτων 
ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ἸΠορδοσελήνη,ϊ πόλιν ὁμώνυμον ἔχουσα 
ἐν αὑτῇ" καὶ πρὸ τῆς πόλεως ταύτης ἄλλη νῆσος" 
μείξων αὐτῆς ὁμώνυμος, ἔρημος, ἱερὸν ἅγιον ἔχουσα 

6. Τὰς δὲ δυσφημίας τῶν ὀνομάτων φεύγοντές ὃ 
tives ἐνταῦθα μὲν ἸΤοροσελήνην δεῖν λέγειν φασί, 
τὸ δ᾽ ᾿Ασπόρδηνον ὄρος τὸ περὶ Πέργαμον, τραχὺ 

1 Instead of Πορδοσελήνη, Dhirwaz read Παρδοσελήνη. 

2 πόλις (πόλης F) after νῆσος, Jones ejects, following conj. 
of Kramer and C. Miller, 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 4-6 

also, is said to have been an artist in the same 
music and to have been born in the same island, 
having been the first person to use the seven- 
stringed instead of the four-stringed lyre, as we are 
told in the verses attributed to him: “ For thee I, 
having dismissed four-toned song, shall sing new 
hymns to the tune of a seven-stringed cithara.’’? 
Also Hellanicus the historian, and Callias, who 
interpreted Sappho and Alcaeus, were Lesbians. 

5. In the strait between Asia and Lesbos there 
are about twenty small islands, but according to 
Timosthenes, forty. They are called Hecatonnesi, 
a compound name like Peloponnesus, the second 
letter x being customarily redundant in such com- 
pounds, as in the names Myonnesus, Proconnesus, 
and Halonnesus; and consequently we have Heca- 
tonnesi, which means Apollonnesi, for Apollo is 
called Hecatus; for along the whole of this coast, 
as far as Tenedos, Apollo is highly honoured, being 
called Sminthian or Cillaean or Grynian or by some 
other appellation. Near these islands is Pordose- 
lené, which contains a city of the same name, and 
also, in front of this city, another island, larger and 
of the same name, which is uninhabited and has a 
temple sacred to Apollo. 

6. Some writers, to avoid the indecency of the 
names, say that in this place we should read “ Poro- 
selené,’ and that we should call Aspordenum, the 
rocky and barren mountain round Pergamum, 
*« Asporenum,” and the temple of the Mother of the 

1 Frag. 5 (Bergk). 

8 φεύγοντες, Corais, for φυγόντες ; so the later editors. 


καὶ λυπρὸν ὄν, ᾿Ασπόρηνον, καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν τὸ 
ἐνταῦθα τῆς Μητρὸς τῶν θεῶν ᾿Ασπορηνῆς.3 τί οὖν 
φήσομεν τὴν Πόρδαλιν καὶ τὸν Σαπέρδην καὶ τὸν 
Περδίκκαν καὶ τὸ Σιμωνίδου 

σὺν πορδακοῖσιν ἐκπεσόντες εἵμασιν 8 
> \ lal ‘ \ 3 A » / 
ἀντὶ τοῦ διαβρόχοις, καὶ ἐν τῇ ἀρχαίᾳ που 
πορδακὸν τὸ χωρίον, 

τὸ λίμναζον ; διέχει δ᾽ ἡ Λέσβος τὸ ἴσον ἀπὸ 

fol / \ / \ / / fal 
τῆς Τενέδου καὶ Λήμνου καὶ Χίου σχεδόν τι τῶν 
πεντακοσίων ἐνδοτέρω σταδίων. 


, \ κ \ \ a > / 
1. Τοιαύτης δὲ τῆς πρὸς τοὺς Τρῶας οἰκειό- 
ε ͵ὔ nan / \ n , 
τητος ὑπαρχούσης τοῖς Te Λέλεξι καὶ τοῖς Κύλεξι, 
le} » 
ζητοῦσιν αἰτίαν, du ἣν οὐ συγκαταλέγονται καὶ 
οὗτοι ἐν τῷ καταλόγῳ. εἰκὸς δὲ διὰ τὴν τῶν 
ἡγεμόνων διαφθορὼν καὶ τὴν τῶν πόλεων 
> , > / ε / \ / 
ἐκπόρθησιν ὀλίγους ὑπολειφθέντας τοὺς Κίλικας 
ὑπὸ τῷ “Ἕκτορι τάττεσθαι: ὅ τε yap ᾿Πετίων 
καὶ οἱ παῖδες αὐτοῦ λέγονται πρὸ τοῦ καταλόγου 
ἤτοι μὲν πατέρ᾽ ἀμὸν ὁ ἀπέκτανε δῖος ᾿Αχιελ- 

ἐκ δὲ πόλιν πέρσεν Κιλίκων, 
Θήβην ὑψίπυλον. 

i Instead of ᾿Ασπόρηνον, F reads ᾿Ασπρόκνον, oz ᾿Ασπόρινον. 
* ᾿Ασπορινῆς 02. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 6-3.1 

gods there the temple of the “ Asporene”’ mother. 
What, then, shall we say of Pordalis and Saperdes 
and Perdiccas, and of the phrase of Simonides, 
* banished, ‘ pordacian’ clothes and all,’’ instead of 
*wet’’ clothes, and, somewhere in the early comedy, 
“the place is ‘ pordacian,’” that is, the place that 
is “marshy”? Lesbos is equidistant from Tenedos 
and Lemnos and Chios, one might say rather less 
than five hundred stadia, 


1. Since the Leleges and the Cilicians were so 
closely related to the Trojans, people inquire for the 
reason why they are not included with the Trojans 
in the Catalogue. But it is reasonable to suppose 
that because of the loss of their leaders and the 
sacking of their cities the few Cilicians that were 
left were placed under the command of Hector, 
for both Eétion and his sons are said to have 
been slain before the Catalogue :* “Verily my father 
was slain by the goodly Achilles, who utterly sacked 
the city of Cilicians, Thebé of the lofty gates. 

1 2,6. they avoid ‘‘pord,” which, as also ‘‘ perd,” is the 
stem of an indecent Greek word. 
2 2,6. before the marshalling of the troops as described in 

the Catalogue. 

8 eluacw, Tyrwhitt, for ἵμασιν ; so the later editors. 
4 ἀμόν, Xylander, for ἐμόν ; so the later editors. 



οἱ δέ μοι ἑπτὰ κασίγνητοι ἔσαν ἐν μεγαροισιν, 
a , ” 
οἱ μὲν πάντες ἰῷ κίον ἤματι ”Aidos εἴσω" 
7 \ / / lal > 
πάντας yap κατέπεφνε ποδάρκης δῖος ᾿Αχιλ- 
e > “ \ ΜΆ. Ν / / ᾿ , 
ὡς δ᾽ αὕτως καὶ of ὑπὸ Μύνητι τούς τε ἡγεμόνας 
ἀποβεβλήκασι καὶ τὴν πόλιν" 
καδ᾽ δὲ Μύνητ᾽ ἔβαλε καὶ ᾿Επίστροφον, 
πέρσεν δὲ πόλιν θείοιο Μύνητος. 

\ \ / a \ Ε] “.: ΄ a 
τοὺς δὲ Λέλεγας τοῖς μὲν ἀγῶσι παρόντας ποιεῖ, 
ὅταν οὕτω λέγῃ" 

πρὸς μὲν ἁλὸς Κᾶρες καὶ Ἰ]Παίονες ἀγκυλότοξοι 

καὶ Λέλεγες καὶ Καύκωνες" 
καὶ πάλιν" 

Σάτνιον οὔτασε δουρὶ 
> / ἃ » , , \ 2 4 

Οἰνοπίδην, ὃν dpa νύμφη τέκε Νηὶς ἀμύμων 

Οἴνοπι βουκολέοντι παρ᾽ ὄχθας Σατνιόεντος. 
οὐ γὰρ οὕτως ἐξελελοίπεσαν τελέως, ὥστε μὴ 

\ > € \ y 4 [2 la 
καὶ καθ᾽ αὑτοὺς ἔχειν τι σύστημα, ἅτε τοῦ 
n ’ 
βασιλέως αὐτῶν ἔτι περιόντος, 

ἼΛλτεω, ὃς Λελέγεσσι φιλοπτολέμοισιν ἀνάσσει, 
καὶ τῆς πόλεως οὐ τελέως ἠφανισμένης" ἐπιφέρει 

Πήδασον αἰπήεσσαν ἔχων ἐπὶ ' Σατνιόεντι. 

C 620 ἐν μέντοι τῷ καταλόγῳ παραλέλοιπεν αὐτούς, 
οὐχ ἱκανὸν ἡγούμενος τὸ σύστημα, ὥστ᾽ ἐν 
καταλόγῳ τάττεσθαι, ἢ Kal? ὑπὸ τῷ “Εκτορι καὶ 
τούτους συγκαταλέγων, οὕτως ὄντας οἰκείους. 
ὁ γὰρ Λυκάων φησίν, ἀδελφὸς dv “Exrtopos: 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3.1 

And the seven brothers of mine in our halls, all 
these on the same day! went inside the home of 
Hades, for all were slain by swift-footed, goodly 
Achilles.’ And so, in the same way, those subject 
to Mynes lost both their leaders and their city: 
“And he laid low Mynes and Epistrophus, and 
sacked the city of godlike Mynes.”® But he makes 
the Leleges present at the battles when he says as 
follows: ** Towards the sea are situated the Carians 
and the Paeonians, with curved bows, and the 

Leleges and Caucones.”* And again, “he pierced 
with his spear Satnius, son of Oenops, whom a 
noble Naiad nymph bore to Oenops, as he tended 
his herds beside the banks of the Satnioeis”’ ;° for 
they had not so completely disappeared that they 
did not have a separate organisation of their own, 
since their king still survived, “ of Altes, who is lord 
over the war-loving Leleges,” ® and since their city 
had not been utterly wiped out, for the poet adds, 
“who holds steep Pedasus on the Satnioeis.” 7 
However, the poet has omitted them in the Catalogue, 
not considering their organisation sufficient to have 
a place in it, or else including them under the com- 
mand of Hector because they were so closely related ; 

1 6, with Eétion. 2 Tiiad 6. 414. 
3 Jliad 2. 692, 19. 296. 4 Jliad 10. 428. 
5 Iliad 14, 443. ® Tliad 21. 86. 7 [liad 21. 87. 

1 ἐπί, Corais, for ὑπό. 
* καί, before ὑπό, omitted by O. 



μινυνθάδιον δέ we μήτηρ 
γείνατο Λαοθόη, θυγάτηρ" Αλταο γέροντος, 
“Artem, ὃς Λελέγεσσι φιλοπτολέμοισιν ἀνάσ- 

ταῦτα μὲν οὖν τοιαύτην τινὰ ἔχει τὴν εἰκοτο- 

2. Εἰκοτολογεῖν δ᾽ ἐστί, κἂν εἴ τις τὸν ἀκριβῆ 
ζητεῖ κατὰ τὸν ποιητὴν ὅρον, μέχρι τίνος οἱ 
Κίλικες διέτεινον καὶ οἱ Πελασγοὶ καὶ ἔτι οἱ 
μεταξὺ τούτων ΚΚήτειοι λεγόμενοι οἱ ὑπὸ τῷ 
Εὐρυπύλῳ. περὶ μὲν οὖν τῶν Κιλίκων καὶ τῶν 
ὑπ᾽ Εὐρυπύλῳ τὰ ἐνόντα εἴρηται, καὶ διότι él τὰ 
περὶ τὸν ΚΚάϊκον μάλιστα περατοῦνται. τοὺς δὲ 
Πελασγοὺς εὔλογον τούτοις ἐφεξῆς τιθέναι ἔκ τε 
τῶν ὑφ᾽ Ὁμήρου λεγομένων καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἄλλης 
ἱστορίας. ὁ μὲν γὰρ οὕτω φησίν' 

Ἱππόθοος δ᾽ ἄγε φῦλα Πελασγῶν ἐγχεσι- 


τῶν, οἱ Λάρισαν ἐριβώλακα ναιετάασκον" 

τῶν ἦρχ᾽ Ἱππόθοος τε Πὐλαιός τ᾽ ὄζος *Apnos, 

υἷε δύω Λήθοιο Πελασγοῦ Τευταμίδαο. 

ἐξ ὧν πλῆθός τε ἐμφαίνει ἀξιόλογον τὸ τῶν 

Πελασγῶν (οὐ γὰρ φῦλον, ἀλλὰ φῦλα ἔφη) καὶ 

\ » > / 4 \ \ - 

τὴν οἴκησιν ἐν Λαρίσῃ φράζει. πολλαὶ μὲν οὖν 
΄ a lal 4 

ai Λάρισαι, Set δὲ τῶν ἐγγύς τινα δέξασθαι, 
/ > a ‘ \ 4 ς 7 

μάλιστα 8 ἂν τὴν περὶ Κύμην ὑπολάβοι τις 

“Ὁ lal a x, ¢ 

ὀρθῶς: τριῶν yap οὐσῶν, ἡ μὲν καθ᾽ ᾿Αμαξιτὸν ἐν 
“ , 

ὄψει τελέως ἐστὶ τῷ ᾿Ιλίῳ, καὶ ἐγγὺς σφόδρα ἐν 

διακοσίοις που σταδίοις, ὥστ᾽ οὐκ ἂν λέγοιτο 

2 ἐπί, Meineke inserts, 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 1-2 

for Lycaon, who was a brother of Hector, says, “toa 
short span of life my mother, daughter of the old 
man Altes, bore me—Altes who is lord over the 
war-loving Leleges.” 1 Such, then, are the proba- 
bilities in this matter. 

2. And it is also a matter of reasoning from prob- 
abilities if one inquires as to the exact bounds to 
which the poet means that the Cilicians extended, 
and the Pelasgians, and also the Ceteians, as they 
are called, under the command of Eurypylus, whe 
lived between those two peoples. Now as for the 
Cilicians and the peoples under the command of 
Eurypylus, all has been said about them that can 
be said, and that their country is in a general way 
bounded by the region of the Caicus River. As for 
the Pelasgians, it is reasonable, both from the words 
of Homer and from history in general, to place them 
next in order after these peoples; for Homer says 
as follows: “‘ And Hippothoiis led the tribes of the 
Pelasgians that rage with the spear, them that dwelt 
in fertile Larisa; these were ruled by Hippothoiis 
and Pylaeus, scion of Ares, the two sons of Pelasgian 
Lethus, son of Teutamus.”? By these words he 
clearly indicates that the number of Pelasgians was 
considerable, for he says “ tribes,’ not “tribe ;’’ and 
he also specifies their abode as “in Larisa.”” Now 
there are many Larisas, but we must interpret him 
as meaning one of those that were near; and best of 
all one might rightly assume the one in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cymé; for of the three Larisas the one 
near Hamaxitus was in plain sight of Ilium and very 
near it, within a distance of two hundred stadia, and 
therefore it could not be said with plausibility that 

1 Iliad 21. 84. * Iliad 2. 840. 

ν “Ὁ 


πιθανῶς ὁ Ἱππόθοος πεσεῖν ἐν τῷ ὑπὲρ Πα- 
τρόκλου ἀγῶνι 

THA ἀπὸ Λαρίσης, 

ταύτης γε, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον τῆς περὶ Κύμην" χίλιοι 
γάρ που στάδιοι μεταξύ" “τρίτη δ᾽ ἐστὶ Λάρισα, 
κώμη τῆς ᾿Εφεσίας ἐν τῷ Καύστρίῳ πεδίῳ, ἥν 
φασι πόλιν ὑπάρξαι πρότερον, ἔχουσαν καὶ ἱερὸν 
᾿Απόλλωνος Λαρισηνοῦ, πλησιάξουσαν τῷ ὁ Ῥμώλῳ 
μᾶλλον ἢ τῇ ᾿Εφέσῳ' ταύτης γὰρ ἑκατὸν καὶ 
ὀγδοήκοντα διέχει σταδίους, ὥστε ὑπὸ τοῖς 
Μύήοσιν ἄν τις τάττοι ταύτην. ᾿Εφέσιοι δ᾽ 
αὐξηθέντες ὕστερον πολλὴν τῆς τῶν Mnovev, 
ods νῦν Λυδούς φαμεν, ἀπετέμοντο, dor οὐδ᾽ 
αὕτη ἂν ἡ τῶν Πελασγῶν “Λάρισα εἴη, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἐκείνη μᾶλλον. καὶ γὰρ τῆς μὲν ἐν τῇ Καῦστριανῇ 
Λαρίσης οὐδὲν ἔχομεν τεκμήριον ἰσχυρόν, ὡς ἣν 
ἤδη τότε' οὐδὲ γὰρ τῆς ᾿Εφέσου" τῆς δὲ περὶ τὴν 

C 621 Κύμην μαρτύριόν ἐστι πᾶσα ἡ Αἰολικὴ i ἱστορία, 
μικρὸν ὕστερον τῶν ᾿ Τρωικῶν γενομένη. 

8. Φασὶ γὰρ τοὺς ἐκ τοῦ Φρικίου 1 τοῦ ὑπὲρ 
Θερμοπυλῶν Λοκρικοῦ ὄρους ὁρμηθέντας κατᾶραι 
μὲν εἰς τὸν τόπον, ὅπου νῦν ἡ Κύμη ἐστί, 
καταλαβόντας δὲ τοὺς Πελασγοὺς κεκακωμένους 
ὑπὸ τοῦ Τρωικοῦ πολέμου, κατέχοντας δ᾽ ὅμως 
ἔτι τὴν Λάρισαν διέχουσαν τῆς Κύμης ὅσον 
ἑβδομήκοντα σταδίους, ἐπιτειχίσαι αὐτοῖς τὸ νῦν 
ἔτι λεγόμενον Νέον τεῖχος ἀπὸ τριάκοντα σταδίων 
τῆς Λαρίσης, ἑλόντας ° δὲ κτίσαι τὴν Κύμην καὶ 
τοὺς περιγενομένους ἀνθρώπους ἐκεῖσε ἀνοικίσαι" 

1 ἐκ τοῦ ΡΥ Tyrwhitt, for ἐν τῷ Φρικίῳ; so the later 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 2-3 

Hippothoiis fell in the fight over Patroclus “far 
away from” this ‘‘ Larisa,” but rather from the 
Larisa near Cymé, for the distance between the two 
is about a thousand stadia. The third Larisa is a 
village in the territory of Ephesus in the Cayster 
Plain; it is said to have been a city in earlier 
times, containing a temple of Larisaean Apollo and 
being situated closer to Mt. Tmolus than to Ephesus. 
lt is one hundred and eighty stadia distant from 
Ephesus, and might therefore be placed under the 
Maeonians. But the Ephesians, having grown in 
power, later cut off for themselves much of the 
territory of the Maeconians, whom we now call 
Lydians, so that this could not be the Larisa of the 
Pelasgians either, but rather the one near Cymé. 
In fact we have no strong evidence that the Larisa 
in the Cayster Plain was already in existence at that 
time, for we have no such evidence as to Ephesus 
either; but all Aeolian history, which arose but 
shortly after the Trojan times, bears testimony to 
the existence of the Larisa near Cymé. 

3. For it is said that the people who set out from 
Phricium, the Locrian mountain above Thermopylae, 
put in at the place where Cymé now is, and finding 
the Pelasgians in bad plight because of the Trojan 
War, though still in possession of Larisa, which was 
about seventy stadia distant from Cymé, built on 
their frontier what is still to-day called Neon 
Teichos,' thirty stadia from Larisa, and that, having 
eaptured Larisa, they founded Cymé and settled 
there the survivors» And Cymé is called Cymé 

1“ ” 
A New wall, 

. ένα, Corais, Kramer, \and_ Meineke, for ἐλθόντας ; 
ἀνελθόντας Groskurd.. A 


> \ \ A la) Μ / / 
ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Aoxpixod ὄρους τήν τε Κύμην 
lal ε 
Φρικωνίδα καλοῦσιν, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὴν Λάρισαν" 
+] nr ᾽ 
ἐρήμη δ᾽ ἐστὶ νῦν. ὅτι δ᾽ οἱ Πελασγοὶ μέγα Hv 
ἔθνος, καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἄλλης ἱστορίας οὕτως ἐκμαρτυ- 

lal 1 Ἂ Μ ’ lal δια i 3 
ρεῖσθαί φασι Μενεκράτης γοῦν ὁ ᾿Ελαΐτης ἐν 
τοῖς περὶ κτίσεων φησὶ τὴν παραλίαν τὴν νῦν 
᾿Ιωνικὴν πᾶσαν, ἀπὸ Μυκάλης ἀρξαμένην, ὑπὸ 
Πελασγῶν οἰκεῖσθαι πρότερον καὶ τὰς πλησίον 

᾽ ’ 

νήσους. Λέσβιοι δ᾽ ὑπὸ Πυλαίῳ τετάχθαι λέ- 
γουσι σφᾶς, τῷ ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ λεγομένῳ τῶν 
Πελασγῶν ἄρχοντι, ad’ οὗ καὶ τὸ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς 
ὄρος ἔτι Τύλαιον καλεῖσθαι. καὶ Χῖοι δὲ οἰκιστὰς 
© 5 ΄ \ 3 “ / 
ἑαυτῶν IleXacyovs φασι τοὺς ἐκ τῆς Θετταλίας. 
πολύπλανον δὲ καὶ ταχὺ τὸ ἔθνος πρὸς ἀπα- 

᾿ 2 » 46 δι. - | \ \ » ‘ 
ναστάσεις," ηὐξήθη τε ἐπὶ πολὺ καὶ ἀθρόαν 
», \ Ν \ / aN \ 
ἔλαβε τὴν ἔκλειψιν, καὶ μάλιστα κατὰ τὴν 
τῶν Αἰολέων καὶ τῶν ᾿Ιώνων περαίωσιν εἰς τὴν 

4. ἥϊδιον δέ τι τοῖς Λαρισαίοις συνέβη τοῖς 
te Καύστριανοῖς ὃ καὶ τοῖς Φρικωνεῦσι καὶ τρίτοις 
τοῖς ἐν Θετταλίᾳ ἅπαντες γὰρ ποταμόχωστον 
τὴν χώραν ἔσχον, οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ Kavotpou, οἱ 

an ’ -“ “ 
δ᾽ ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἕρμου, οἱ δ᾽ ὑπὸ τοῦ Πηνειοῦ. ἐν 
- / n 

δὲ τῇ Φρικωνίδι Aapion τετιμῆσθαι λέγεται 
Πίασος, ὅν φασιν ἄρχοντα Πελασγῶν ἐρασθῆναι 
τῆς θυγατρὸς Λαρίσης, βιασάμενον δ᾽ αὐτὴν 
τῖσαι τῆς ὕβρεως δίκην: ἐγκύψαντα yap εἰς 
πίθον οἴνου καταμαθοῦσαν τῶν σκελῶν λαβο- 
μένην ἐξᾶραι καὶ καθεῖναι αὐτὸν εἰς τὸν πίθον. 
τὰ μὲν οὖν ἀρχαῖα τοιαῦτα. 

1 Dhi read τοῦτο ἐκμαρτυρῆσαι. 

2 ἀπαναστάσεις, Corais, for ἐπαναστάσει. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 3-4 

Phriconis after the Locrian mountain; and likewise 
Larisa is called Larisa Phriconis; but Larisa is now 
deserted. That the Pelasgians were a great tribe is 
said also to be the testimony of history in general : 
Menecrates of Elaea, at any rate, in his work On the 
Founding of Cities, says that the whole of what is now 
the Ionian coast, beginning at Mycalé, as also the 
neighbouring islands, were in earlier times inhabited 
by Pelasgians. But the Lesbians say that their 
people were placed under the command of Pylaeus, 
the man whom the poet calls the ruler of the 
Pelasgians,' and that it is from him that the mountain 
in their country is still called Pylaeus. The Chians, 
also, say that the Pelasgians from Thessaly were 
their founders. But the Pelasgian race, ever 
wandering and quick to migrate, greatly increased 
and then rapidly disappeared, particularly at the time 
of the migration of the Aecolians and Ionians to Asia. 

4. A peculiar thing happened in the case of the 
Larisaeans, 1 mean the Caystrian and the Phryconian 
Larisaeans and, third, those in Thessaly: they all 
held land that was deposited by rivers, by the 
Cayster and by the Hermus and by the Peneius. It 
is at the Phryconian Larisa that Piasus is said to 
have been honoured, who, they say, was ruler of the 
Pelasgians and fell in love with his daughter Larisa, 
and, having violated her, paid the penalty for the 
outrage; for, observing him leaning over a cask of 
wine, they say, she seized him by the legs, raised 
him, and plunged him into the cask. Such are the 
ancient accounts. 

1 Iliad 2. 842. 

3 Instead of Καῦστριανοῖς, CDEhimoz read Καῦστρηνοῖς, Fx 





5. Ταῖς δὲ viv Αἰολικαῖς πόλεσιν ἔτι καὶ τὰς 
Αἰγὰς 1 προσληπτέον καὶ τὴν Τῆμνον, ὅθεν ἦν 
᾿Ἑρμαγόρας ὁ τὰς ῥητορικὰς τέχνας συγγράψας" 
ἵδρυνται δ᾽ αἱ πόλεις αὗται κατὰ τὴν ὀρεινὴν 
τὴν ὑπερκειμένην τῆς τε Κυμαίας καὶ τῆς 
Φωκαέων καὶ Σμυρναίων γῆς, παρ᾽ ἣν ὁ “Eppos 
ῥεῖ. οὐκ ἄπωθεν δὲ τούτων τῶν πόλεων οὐ 
ἡ Μαγνησία ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ Σιπύλῳ, ἐλευθέρα 
πόλις ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων κεκριμένη. καὶ ταύτην δ᾽ 
ἐκάκωσαν οἱ νεωστὶ γενόμενοι σεισμοί. εἰς δὲ 
τἀναντία τὰ ἐπὶ τὸν Κάϊκον νεύοντα ἀπὸ Λαρίσης 
μὲν διαβάντι τὸν Ἕρμον εἰς Κύμην ἑβδομήκοντα 
στάδιοι, ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ εἰς Μύριναν τετταράκοντα 
στάδιοι, τὸ δ᾽ ἴσον ἐντεῦθεν εἰς Γρύνιον, κἀκεῖθεν 
εἰς ᾿Ελαίαν' ὡς δ᾽ ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος, ἀπὸ τῆς 
Κύμης εἰσὶν "Adat, εἶτ᾽ ἄκρα μετὰ τετταράκοντα 
σταδίους, ἣν καλοῦσιν "Tépay, ἡ ποιοῦσα τὸν 
κόλπον τὸν ᾿Ελαϊτικὸν πρὸς τὴν ἀπεναντίον 
ἄκραν ᾿Ἀρματοῦντα. τοῦ μὲν οὖν στόματος τὸ 
πλάτος περὶ ὀγδοήκοντα σταδίους ἐστίν, ἐγκολπί- 
ἕοντι δὲ Μύρινα ἐν ἑξήκοντα σταδίοις, Αἰολὶς 
πόλις ἔχουσα λιμένα, εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αχαιῶν λιμήν, ὅπου 
οἱ βωμοὶ τῶν δώδεκα θεῶν, εἶτα πολίχνιον 
᾿ρύνιον καὶ ἱερὸν ᾿Απόλλωνος καὶ μαντεῖον 
ἀρχαῖον καὶ νεὼς πολυτελὴς λίθου λευκοῦ, 
στάδιοι δ᾽ ἐπ᾽ αὐτὴν τετταράκοντα" εἶθ᾽ ἑβδομή- 
κοντα εἰς ᾿Ελαίαν, λιμένα ἔχουσαν καὶ ναύσταθ- 
μον τῶν ᾿Ατταλικῶν βασιλέων, Μενεσθέως 
κτίσμα καὶ τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ ᾿Αθηναίων τῶν 
συστρατευσάντων ἐπὶ Ἴλιον. τὰ δ᾽ ἑξῆς εἴρηται 
τὰ “περὴ Πιτάνην καὶ ᾿Αταρνέα καὶ τἄᾶλλα τὰ 


GEOGRAPRY, 13. 3. 5 

5. To the present Aeolian cities we must add 
Aegae, and also Temnus, the birthplace of Herma- 
goras, who wrote The Art of Rhetoric. These cities 
are situated in the mountainous country that lies 
above the territory of Cymé and that of the Phocians 
and that of the Smyrnaeans, along which flows the 
Hermus, Neither is Magnesia, which is situated 
below Mt. Sipylus and has been adjudged a free 
city by the Romans, far from these cities. This city 
too has been damaged by the recent earthquakes. 
To the opposite parts, which incline towards the 
Caicus, from Larisa across the Hermus to Cymé, the 
distance is seventy stadia; thence to Myrina, forty 
stadia; thence to Grynium, the same; and from 
there to Elaea. But, according to Artemidorus, one 
goes from Cymé to Adae, and then, forty stadia 
distant, to a promontory called Hydra, which with 
the opposite promontory Harmatus forms the Elaitic 
Gulf. Now the width of the mouth of this gulf is 
about eighty stadia, but, including the sinuosities of 
the gulf, Myrina, an Aeolian city with a harbour, is at 
a distance of sixty stadia; and then one comes to the 
Harbour of the Achaeans, where are the altars of 
the twelve gods; and then to a town Grynium and 
an altar of Apollo and an ancient oracle and a costly 
shrine of white marble, to which the distance is forty 
stadia; and then seventy stadia to Elaea, with 
harbour and naval station belonging to the Attalic 
kings, which was founded by Menestheus and the 
Athenians who took the expedition with him to 
Ilium. I have already spoken of the places that 
come next, those about Pitané and Atarneus and 
the others in that region. 

1 αἰγᾶς Dh, 


C 623 ” 


6. Meyiorn δέ ἐστι TOV Αἰολικῶν καὶ ἀρίστη 
Κύμη καὶ σχεδὸν μητρόπολις αὕτη τε καὶ ἡ 
Λέσβος τῶν ἄλλων πόλεων, περὶ τριάκοντά που 
τὸν ἀριθμόν, ὧν ἐκλελοίπασιν οὐκ ὀλίγαι. 
σκώπτεται δ᾽ εἰς ἀναισθησίαν ἡ Κύμη κατὰ 
τοιαύτην τινά, ὥς φασιν ἔνιοι, δόξαν, ὅτι τρια- 
κοσίοις ἔτεσιν ὕστερον τῆς κτίσεως ἀπέδοντο 
τοῦ λιμένος τὰ τέλη, πρότερον δ᾽ οὐκ ἐκαρποῦτο 
τὴν πρόσοδον ταύτην ὁ δῆμος: κατέσχεν οὖν 
δόξα, ὡς ὀψὲ ἢσθημένων, ὅ ὅτι ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ πόλιν 
οἰκοῖεν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλος λόγος, ὅτι δανεισά- 
μενοι χρήματα δημοσίᾳ τὰς στοὰς ὑπέθεντο, εἶτ᾽ 
οὐκ ἀποδιδόντες κατὰ τὴν ὡρισμένην ἡμέραν 
εἴργοντο τῶν περιπάτων" ὅτε μέντοι ὄμβρος εἴη, 
κατ᾽ αἰδῶ τινὰ κηρύττοιεν οἱ δανεισταΐ, κελεύοντες 
ὑπὸ τὰς στοὰς ὑπέρχεσθαι: τοῦ δὴ κήρυκος οὕτω 
φθεγγομένου “ὑπὸ τὰς στοὰς ὑπέλθετε," ἐκπεσεῖν 
λόγον, ὡς Κυμαίων οὐκ αἰσθανομένων, ὡς ἐν τοῖς 
ὄμβροις ὑ ὑπὸ τὰς στοὰς ὑπελθετέον, ἃ ἂν μὴ σημάνῃ 
τίς αὐτοῖς διὰ κηρύγματος. ἀνὴρ δ᾽ ἄξιος μνήμης 
ἐκ τῆσδε τῆς πόλεως ἀναντιλέκτως μέν ἐστιν 
Ἔφορος, τῶν ᾿Ισοκράτους γνωρίμων τοῦ ῥήτορος, 
ὁ τὴν ἱστορίαν συγγράψας καὶ τὰ περὶ τῶν 
εὑρημάτων: καὶ ἔτι πρότερος τούτου Ἡσίοδος 
ὁ ποιητής" αὐτὸς γὰρ εἴρηκεν, ὅτι ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ 
Aios μετῴκησεν εἰς Βοιωτούς, Κύμην Αἰολίδα 

νάσσατο δ᾽ a ἄγχ᾽ “Ἑλικῶνος ὀϊξυρῇ ἐ ἐνὶ κώμῃ 
"Ackpn, χεῖμα κακῇ, θέρει ἀργαλέῃ, οὐδέ ποτ᾽ 

Ὅμηρος δ᾽ οὐχ ὁμολογουμένως: πολλοὶ γὰρ 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 6 

6. The largest and best of the Aeolian cities is 
Cymé; and this with Lesbos might be called the 
metropolis of the rest of the cities, about thirty in 
number, of which not a few have disappeared. Cymé 
is ridiculed for its stupidity, owing to the repute, as 
some say, that not until three hundred years after 
the founding of the city did they sell the tolls of the 
harbour, and that before this time the people did not 
reap this revenue. They got the reputation, there- 
fore, of being a people who learned late that they were 
living in a city by the sea. There is also another 
report of them, that, having borrowed money in the 
name of the state, they pledged their porticoes as 
security, and then, failing to pay the money on the 
appointed day, were prohibited from walking in 
them; when it rained, however, their creditors, 
through a kind of shame, would bid them through a 
herald to go under the porticoes; so the herald 
would ery out the words, “ Go under the porticoes,” 
but the report went abroad that the Cymaeans did 
not understand that they were to go under the 
porticoes when it rained unless they were given 
notice by the herald. Ephorus, a man indisputably 
noteworthy, a disciple of Isocrates the orator, and 
the author of the History and of the work on In- 
ventions, was from this city; and so was Hesiod the 
poet, still earlier than Ephorus, for Hesiod himself 
states that his father Dius left Aeolian Cymé and 
migrated to Boeotia: “ And he settled near Helicon 
in a wretched village, Ascré, which is bad in winter, 
oppressive in summer, and pleasant at no time.” 
But it is not agreed that Homer was from Cymé, for 

1 Works and Days, 639-40 (quoted also in 9. 2. 25). 



ἀμφισβητοῦσιν αὐτοῦ. τὸ δ᾽ ὄνομα ἀπὸ ᾿Αμα- 
ζόνος τῇ πόλει τεθεῖσθαι, καθάπερ καὶ τῇ 
Μυρίνῃ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐν τῷ Τρωικῷ πεδίῳ κειμένης 
ὑπὸ τῇ Βατιείᾳ' 
τὴν ἤτοι ἄνδρες Βατίειαν κικλήσκουσιν, 
ἀθάνατοι δέ τε σῆμα πολυσκάρθμοιο Μυρίνης. 

, \ \ Φ - , na / 
σκώπτεται δὲ καὶ ὁ “Edopos, διότι τῆς πατρίδος 
ἔργα οὐκ ἔχων φράζειν ἐν τῇ διαριθμήσει τῶν 
ἄλλων πράξεων, οὐ μὴν οὐδ᾽ 1 ἀμνημόνευτον αὐτὴν 
ΩΣ , ΜΝ ? mn ᾿ \ \ \ 
εἶναι θέλων, οὕτως ἐπιφωνεῖ: “Kara δὲ τὸν 
αὐτὸν καιρὸν Κυμαῖοι τὰς ἡσυχίας ἦγον." ἐπεὶ 
δὲ διεληλύθαμεν τὴν Τρωικὴν ἅμα καὶ τὴν 

ν᾽ Ν / > a x ν \ , 
Αἰολικὴν παραλίαν, ἐφεξῆς ἂν εἴη τὴν μεσόγαιαν 
ἐπιδραμεῖν μέχρι τοῦ Ταύρου, φυλάσσοντας τὴν 
αὐτὴν τῆς ἐφόδου τάξιν. 


1. “Eyer δέ τινα ἡγεμονίαν πρὸς τοὺς τόπους 
τούτους τὸ Πέργαμον, ἐπιφανὴς πόλις καὶ πολὺν 
συνευτυχήσασα χρόνον τοῖς ᾿Ατταλικοῖς βασι- 
λεῦσι' καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐντεῦθεν ἀρκτέον τῆς ἑξῆς 
περιοδείας, καὶ πρῶτον περὶ τῶν βασιλέων, 
ὁπόθεν ὡρμήθησαν καὶ εἰς ἃ κατέστρεψαν, ἐν 
βραχέσι δηλωτέον. jv μὲν δὴ τὸ Πέργαμον 
Λυσιμάχου γαζοφυλάκιον τοῦ ᾿Αγαθοκλέους, ἑνὸς 
τῶν ᾿Αλεξάνδρου διαδόχων, αὐτὴν τὴν ἄκραν τοῦ 
ὄρους oui οἰκουμένην ἔχον" ἔστι δὲ στροβιλοειδὲς 
τὸ ὄρος εἰς ὀξεῖαν κορυφὴν ἀπολῆγον. ἐπεπίσ- 
τευτο δὲ τὴν φυλακὴν τοῦ ἐρύματος τούτου καὶ 
τῶν χρημάτων (ἦν δὲ τάλαντα ἐννακισχίλια) 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 6-4. 1 

many peoples lay claim to him. It is agreed, how- 
ever, that the name of the city was derived from an 
Amazon, as was Myrina from the Amazon who lies 
in the Trojan plain below Batieia, “which verily 
men call Baticia, but the immortals the tomb of 
much-bounding Myrina,”’!_ Ephorus, too, is ridiculed 
because, though unable to tell of deeds of his native 
land in his enumeration of the other achievements in 
history, and yet unwilling that it should be unmen- 
tioned, he exclaims as follows: “ At about the same 
time the Cymaeans were at peace.” 

Since I have traversed at the same time the Trojan 
and Aeolian coasts, it would be next in order to treat 
cursorily the interior as far as the Taurus, observing 
the same order of approach. 


1. A kind of hegemony is held over these places 
by Pergamum, which is a famous city and for a long 
time prospered along with the Attalic kings; indeed 
I must begin my next description here, and first I 
must show briefly the origin of the kings and the 
end to which they came. Now Pergamum was a 
treasure-hold of Lysimachus, the son of Agathocles, 
who was one of the successors of Alexander, and its 
people are settled on the very summit of the 
mountain; the mountain is cone-like and ends ina 
sharp peak. The custody of this stronghold and the 
treasure, which amounted to nine thousand talents, 

1 Also quoted in 12, 8. 6. 
4 All MSS. except F% insert ἂν after οὐδ᾽. 



Φιλέταιρος, ἀνὴρ Τιανός,1 θλιβίας ἐκ παιδός. 
συνέβη γὰρ ἔν τινι ταφῆ θέας οὔσης καὶ πολλῶν 
παρόντων, ἀποληφθεῖσαν ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ τὴν κομί- 
fovcav τροφὸν τὸν Φιλέταιρον ἔτι νήπιον συν- 
θλιβῆναι μέχρι τοσοῦδε, ὥστε πηρωθῆναι τὸν 
παῖδα. ἣν μὲν δὴ εὐνοῦχος, τραφεὶς δὲ καλῶς 
ἐφάνη τῆς πίστεως ταύτης ἄξιος. τέως μὲν οὖν 
εὔνους διέμεινε 3 τῷ Λυσιμάχῳ, διενεχθεὶς δὲ 
πρὸς ᾿Αρσινόην τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ δια βάλλου- 
σαν αὐτὸν ἀπέστησε τὸ χωρίον καὶ πρὸς τοὺς 
καιροὺς em ONLTEUETO, ὁρῶν ἐπιτηδείους “πρὸς νεω- 
τερισμόν' ὅ τε γὰρ Λυσίμαχος κακοῖς οἰκείοις 
περιπεσὼν ἠναγκάσθη τὸν υἱὸν ἀνελεῖν ᾽Αγα- 
θοκλέα, Σέλευκός τε ἐπελθὼν ὃ ὁ Νικάτωρ ἐκεῖνόν 
τε κατέλυσε καὶ αὐτὸς κατελύθη, δολοφονηθεὶς 
ὑπὸ Πτολεμαίου τοῦ Κεραυνοῦ. τοιούτων δὲ 
θορύβων 6 ὄντων, διεγένετο μένων ἐπὶ τοῦ ἐρύματος 
ὁ εὐνοῦχος καὶ πολιτευόμενος δι᾿ ἃ ὑποσχέσεων 
καὶ τῆς ἄλλης θεραπείας ἀεὶ πρὸς τὸν | ἰσχύοντα 
καὶ ἐγγὺς παρόντα" διετέλεσε γοῦν ἔτη εἴκοσι 
κύριος ὧν τοῦ φρουρίου καὶ τῶν χρημάτων. 
C624 2. Ἦσαν δ᾽ αὐτῷ δύο ἀδελφοί, πρεσβύτερος 
μὲν υὐμένης, νεώτερος δ᾽ "Ατταλος" ἐκ μὲν οὗν 
τοῦ Εὐμένους ἐγένετο ὁμώνυμος τῷ πατρὶ Εὐμένης, 
ὅσπερ καὶ διεδέξατο τὸ Πέργαμον, καὶ ἣν ἤδη 
δυνάστης τῶν κύκλῳ χωρίων, ὥστε καὶ περὶ 
Σάρδεις ἐνίκησε μάχῃ συμβαλὼν ᾿Αντίοχον 
τὸν Σελεύκου" δύο δὲ καὶ εἴκοσιν ἄρξας ἔτη 
τελευτᾷ τὸν βίον. ἐκ δὲ ᾿Αττάλου καὶ ᾿Αν- 

1 πιαννός C, Τυανός x, Τυανεύς moz, 
2 Instead of διέμεινε, CDxz and Corais read διέμενε. 
3 ἐπανελθών muz, instead of ἐπελθών. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 1-2 

was entrusted to Philetaerus of Tieium, who was a 
eunuch from boyhood; for it came to pass at a 
certain burial, when a spectacle was being given 
at which many people were present, that the nurse 
who was carrying Philetaerus, still an infant, was 
caught in the crowd and pressed so hard that the 
child was incapacitated. He was a eunuch, there- 
fore, but he was well trained and proved worthy of 
this trust. Now for a time he continued loyal to 
Lysimachus, but he had differences with Arsinoé, 
the wife of Lysimachus, who slandered him, and so 
he caused Pergamum to revolt, and governed it to 
suit the occasion, since he saw that it was ripe for a 
change; for Lysimachus, beset with domestic troubles, 
was forced to slay his son Agathocles, and Seleucus 
Nicator invaded his country and overthrew him, 
and then he himself was overthrown and treacher- 
ously murdered by Ptolemy Ceraunus. During these 
disorders the eunuch continued to be in charge of 
the fortress and to manage things through promises 
and courtesies in general, always catering to any 
man who was powerful or near at hand. At any 
rate, he continued lord of the stronghold and the 
treasure for twenty years. 

2. He had two brothers, the elder of whom was 
Eumenes, the younger Attalus. Eumenes had a son 
of the same name, who succeeded to the rule of 
Pergamum, and was by this time sovereign of the 
places round about, so that he even joined battle 
with Antiochus the son of Seleucus near Sardeis and 
conquered him. He died after a reign of twenty- 
two years, Attalus, the son of Attalus and Antiochis, 

1 263 -241 B.o. 

4 μεθ᾽ moz, instead of δι᾽, 



τιοχίδος, τῆς ᾿Αχαιοῦ, γεγονὼς ἤΑτταλος διεδέ- 
ξατο τὴν ἀρχήν, καὶ ἀνηγορεύθη βασιλεὺς πρῶτος, 
νικήσας Γαλάτας μάχῃ μεγάλῃ. οὗτος δὲ καὶ 
“Ῥωμαίοις κατέστη φίλος καὶ συνεπολέμησε πρὸς 
Φίλιππον μετὰ τοῦ Ῥοδίων ναυτικοῦ" γηραιὸς 
δὲ ἐτελεύτα,1 βασιλεύσας ἔτη τρία καὶ TeTTa- 
ρώκοντα, κατέλιπε. δὲ τέτταρας υἱοὺς ἐξ ᾽᾿Απολ- 
λωνίδος Κυζικηνῆς γυναικός, ᾿ὐμένη, Λτταλον, 
Φιλέταιρον, ᾿Αθήναιον. οἱ μὲν οὖν νεώτεροι διε- 
τέλεσαν ἰδιῶται, τῶν δ᾽ ἄλλων ὁ πρεσβύτερος 
Εὐμένης ἐβασίλευσε: συνεπολέμησε δὲ οὗτος 
Ῥωμαίοις πρός τε ᾿Αντίοχον τὸν μέγαν καὶ πρὸς 
Περσέα, καὶ ἔλαβε παρὰ τῶν Ῥωμαίων ἅπασαν 
τὴν ὑπ᾽ ᾿Αντιόχῳ τὴν ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύρου. πρό- 
τερον δ᾽ ἦν τὰ περὶ Πέργαμον οὐ πολλὰ χωρία 
μέχρι τῆς θαλάττης τῆς κατὰ τὸν ᾿Βλαΐτην 
κόλπον καὶ τὸν ᾿Αδραμυττηνόν. κατεσκεύασε δ᾽ 
οὗτος τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὸ Νικηφόριον ἄλσει 
κατεφύτευσε, καὶ ἀναθήματα καὶ βιβλιοθήκας 
καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ τοσόνδε κατοικίαν τοῦ Περγάμου 
τὴν VUv οὖσαν ἐκεῖνος “ππροσεφιλοκάλησε' βασι- 
λεύσας δὲ 3 ἔτη τετταράκοντα καὶ ἐννέα ἀπέλιπεν. 
υἱῷ τὴν ἀρχὴν ᾿Αττάλῳ, γεγονότι, ἐκ Στρατονίκης 
τῆς ᾿Αριαράθου θυγατρὸς τοῦ Καππαδύκων 
βασιλέως. ἐπίτροπον δὲ κατέστησε καὶ τοῦ 
παιδὸς νέου τελέως ὄντος καὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς τὸν 
ἀδελφὸν "Ατταλον. ν δὲ καὶ εἴκοσιν ἔτη βασι- 
λεύσας γέρων οὗτος τελευτᾷ, κατορθώσας πολλά: 

1 ἐτελεύτησε moz, instead of ἐτελεύτα, 
2 δέ, before ἔτη, inserted by 2; moz have re. 

1 241-197 B.o. 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 2 

daughter of Achaeus, succeeded to the throne and 
was the first to be proclaimed king, after conquering 
the Galatians in a great battle. Attalus not only 
became a friend of the Romans but also fought on 
their side against Philip along with the fleet of the 
Rhodians. He died in old age, having reigned as 
king forty-three years;1 and he left four sons by 
Apollonis, a woman from Cyzicus, Eumenes, Attalus, 
Philetaerus, and Athenaeus. Now the two younger 
sons remained private citizens, but Eumenes, the elder 
of the other two, reigned as king. Eumenes fought 
on the side of the Romans against Antiochus the 
Great and against Perseus, and he received from the 
Romans all the country this side the Taurus that 
had been subject to Antiochus. But before that 
time the territory of Pergamum did not include 
many places that extended as far as the sea at the 
Elaitic and Adramyttene Gulfs. He built up the 
city and planted Nicephorium with a grove, and 
the other elder brother,? from love of splendour, 
added sacred buildings and libraries and raised the 
settlement of Pergamum to what it now is. After a 
reign of forty-nine years* Eumenes left his empire 
to Attalus, his son by Stratonicé, the daughter of 
Ariathres, king of the Cappadocians, He appointed 
his brother Attalus 4 as guardian both of his son, who 
was extremely young, and of the empire. After a 
reign of twenty-one years, his brother died an old 
man, having won success in many undertakings; for 

2 Others make ἐκεῖνος refer to Eumenes, but the present 
translator must make it refer to Attalus, unless the text is 

8 But he died in 159 B.c. (see Pauly-Wissowa, 8.0. 

**Eumenes,” p. 1103), thus having reigned 197-159 B.c. 
* Attalus Philadelphus. 5 159-138 B.c. 



καὶ γὰρ απ κρίκοι τὸν Σελεύκου συγκατεπολέ- 
μησεν ᾿Αλεξάνδ ρῳ τῷ ᾿Αντιόχου καὶ συνεμάχησε 
Ῥωμαίοις ἐπὶ τὸν Ψευδοφίλιππον, ἐχειρώσατο 
δὲ καὶ Δεήγυλεν τὸν Καινῶν] βασιλέα στρα- 
τεύσας εἰς τὴν Θράκην, ἀνεῖλε δὲ καὶ Προυσίαν, 
ἐπισυστήσαξ αὐτῷ Νικομήδη τὸν υἱόν, κατέλιπε 
δὲξ τὴν ἀρχὴν τῷ ἐπιτροπευθέντι ᾿Αττάχφ' 
βασιλεύσας δὲ οὗτος ἔτη πέντε καὶ κληθεὶς 
Φιλομήτωρ ἐτελεύτα νόσῳ τὸν βίον, κατέλιπε 
δὲ κληρονόμους Ρωμαίους: οἱ δ᾽ ἐπαρχίαν ἀπέ- 
δειξαν τὴν χώραν, ᾿Ασίαν προσαγορεύσαντες, 
ὁμώνυμον τῇ ἠπείρῳ. παραρρεῖ δ᾽ ὁ Κάϊκος τὸ 
Πέργαμον, διὰ τοῦ Καΐκου πεδίου προσαγορευο- 
μένου. σφόδρα εὐδαίμονα γῆν διεξιών, σχεδὸν δέ 
τι καὶ τὴν ἀρίστην τῆς Μυσίας. 

C625 3. “Avédpes δ᾽ ἐγένοντο ἐλλόγιμοι καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς 
Περγαμηνοί, Μιθριδάτης τε Μηνοδότου υἱὸς καὶ 
᾿Αδοβογίωνος, ee Tov τετραρχικοῦ τῶν Γαλατῶν 
γένους ἦν, ἣν ἃ καὶ ὅ παλλακεῦσαι τῷ βασιλεῖ 
Μιθριδάτῃ φασίν: ὅθεν καὶ τοὔνομα τῷ παιδὶ 
θέσθαι τοὺς ἐπιτηδείους, προσποιησμένους ἐκ 
τοῦ βασιλέως αὐτὸν γεγονέναι. οὗτος γοῦν 
Καίσαρι τῷ Θεῷ γενόμενος φίλος εἰς τοσόνδε 
προῆλθε τιμῆς, ὥστε καὶ τετράρχης ἀπεδείχθη 
ἀπὸ τοῦ μητρῴου γένους καὶ βασιλεὺς ἄλλων 
τε καὶ τοῦ Βοσπόρου: κατελύθη δ᾽ ὑπὸ ᾿Ασαν- 
δρου * τοῦ καὶ Dap: ἄκην ἀνελόντος τὸν βασιλέα 
καὶ κατασχόντος τὸν Βόσπορον. οὗτός τε δὴ 

1 Καινῶν, Tzschucke, for ἐκείνων CDhimorwaz, ἐκεῖνον F, 
καινόν Kpit.; so the later editors. 

? The MSS., except Fz, have καί after δέ. 

5 ABoBoyleres, és, the editors, for ᾿Αδοβογίων, ὅς, 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 2-3 

example, he helped Alexander, the son of Antiochus, 
to defeat in war Demetrius, the son of Seleucus, 
and he fought on the side of the Romans against 
the Pseudo-Philip, and in an expedition against 
Thrace he defeated Diegylis the king of the Caeni, 
and he slew Prusias, having incited his son Nicomedes 
against him, and he left his empire, under a guardian, 
to Attalus. Attalus, surnamed Philometor, reigned 
five years, died of disease, and left the Romans his 
heirs. The Romans proclaimed the country a 
province, calling it Asia, by the same name as the 
continent. The Caicus flows past Pergamum, through 
the Caicus Plain, as it is called, traversing land that 
is very fertile and about the best in Mysia. 

3. Pergamenians have become famous in my time: 
Mithridates the son of Menodotus and of Adobogion. 
Menodotus was of the family of the tetrarchs of the 
Galatians, and Adobogion, it is said, was also the 
concubine of King Mithridates,? and for this reason 
her relatives gave to the child the name of 
Mithridates, pretending that he was the son of the 
king. At any rate, he became a friend to the deified 
Caesar and reached so great preferment with him 
that he was appointed tetrarch from his mother’s 
family and king both of the Bosporus and other 
territories. He was overthrown by Asander, who 
not only slew King Pharnaces but also took posses- 
sion of the Bosporus. Mithridates, then, has been 

1 138-133 B.c. 2 Mithridates the Great. 

4 ἥν, inserted by the editors. 

5 gy, before παλλακεῦσαι, ejected by the editors. 

6 ἀπό, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 

7 *Agdvdpov, Casaubon, for Λυσάνδρου ; so the later editors. 



ὀνόματος ἠξίωται μεγάλου, καὶ ᾿Απολλόδωρος ὁ 
id ‘ 
ῥήτωρ ὁ Tas τέχνας συγγράψας Kal τὴν ᾿Απολ- 
λοδώρειον αἵρεσιν παραγαγών, ἥτις ποτ᾽ ἐστί: 
\ \ > / U \ a 5 ς a 
πολλὰ yap ἐπεκράτει, μείζονα δὲ ἢ καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς 
Μ \ ’ Φ » Δ 6a , 
ἔχοντα τὴν κρίσιν, ὧν ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ᾿Απολλοδώρειος 
6 © , / \ σα 
αἵρεσις καὶ ἡ Θεοδώρειος,. μάλιστα δὲ ἐξῆρε 
Ν ᾽ , © lol "4 / fal 
tov ᾿Απολλόδωρον ἡ τοῦ Καίσαρος φιλία τοῦ 
Σεβαστοῦ, διδάσκαλον τῶν λόγων γενόμενον" 
\ > 4 > / / \ 
μαθητὴν δ᾽ ἔσχεν ἀξιόλογον Διονύσιον τὸν 
ἐπικληθέντα ᾿Αττικόν, πολίτην αὐτοῦ, καὶ γὰρ 
σοφιστὴς ἣν ἱκανὸξ καὶ συγγραφεὺς καὶ 

4. IIpoiovts δ᾽ ἀπὸ τοῦ πεδίου καὶ τῆς πόλεως 
> \ \ \ Ν σ / μ > \ > ’ 
ἐπὶ μὲν τὰ πρὸς ἕω μέρη πόλις ἐστὶν ᾿Απολλωνία, 
μετεώροις ἐπικειμένη τόποις" ἐπὶ δὲ τὸν νότον 
» \ δ... ᾿ / ¢ lal \ 7 
ὀρεινὴ ῥάχις ἐστίν, ἣν ὑπερβᾶσι καὶ Badifovow 
ἐπὶ Σάρδεων πόλις ἐστὶν ἐν ἀριστερᾷ Θυάτειρα, 
κατοικία Μακεδόνων, ἣν Μυσῶν ἐσχάτην τινές 

> “ »» / / / 
φασιν. ἐν δεξιᾷ δ᾽ ᾿Απολλωνίς, διέχουσα Περγά- 
μου τριακοσίους σταδίους, τοὺς δὲ ἴσους καὶ τῶν 

, 5] , Φ \ a an ) 
Σάρδεων, ἐπώνυμος δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῆς Κυζικηνῆς ᾿Απολ- 

λωνίδος" εἶτ᾽ ἐκδέχεται τὸ “Ἑρμου πεδίον καὶ 
Σάρδεις. τὰ δὲ προσάρκτια τῷ Περγάμῳ τὰ 
πλεῖστα ὑπὸ Μυσῶν ἔχεται τὰ ἐν δεξιᾷ τῶν 
᾿Αβαειτῶν! λεγομένων, οἷς συνάπτει ἡ ᾿᾽Επί- 
κτητος μέχρι Βιθυνίας. oh 

5. Αἱ δὲ Σάρξεις πόλις ἐστὶ μεγάλη, νεωτέρα 
μὲν τῶν Τρωικῶν, ἀρχαία δ᾽ ὅμως, ἄκραν ἔχουσα 
εὐερκῆ βασίλειον δ᾽ ὑπῆρξε τῶν Λυδῶν, ods ὁ 

ΟΕ ῬΑβαειτῶν, Kramer, from conj. of Kiepert, for ᾿Αβλιτῶν E, 
᾿Αβλίτων other MSS, 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 3-5 

thought worthy of a great name, as has also 
Apollodorus the rhetorician, who wrote the work 
on Ihetoric and was the leader of the Apollodoreian 
sect, whatever in the world it is; for numerous 
philosophies were prevalent, but to pass judgment 
upon them is beyond my power, and among these 
are the sects of Apollodorus and Theodorus. But 
the friendship of Caesar Augustus has most of all 
exalted Apollodorus, who was his teacher in the art 
of speech. And Apollodorus had a notable pupil in 
Dionysius, surnamed Atticus, his fellow-citizen, for he 
was an able sophist and historian and speech-writer. 

4. As one proceeds from the plain and the city 
towards the east, one comes to a city called 
Apollonia, which lies on an elevated site, and also, 
towards the south, to a mountain range, on crossing 
which, on the road to Sardeis, one comes to 
Thyateira, on the left-hand side, a settlement of 
the Macedonians, which by some is calkted the 
farthermost city of the Mysians. On the right is 
Apollonis, which is three hundred stadia distant 
from Pergamum, and the same distance from Sar- 
deis, and it is named after the Cyzicene Apollonis. 
Next one comes to the plain of Hermus and to 
Sardeis. The country to the north of Pergamum is 
held for the most part by the Mysians, I mean the 
country on the right of the Abaeitae, as they are 
called, on the borders of which is the Epictetus! as 
far as Bithynia. 

5. Sardeis is a great city, and, though of later 
date than the Trojan times, is nevertheless old, and 
has a strong citadel. It was the royal city of the 
Lydians, whom the poet calls Meionians; and later 

1 Phrygia Epictetus (see 12, 3. 7, 12. 4. 1, and 12. 4. δ). 


ποιητὴς καλεῖ Myovas, οἱ δ᾽ ὕστερον Maiovas, 
οἱ μὲν τοὺς αὐτοὺς τοῖς Λυδοῖς, οἱ δ᾽ ἑτέρους 
ἀποφαίνοντες, τοὺς δ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἄμεινόν ἐστι λέγειν. 
ὑπέρκειται δὲ τῶν Σάρδεων ὁ Ὑμῶλος, εὔδαιμον 
ὄρος, ἐν τῇ ἀκρωρείᾳ σκοπὴν ἔχον, ἐξέδραν 
λευκοῦ λίθου, Περσῶν ἔργον, ἀφ᾽ οὗ κατοπτεύεται 
τὰ κύκλῳ πεδία, καὶ μάλιστα τὸ Καῦστριανόν' 
“ Ν \ \ \ \ U 
περιοικοῦσι δὲ Λυδοὶ καὶ Μυσοὶ καὶ Μακεδόνες. 
ῥεῖ δ᾽ ὁ Πακτωλὸς ἀπὸ τοῦ Τμώλου, καταφέρων 
τὸ παλαιὸν ψῆγμα χρυσοῦ πολύ, ἀφ᾽ οὗ τὸν 
C 626 Κροίσου λεγόμενον πλοῦτον καὶ τῶν προγόνων 
αὐτοῦ διονομασθῆναί φασι νῦν δ᾽ ἐκλέλοιπε 
\ a / 2 € \ > 
τὸ ψῆγμα. καταφέρεται δ᾽ ὁ Llaxtwdos εἰς 
tov Ἕρμον, εἰς ὃν καὶ ὁ Ὕλλος ἐμβάλλει, 
Φρύγιος νυνὶ καλούμενος" συμπεσόντες δ᾽ οἱ 
τρεῖς καὶ ἄλλοι ἀσημότεροι σὺν αὐτοῖς εἰς 
τὴν κατὰ Φωκαίαν ἐκδιδόασι θάλατταν, ὡς 
Ἡρόδοτός φησιν. ἄρχεται 8 ἐκ Μυσίας ὁ 
ρόδοτός φὴ px 
Ἕρμος, ἐξ ὄρους ἱεροῦ τῆς Δινδυμήνης, καὶ διὰ 
τῆς Κατακεκαυμένης εἰς τὴν Σαρδιανὴν φέρε- 
ται καὶ tat συνεχῆ πεδία, ὡς εἴρηται, μέχρι 
τῆς θαλάττης. ὑπόκειται δὲ τῇ πόλει τό τε 
Σαρδιανὸν πεδίον καὶ τὸ τοῦ Κύρου 3 καὶ τὸ τοῦ 
Ἕρμου καὶ τὸ Καϊστριανόν, συνεχῆ τε ὄντα 
καὶ πάντων ἄριστα πεδίων. ἐν δὲ σταδίοις 
τετταράκοντα ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεώς ἐστιν ἡ Γυγαία 
μὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ λεγομένη, Koron δ᾽ ὕστερον 
μετονομασθ.ῖσα, ὅπου τὸ ἱερὸν τῆς Κολοηνῆς 
᾿Αρτέμιδος, μεγάλην ἁγιστείαν ἔχον. φασὶ δ᾽ 
1 καὶ τά Kix, κατά CFw, κατὰ τά Dhmoz. 

2. Κύρου (see Κύρου πεδίον, 18. 4. 13), Tzschucke, for κόρου ; 
Καΐκου, Corais. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. ς 

writers call them Maeonians, some identifying them 
with the Lydians and others representing them as 
different, but it is better to call them the same 
people. Above Sardeis is situated Mt. Tmolus, a 
blest mountain, with a look-out on its summit, an 
arcade of white marble, a work of the Persians, 
whence there is a view of the plains below all round, 
particularly the Cajster Plain. And round it dwell 
Lydians and Mysians and Macedonians. The Pac- 
tolus River flows from Mt. Tmolus; in early times a 
large quantity of gold-dust was brought down in 
it, whence, it is said, arose the fame of the riches of 
Croesus and his forefathers. But the gold-dust 
has given out. The Pactolus runs down into the 
Hermus, into which also the Hyllus, now called 
the Phrygius, empties. These three, and other less 
significant rivers with them, meet and empty into 
the sea near Phocaea, as Herodotus says.1 The 
Hermus rises in Mysia, in the sacred mountain 
Dindymené, and flows through the Catacecaumene 
country into the territory of Sardeis and the con- 
tiguous plains, as I have already said,” to the sea. 
Below the city lie the plain of Sardeis and that 
of the Cyrus and that of the Hermus and that 
of the Cayster, which are contiguous to one another 
and are the best of all plains, Within forty stadia 
from the city one comes to Gygaea,? which is 
mentioned by the poet, the name of which was 
later changed to Coloé, where is the temple of 
Coloénian Artemis, which is characterised by great 
holiness. They say that at the festivals here the 

1 1. 80. a Oe ΜΒ ΤΟ Ἃ 
8 Lake Gygaea, Iliad 2. 865. 



ἐνταῦθα χορεύειν τοὺς καλάθους * κατὰ τὰς 
ἑορτάς, οὐκ oid ὅπως ποτὲ παραδοξολογοῦντες 
μᾶλλον ἢ ἀληθεύοντες. 

6. Κειμένων δ᾽ οὕτω πως τῶν ἐπῶν παρ᾽ 

Myocw ad Μέσθλης τε καὶ ἔΑντιφος ἡγησά- 


υἷε αλαεμένῥοοϑ τὼ Γυγαίη τέκε λίμνη, 

οἱ καὶ Μήονας ἦγον ὑπὸ Tudo γεγαῶτας, 
προσγράφουσί τινες τοῦτο τέταρτον ἔπος" 

Tyor ὑπὸ νιφόεντι, “Tdns* ἐν πίονι δήμῳ. 

οὐδεμία δ᾽ εὑρίσκεται “Tdn ἐν τοῖς Λυδοῖς. οἱ δὲ 
καὶ τὸν Τυχίον ἐνθένδε ποιοῦσιν, ὅν φησιν ὁ 

σκυτοτόμων ὄχ᾽ ἄριστος “TSn4 ἔνι, 
προστιθέασι δὲ καί, διότι δρυμώδης. ὁ τόπος καὶ 
κεραυνόβολος, καὶ ὅτι ἐνταῦθα οἱ "Ἀριμοι" καὶ 
γὰρ τῷ ὃ 

εἰν ᾿Αρίμοις, ὅθι φασὶ Τυφωέος ἔμμεναι εὐνάς 

χώρῳ ἐνὶ δρυόεντι, Ὕδης ἐν πίονι δήμῳ. 

ἄλλοι δ᾽ ἐν Κιλικίᾳ, σινὲς δ᾽ ἐν Συρίᾳ πλάττουσι 
τὸν μῦθον τοῦτον, οἱ δ᾽ ἐν Πθηκουσσαῖς, οἱ καὶ 
τοὺς πιθήκους φασὶ παρὰ τοῖς 'Γυρρηνοῖς ἀρίμους 
καλεῖσθαι" οἱ δὲ τὰς Σάρδεις Ὕδην ὀνομάζουσιν, 
οἱ δὲ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν αὐτῆς, πιθανωτάτους δ᾽ ὁ 

1 Instead of καλάθους, rw read καθόλου; mz, Ald., and 

Casaubon πιθήκους ; Lobeck conj. πιθάκνας and certain others 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 5-6 

baskets dance,} though I do not know why in the 
world they talk marvels rather than tell the truth. 

6. The verses of Homer are about as follows: 
“Mnesthles and Antiphus, the two sons of Talae- 
menes, whose mother was Lake Gygaea, who led 
also the Meionians, who were born at the foot 
of Tmolus”’;? but some add the following fourth 
verse: “ At the foot of snowy Tmolus, in the fertile 
land of Hydé.” But there is no Hydé to be found 
in the country of the Lydians. Some also put 
Tychius there, of whom the poet says, “far the 
best of workers in hide, who lived in Hydé.” ὃ 
And they add that the place is woody and subject 
to strokes of lightning, and that the Arimi live 
there, for after Homer’s verse, “in the land of 
the Arimi where men say is the couch of 
Typhon,’* they insert the words, “in a wooded 
place, in the fertile land of Hydé.” But others lay 
the scene of this myth in Cilicia, and some lay 
it in Syria, and still others in the Pithecussae 
Islands, who say that among the Tyrrhenians 
“‘pitheci’’® are called “ arimi.”” Some call Sardeis 
Hydé, while others call its acropolis Hydé. But 

' Thought to be the baskets carried on the heads of maidens 
at festivals. 

2 Iliad 2. 864. 8 Iliad 7. 221. 

4 Jlad 2. 783. 5 7.¢. monkeys. 

2 Ταλαιμένεος, Corais, for Παλαιμένεος Dhriw, Πυλαιμένεος 
CEF zz. 

8 “γδης Emoz, “fans CDFhirwz. Thus the MSS. vary in the 
following “Tn. 

4 Instead of Ὕδῃ, h(by corr. )orz read Ὕλῃ. 

5 τῷ E (so Meineke) ; οὕτως other MSS. 



Σκήψιος ἡγεῖται τοὺς ἐν τῇ Κατακεκαυμένῃ τῆς 
Μυσίας τοὺς ᾿Αρίμους τιθέντας. Πίνδαρος δὲ 
συνοικειοῖ τοῖς ἐν τῇ Κιλικίᾳ τὰ ἐ ἐν ᾿πθηκούσσαις, 
ἅπερ ἐστὶ πρὸ τῆς Κυμαίας, καὶ τὰ ἐν Σικελίᾳ' 
καὶ γὰρ τῇ Αἴτνῃ φησὶν ὑποκεῖσθαι τὸν Τυφῶνα: 

τόν ποτε 
Κιλέκιον θρέψεν barge ἄντρον" νῦν γε 
C627 ταί θ᾽} ὑπὲρ Κύμας ἁλιερκέες ὄχθαι 
Σικελία τ᾽ αὐτοῦ πιέζει στέρνα λαχνάεντα.3 

καὶ πάλιν" 

κείνῳ μὲν Αἴτνα δεσμὸς ὑπερφίαλος 

καὶ πάλιν' 

ἀλλ᾽ οἷος ἄπλατον κεράϊξε θεῶν 
Τυφῶνα ,πεντηκοντακέφαλον 8 ἀνάγκᾳ Ζεὺς 
ἐ Ἵ / 
ἐν ᾿Αρίμοις ποτέ. 

οἱ δὲ τοὺς Σύρους ᾿Αρίμους 4 BE our ods νῦν 
᾿Αραμαίους λέγουσι, τοὺς δὲ Κίλικας τοὺς ἐν 
Ἱροίᾳ μεταναστάντας εἰς Συρίαν ἀνῳκισμένους, 
ἀποτεμέσθαι παρὰ τῶν Σύρων τὴν νῦν λεγομένην 
Κιλικίαν. Καλλισθένης δ 2 ἐγγὺς τοῦ Καλυκάδ- 
νου καὶ τῆς Σαρπηδόνος ἄκρας παρ᾽ αὐτὸ τὸ 
Κωρύκιον ἄντρον εἶναι τοὺς ᾿Αρίμους, ἀφ᾽ ὧν τὰ 
ἐγγὺς ὄρη “λέγεσθαι “A puma. 

7. Περίκειται δὲ τῇ λίμνῃ τῇ Κολόῃ τὰ μνή- 
ματα τῶν βασιλέων. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς Σάρδεσίν 
ἐστι τὸ τοῦ ᾿Αλυάττου ἐπὶ κρηπῖδος ὑψηλῆς 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 6--) 

the Scepsian! thinks that those writers are most 
plausible who place the Arimi in the Catacecaumene 
country in Mysia. But Pindar associates the 
Pithecussae which lie off the Cymaean territory, as 
also the territory in Sicily, with the territory in 
Cilicia, for he says that Typhon lies beneath Aetna: 
“Once he dwelt in a far-famed Cilician cavern; 
now, however, his shaggy breast is o’er-pressed by 
the sea-girt shores above Cymae and by Sicily.” ? 
And again, “round about him lies Aetna with her 
haughty fetters,” and again, “Κ but it was father Zeus 
that once amongst the Arimi, by necessity, alone of 
the gods, smote monstrous Typhon of the fifty 
heads.”’* But some understand that the Syrians are 
Arimi, who are now called the Arimaeans, and that 
the Cilicians in Troy, forced to migrate, settled 
again in Syria and cut off for themselves from Syria 
what is now called Cilicia. Callisthenes says that the 
Arimi, after whom the neighbouring mountains are 
called Arima, are situated near Mt. Calycadnus and 
the promontory of Sarpedon near the Corycian cave 

7. Near Lake Coloé are the monuments of the 
kings. At Sardeis is the great mound, on a lofty 
base, of Alyattes, built, as Herodotus * says, by the 

1 Demetrius of Scepsis. 2 Pythian Odes, 1. 31. 
8 Frag. 93 (Bergk). # 1: 93%. 

1 Instead of μὰν ταί θ᾽, CDFA have μαντευθ᾽, 

2 Aaxvdevra, the editors, for λαχνήεντα. 

3 For πεντηκοντακέφαλον, Bergk, following Hermann and 
Boeckh, reads ἑκατοντακάρανον (see Pindar, Pyth. 8. 16 and Ol. 
4. 7). Meineke emends to πεντηκοντακάρανον. 

4 ᾿Αρίμους, Casaubon, for ᾿Αράμους. 



χῶμα μέγα, ἐργασθέν, ὥς φησιν Ἡρόδοτος, ὑ ὑπὸ 
τοῦ πλήθους τῆς πόλεως, οὗ τὸ πλεῖστον ἔργον 
αἱ παιδίσκαι συνετέλεσαν' λέγει δ᾽ ἐκεῖνος καὶ 
πορνεύεσθαι πάσας, τινὲς δὲ καὶ πόρνης μνῆμα 
λέγουσι τὸν τάφον. χειροποίητον δὲ τὴν λίμνην 
ἔνιοι ἱστοροῦσι τὴν Κολόην πρὸς τὰς ; ἐκδοχὰς τῶν 
πλημμυρίδων, αἵ συμβαίνουσι τῶν ποταμῶν 
πληρουμένων. Ὕπαιπα δὲ πόλις ἐστὶ κατα- 
βαίνουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ Τμώλου πρὸς τὸ τοῦ Καὕὔστρου 

8, Φησὶ δὲ Καλλισθένης ἁλῶναι τὰς Σάρδεις 
ὑπὸ Κιμμερίων πρῶτον, εἶθ᾽ ὑπὸ Τρηρῶν καὶ 
Λυκίων, ὅπερ καὶ Καλλῖνον “δηλοῦν, τὸν τῆς 
ἐλεγείας ποιητήν, ὕστατα δὲ τὴν ἐπὶ Κύρου καὶ 
Κροίσου γενέσθαι ἅλωσιν. λέγοντος δὲ τοῦ 
Καλλίνου τὴν ἔφοδον τῶν Κιμμερίων ἐπὶ τοὺς 
᾿Ησιονῆας γεγονέναι, Kal? ἣν αἱ Σάρδεις ἑάλωσαν, 
εἰκάζουσιν οἱ περὶ τὸν Σκήψιον ἰαστὶ λέγεσθαι 
᾿Ησιονεῖς τοὺς ᾿Ασιονεῖς" τάχα γὰρ ἡ Μηονία, 
φησίν, ᾿Ασία ἐλέγετο, καθ᾽ ὃ καὶ “Ὅμηρος 

᾿Ασίῳ ἐν λειμῶνι Kavotpiov ἀμφὶ ῥέεθρα. 

ἀναληφθεῖσα δ᾽ ἀξιολόγως ὕστερον διὰ τὴν 
ἀρετὴν τῆς χώρας ἡ πόλις καὶ οὐδεμιᾶς λεϊπτομένη 
τῶν ἀστυγειτόνων, νεωστὶ ὑπὸ σεισμῶν ἀπέβαλε 
πολλὴν τῆς κατοικίας. ἡ δὲ τοῦ Τιβερίου πρόνοια, 
τοῦ καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἡγεμόνος, καὶ ταύτην καὶ τῶν ἄλλων 
συχνὰς ἀνέλαβε ταῖς εὐεργεσίαις, ὅσαι περὶ τὸν 
αὐτὸν καιρὸν ἐκοινώνησαν τοῦ αὐτοῦ πάθους. 
9. ΓΑνδρες δ᾽ ἀξιόλογοι γεγόνασι τοῦ αὐτοῦ 
C 628 γένους Διόδωροι δύο οἱ ῥήτορες, ὧν ὁ ὁ πρεσβύτερος 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 7-9 

common people of the city, most of the work on 
which was done by prostitutes; and he says that 
all women of that country prostituted themselves ; 
and some call the tomb of Alyattes a monument of 
prostitution. Some report that Lake Coloé is an 
artificial lake, made to receive the overflows which 
take place when the rivers are full. Hypaepa is a 
city which one comes to on the descent from Mt, 
Tmolus to the Cayster Plain. 

8. Callisthenes says that Sardeis was captured 
first by the Cimmerians, and then by the Treres 
and the Lycians, as is set forth by Callinus the 
elegiac poet, and lastly in the time of Cyrus and 
Croesus. But when Callinus says that the incursion 
of the Cimmerians was against the Ksioneis, at the 
time of which Sardeis was captured, the Scepsian ! 
and his followers surmise that the Asioneis were 
by Callinus called the Esioneis, in the Ionic dialect ; 
for perhaps Meionia, he says, was called Asia, and 
accordingly Homer likewise says, ‘‘on the Asian 
mead about the streams of the Cayster.” The 
city was later restored in a notable way because 
of the fertility of its territory, and was inferior to 
none of its neighbours, though recently it has lost 
many of its buildings through earthquakes. How- 
ever, the forethought of Tiberius, our present ruler, 
has, by his beneficence, restored not only this city 
but many others—I mean all the cities that shared 
in the same misfortune at about the same time. 

9. Notable men of the same family were born at 
Sardeis : the two Diodoruses, the orators, of whom 

4 Again Demetrius of Scepsis. 



ἐκαλεῖτο Ζωνᾶς, ἀνὴρ πολλοὺς ἀγῶνας ἠγωνισ- 
μένος ὑπὲρ τῆς ᾿Ασίας, κατὰ δὲ τὴν Μιθριδάτου 
τοῦ βασιλέως ἔφοδον αἰτίαν ἐσχηκώς, ὡς ἀφιστὰς 
παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὰς πόλεις, ἀπελύσατο τὰς διαβολὰς 
ἀπολογησάμενος" τοῦ δὲ νεωτέρου φίλου ἡμῖν 
γενομένου καὶ ἱστορικὰ συγγράμματά ἐστι καὶ 
μέλη καὶ ἄλλα ποιήματα, τὴν ἀρχαίαν γραφὴν 
ἐπιφαίνοντα ἱκανῶς. Ἐάνθος δὲ ὁ παλαιὸς 
συγγραφεὺς Λυδὸς μὲν λέγεται, εἰ δὲ ἐκ Σάρδεων, 
οὐκ ἴσμεν. 

10. Μετὰ δὲ Λυδούς εἰσιν οἱ Μυσοὶ καὶ πόλις 
Φιλαδέλφεια σεισμῶν πλήρης. οὐ γὰρ διαλεί- 
πουσιν οἱ τοῖχοι διιστάμενοι, καὶ ἄλλοτ᾽ ἄλλο 
μέρος τῆς πόλεως κακοπαθοῦν: οἰκοῦσιν οὖν 
ὀλίγοι διὰ τοῦτο τὴν πόλιν, οἱ δὲ πολλοὶ κατα- 
βιοῦσιν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ γεωργοῦντες, ἔχοντες εὐδαί- 
μονα γῆν: ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν ὀλίγων θαυμάζειν ἐστίν, 
ὅτι οὕτω φιλοχωροῦσιν, ἐπισφαλεῖς τὰς οἰκήσεις 
ἔχοντες: ἔτι δ᾽ ἄν τις μᾶλλον θαυμάσειε τῶν 
κτισάντων αὐτήν. 

11. Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτ᾽ ἐστὶν ἡ Κατακεκαυμένη λεγο- 
μένη χώρα μῆκος μὲν καὶ πεντακοσίων σταδίων, 
πλάτος δὲ τετρακοσίων, εἴτε Μυσίαν χρὴ καλεῖν, 
εἴτε Μῃονίαν (λέγεται γὰρ ἀμφοτέρως), ἅπασα 
ἄδενδρος πλὴν ἀμπέλου τὸν Κατακεκαυμενίτην 
φερούσης οἶνον, οὐδενὸὲ τῶν ἐλλογίμων ἀρετῇ 
λειπόμενον. ἔστι δὲ ἡ ἐπιφάνεια τεφρώδης τῶν 
πεδίων, ἡ δ᾽ ὀρεινὴ καὶ πετρώδης μέλαινα, ὡς ἂν 

1 παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ, Xylander changes from a position between τὰς 
and πόλεις ; so the later editors. 

1 i.e. ‘‘burnt” country, situated about the upper course 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 9-11 

the elder was called Zonas, a man who many times 
pleaded the cause of Asia ; and at the time of the 
attack of King Mithridates, he was accused of 
trying to cause the cities to revolt from him, but in 
his defence he acquitted himself of the slander. 
The younger Diodorus, who was a friend of mine, 
is the author, not only of historical treatises, but 
also of melic and other poems, which display full 
well the ancient style of writing. Xanthus, the 
ancient historian, is indeed called a Lydian, but 
whether or not he was from Sardeis 1 do not know. 

10. After the Lydians come the Mysians; and 
the city Philadelphia, ever subject to earthquakes. 
Incessantly the walls of the houses are cracked, 
different parts of the city being thus affected at 
different times. For this reason but few people live 
in the city, and most of them spend their lives 
as farmers in the country, since they have a fertile 
soil. Yet one may be surprised at the few, that 
they are so fond of the place when their dwellings 
are so insecure ; and one might marvel still more at 
those who founded the city. 

11. After this region one comes to the Catace- 
caumene country,! as it is called, which has a length 
of five hundred stadia and a breadth of four hundred, 
whether it should be called Mysia or Meionia (for 
both names are used) ; the whole of it is without trees 
except the vine that produces the Catacecaumenite 
wine, which in quality is inferior to none of the 
notable wines. The surface of the plains are covered 
with ashes, and the mountainous and rocky country 

of the Hermus and its tributaries. Hamilton (Researches, IT, 
p. 136), quoted by Tozer (Selections, p. 289), confirms Strabo’s 



ἐξ ἐπικαύσεως. εἰκάζουσι μὲν οὖν τινὲς ἐκ 
κεραυνοβολιῶν καὶ πρηστήρων συμβῆναι τοῦτο, 
καὶ οὐκ ὀκνοῦσι τὰ περὶ τὸν Τυφῶνα ἐνταῦθα 
μυθολογεῖν. Ξάνθος δὲ καὶ ᾿Αριμοῦν τινὰ λέγει 
τῶν τόπων τούτων βασιλέα. οὐκ ,“εὔλογον δὲ 
ὑπὸ τοιούτων παθῶν τὴν τοσαύτην χώραν 
ἐμπρησθῆναι ἀθρόως,. ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον ὑπὸ γηγενοῦς 
πυρός, ἐκλιπεῖν δὲ νῦν τὰς πηγάς" δείκνυνται δὲ 
καὶ βόθροι τρεῖς, ods φύσας καλοῦσιν, ὅ ὅσον τεττα- 
ράκοντα ἀλλήλων διεστῶτες σταδίους" ὑπέρκειν- 
ται δὲ λόφοι τραχεῖς, ods εἰκὸς ἐκ τῶν ἀναφυση- 
θέντων σεσωρεῦσθαι μύδρων. τὸ δ᾽ εὐάμπελον 
τὴν τοιαύτην ὑπάρχειν γῆν, λάβοι tus ἂν καὶ ἐκ 
τῆς Καταναίας" τῆς χωσθείσης τῇ σποδῷ καὶ νῦν 
ἀποδιδούσης οἶνον δαψιλῆ καὶ καλόν. ἀστεῖζό- 
μενοι δέ τινες, εἰκότως πυριγενῆ τὸν Διόνυσον 
λέγεσθαί φασιν, ἐκ τῶν τοιούτων χωρίων τεκμαι- 

12. Τὰ δ᾽ ἑξῆς ἐπὶ τὰ νότια μέρη τοῖς τόποις 
τούτοις ἐμπλοκὰς ἔχει. μέχρι πρὸς τὸν Ταῦρον, 
ὥστε καὶ τὰ Φρύγια καὶ τὰ Καρικὰ καὶ τὰ Λύδια 
καὶ ἔτι τὰ τῶν Μυσῶν δυσδιάκριτα εἶναι, παρα- 
πίπτοντα εἰς ἄλληλα" εἰς δὲ τὴν σύγχυσιν ταύτην 
οὐ μικρὰ συλλαμβάνει τὸ τοὺς Ῥωμαίους μὴ 
κατὰ φῦλα διελεῖν αὐτούς, ἀλλὰ ἕτερον τρόπον 
διατάξαι τὰς διοικήσεις, ἐν αἷς τὰς ἀγοραίους 
ποιοῦνται καὶ τὰς δικαιοδοσίας. ὁ μέν ye Tu@Xos 
ἱκανῶς συνῆκται 3 καὶ περιγραφὴν ἔχει μετρίαν, ἐν 
αὐτοῖς ἀφοριζόμενος τοῖς Λυδίοις μέρεσιν, ἡ δὲ 

1 Καταναίας, Xylander, for Κατανίας. 
2 συνῆκται E, συνῆπται other MSS. 

i ςἐ Fire-born.” 

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 11-12 

is black, as though from conflagration. Now some 
conjecture that this resulted from thunderbolts and 
from fiery subterranean outbursts, and they do not 
hesitate to lay there the scene of the mythical story 
of Typhon ; and Xanthus adds that a certain Arimus 
was king of this region; but it is not reasonable 
to suppose that all that country was burnt all at 
once by reason of such disturbances, but rather by 
reason of an earth-born fire, the sources of which 
have now been exhausted. Three pits are to be 
seen there, which are called “ bellows,” and they are 
about forty stadia distant from each other. Above 
them lie rugged hills, which are reasonably supposed 
to have been heaped up by the hot masses blown 
forth from the earth. ‘That such soil should be well 
adapted to the vine one might assume from the 
land of Catana, which was heaped with ashes and 
now produces excellent wine in great plenty. 
Some writers, judging from places like this, wittily 
remark that there is good reason for calling Dionysus 
““ Pyrigenes.” + 

12. The parts situated next to this region towards 
the south as far as the Taurus are so inwoven with 
one another that the Phrygian and the Carian and 
the Lydian parts, as also those of the Mysians, since 
they merge into one another, are hard to distinguish. 
To this confusion no little has been contributed by the 
fact that the Romans did not divide them according 
to tribes, but in another way organised their juris- 
dictions, within which they hold their popular 
assemblies and their courts. Mt. Tmolus is a quite 
contracted mass of mountain and has only a moderate 
circumference, its limits lying within the territory of 
the Lydians themselves; but the Mesogis extends 


C 629 


Μεσωγὶς } els τὸ ἀντικείμενον μέρος διατείνει μέχρι 
Μυκάλης, ἀπὸ Κελαινῶν ἀρξάμενον, ὥς φησι 
Θεόπομπος" ὥστε τὰ μὲν αὐτοῦ Φρύγες κατέ- 
χουσι, τὰ πρὸς ταῖς Κελαιναῖς καὶ τῇ ᾿Απαμείᾳ, 
τὰ δὲ Μυσοὶ καὶ Λυδοί, τὰ δὲ Κᾶρες καὶ Ἴωνες. 
οὕτω δὲ καὶ οἱ ποταμοί, καὶ μάλιστα ὁ Μαίανδρος, 
τὰ μὲν διορίζοντες τῶν ἐθνῶν, δι ὧν δὲ μέσοι 
φερόμενοι, δύσληπτον ποιοῦσι τἀκριβές" καὶ περὶ 
τῶν πεδίων δὲ τῶν ἐφ᾽ ἑκάτερα τῆς τε ὀρεινῆς καὶ 
τῆς ποταμίας ὁ αὐτὸς λόγος. οὐδ᾽ 2 ἡμῖν ἴσως ἐπὶ 
τοσοῦτον φροντιστέον, ὡς ἀναγκαῖον 3 χωρομετ- 
ροῦσιν, ἀλλὰ τοσοῦτον μόνον ὑπογραπτέον, ὅσον 
καὶ οἱ πρὸ ἡμῶν παραδεδώκασι. 

18, Τῷ δὴ Καὐατριανῷ πεδίῳ μεταξὺ πίπτοντι 
τῆς τε Μεσωγίδος ὃ καὶ τοῦ Τμώλου, συνεχές ἐστι 
πρὸς ἕω τὸ Κιλβιανὸν πεδίον, πολύ τε καὶ συνοι- 
κούμενον εὖ καὶ χώραν ἔχον σπουδαίαν' εἶτα τὸ 
Ὑρκάνιον πεδίον, Περσῶν ἐπονομασάντων καὶ 
ἐποίκους ἀγαγόντων ἐκεῖθεν (ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὸ 
Κύρου πεδίον Πέρσαι κατωνόμασαν)" εἶτα τὸ 
Πελτινὸν πεδίον, ἤδη Φρύγιον, καὶ τὸ Κιλλάνιον 
καὶ τὸ Ταβηνόν, ἔ ἔχοντα ᾿ πολίχνας μιξοφρυγίους, 
ἐχούσας τι καὶ Πισιδικόν, ἀφ᾽ ὧν αὐτὰ κατωνο- 

14. Ὑπερβάλλουσι δὲ τὴν Μεσωγίδα τὴν 
μεταξὺ Καρῶν τε καὶ τῆς Νυσαΐδος, ἥ ἐστι χώρα 

1 Μεσωγίς, Palmer, μεσόγαιος I’, μεσόγειος other MSS. 

2 οὐδ᾽, Meineke, for οὔθ᾽. 

τ ἀναγκαῖον, Kramer, for ἄρα κενῇ, all MSS. except F, which 
has ἀναγκαῖον κενῇ. 

4 Instead of ὑπογραπτέον, Dhi have περιγραπτέον. 

5 Μεσωγίδος, Casaubon, for μεσογειώτιδος ; so the later 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 12-14 

in the opposite direction as far as Mycalé, beginning 
at Celaenae, according to Theopompus. And there- 
fore some parts of it are occupied by the Phrygians, 
I mean the parts near Celaenae and Apameia, and 
other parts by Mysians and Lydians, and other parts 
by Carians and Ionians. So, also, the rivers, par- 
ticularly the Maeander, form the boundary between 
some of the tribes, but in cases where they flow 
through the middle of countries they make accurate 
distinction difficult. And the same is to be said of 
the plains that are situated on either side of the 
mountainous territory and of the river-land. Neither 
should I, perhaps, attend to such matters as closely 
as a surveyor must, but sketch them only so far as 
they have been transmitted by my predecessors. 

13. Contiguous on the east to the Cajyster Plain, 
which lies between the Mesogis and the Tmolus, is 
the Cilbian Plain. It is extensive and well settled 
and has a fertile soil. Then comes the Hyrcanian 
Plain, a name given it by the Persians, who brought 
Hyrcanian colonists there (the Plain of Cyrus, like- 
wise, was given its name by the Persians). Then 
come the Peltine Plain (we are now in Phrygian 
territory) and the Cillanian and the Tabene Plains, 
which have towns with a mixed population of 
Phrygians, these towns also containing a Pisidian 
element; and it is after these that the plains 
themselves were named. 

14. When one crosses over the Mesogis, between 
the Carians and the territory of Nysa, which latter is 

® 3, after πεδίον, the editors eject. 
7 ἔχοντα, Corais and Meineke, for ἔχοντας Dh, ἔχον τάς 
other MSS. 



κατὰ τὸ τοῦ Μαιάνδρου πέραν μέχρι τῆς Κιβυ- 
ράτιδος καὶ τῆς Καβαλίδος, mores! εἰσί, πρὸς 
μὲν τῇ Μεσωγίδι καταντικρὺ Λαοδικείας ‘Tepa- 
πολις, ὅπου τὰ θερμὰ ὕδατα καὶ τὸ Πλουτώνιον, 
ἄμφω παραδοξολογίαν τινὰ ἔχοντα. τὸ μὲν γὰρ 
ὕδωρ οὕτω ῥᾳδίως εἰς πῶρον μεταβάλλει πηττό- 
μενον, ὥστ᾽ ὀχετοὺς ἐπάγοντες φραγμοὺς ἀπεργά- 
ζονται μονολίθους, τὸ δὲ Πλουτώνιον ὑπ᾽ ὀφρύι 
μικρᾷ τῆς ὑπερκειμένης ὀρεινῆς στόμιόν ἐστι 
σύμμετρον, ὅσον ἄνθρωπον δέξασθαι δυνάμενον, 
βεβάθυται δ᾽ ἐπὶ πολύ: πρόκειται δὲ τούτον 
δρυφάκτωμα τετράγωνον, ὅσον ἡμιπλέθρου τὴν 
περίμετρον" τοῦτο δὲ πλῆρές ἐστιν ὁμιχλώδους 
παχείας ἀχλύος, ὥστε μόγις τοὔδαφος καθορᾶν. 
τοῖς μὲν οὖν κύκλῳ πλησιάζουσι πρὸς τὸν δρύ- 
φακτον ἄλυπός ἐστιν ὁ ἀήρ, καθαρεύων ἐκείνης 
6680 τῆς ἀχλύος ἐν ταῖς νηνεμίαις" συμμένει γὰρ ἐντὸς 
τοῦ περιβόλου" τῷ δ᾽ εἴσω παριόντι ζώῳ θάνατος 
παραχρῆμα ἀπαντᾷ: ταῦροι γοῦν. εἰσαχθέντες 
πίπτουσι καὶ ἐξέλκονται vexpot, ἡμεῖς δὲ στρουθία 
ἐπέμψαμεν καὶ ἔπεσεν εὐθὺς ἐκπνεύσαντα" οἱ δ᾽ 
amoxotoi Γάλλοι παρίασιν ἀπαθεῖς, ὥστε καὶ 
μέχρι τοῦ στομίου πλησιάζειν καὶ ἐγκύπτειν καὶ 
καταδύνειν μέχρι ποσοῦ συνέχοντας ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ 
πολὺ τὸ πνεῦμα (ἑωρῶμεν γὰρ ἐκ τῆς ὄψεως 
ὡς ἂν πνιγώδους τινὸς πάθους ἔμφασιν), εἴτε 

1 δ᾽, after πόλεις, omitted by xand the later editors. 

1 On the “‘ Plutonia,” see Vol. II, p. 442, footnote 1. 
2 <‘The road overlooks many green spots, once vineyards 
and gardens, separated by partitions of the same material” 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 14 

a country on the far side of the Maeander extending 
to Cibyratis and Cabalis, one comes to certain cities. 
First, near the Mesogis, opposite Laodiceia, to 
Hierapolis, where are the hot springs and the 
Plutonium,’ both of which have something mar- 
vellous about them; for the water of the springs 
so easily congeals and changes into stone that people 
conduct streams of it through ditches and thus 
make stone fences? consisting of single stones, while 
the Plutonium, below a small brow of the moun- 
tainous country that lies above it, is an opening 
of only moderate size, large enough to admit a 
man, but it reaches a considerable depth, and it is 
enclosed by a quadrilateral handrail, about half a 
plethrum in circumference, and this space is full of 
a vapour so misty and dense that one can scarcely 
see the ground. Now to those who approach the 
handrail anywhere round the enclosure the air is 
harmless, since the outside is free from that vapour 
in calm weather, for the vapour then stays inside 
the enclosure, but any animal that passes inside 
meets instant death. At any rate. bulls that are 
led into it fall and are dragged out dead; and I 
threw in sparrows and they immediately breathed 
their last and fell. But the Galli,? who are eunuchs, 
pass inside with such impunity that they even 
approach the opening, bend over it, and descend 
into it to a certain depth, though they hold their 
breath as much as they can (for I could see in their 
countenances an indication of a kind of suffocating 
attack, as it were),—whether this immunity belongs 

(Chandler, Travels in Asia Minor, I. p. 288), quoted by Tozer 
(op. cit., p. 290). 
3 Priests of Cybelé. 


πάντων οὕτω πεπηρωμένων “τοῦτο, εἴτε μόνον 
τῶν περὶ τὸ ἱερόν, καὶ εἴτε θείᾳ προνοίᾳ, 
καθάπερ ἐ ἐπὶ τῶν ἐνθουσιασμῶν εἰκός, εἴτε ἀντιδό- 
τοις τισὶ δυνάμεσι τούτου! συμβαίνοντος. τὸ δὲ 
τῆς ἀπολιθώσεως καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἐν Λαοδικείᾳ ποτα- 
μῶν φασὶ συμβαίνειν, καίπερ ὄντων ποτίμων. 
ἔστι δὲ καὶ πρὸς βαφὴν ἐρίων θαυμαστῶς σύμ- 
μετρον τὸ κατὰ τὴν Ἱεράπολιν ὕδωρ, ὥ ὥστε τὰ ἐ ἐκ 
τῶν ῥιζῶν βαπτόμενα ἐνάμιλλα εἶναι τοῖς " ἐκ 
τῆς κόκκου καὶ τοῖς ἁλουργέσιν" οὕτω δ᾽ ἐστὶν 
ἄφθονον τὸ πλῆθος τοῦ ὕδατος, ὥστε ἡ πόλις 
μεστὴ τῶν αὐτομάτων βαλανείων ἐ ἐστί. 

15. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἹΙεράπολιν τὰ πέραν τοῦ 
Μαιάνδρου, τὰ μὲν ὃ περὶ Λαοδίκειαν καὶ ᾿Αφρο- 
δισιάδα καὶ τὰ μέχρι Καρούρων εἴρηται. τὰ δ᾽ 
ἑξῆς ἐστὶ τὰ “μὲν πρὸς δύσιν, ἡ τῶν ᾿Αντιοχέων 
πόλις τῶν ἐπὶ Μαιάνδρῳ, τῆς Καρίας ἤδη: τὰ δὲ 
πρὸς νότον ἡ Κίβυρά ἐστιν ἡ μεγάλη καὶ ἡ Σίνδα 
καὶ ἡ Καβαλὶς “ μέχρι τοῦ Ταύρου καὶ τῆς Λυκίας. 
ἡ μὲν οὖν ᾿Αντιόχεια μετρία πόλις ἐστὶν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ 
κειμένη τῷ Μαιάνδρῳ κατὰ τὸ πρὸς τῇ Φρυγίᾳ 
μέρος, ἐπέζευκται δὲ γέφυρα' “χώραν δ᾽ ἔχει 
πολλὴν ἐφ᾽ ἑκάτερα τοῦ ποταμοῦ, πᾶσαν εὐδαί- 
μονα, πλείστην δὲ φέρει τὴν καλουμένην ᾿Αντιο- 
χικὴν ἰσχάδα, τὴν δὲ αὐτὴν καὶ τρίφυλλον 
ὀνομάζουσιν: εὔσειστος δὲ καὶ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ 
τόπος. σοφιστὴς δὲ παρὰ τούτοις ἔνδοξος γεγένη- 

1 Instead of τούτου, Di and Corais read οὕτω, 

2 rois Fxz, rats other MSS. 

3 After μέν, E and Meineke read od». 

4 Καβαλίς, the editors, for Καβαλαΐς, all MSS. except DA, 
which read Καβαλλαΐς. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 14-15 

to all who are maimed in this way or only to those 
round the temple, or whether it is because of divine 
providence, as would be likely in the case of divine 
obsessions, or whether it is the result of certain 
physical powers that are antidotes against the 
vapour. The changing of water into stone is said 
also to be the case with the rivers in Laodiceia, 
although their water is potable. The water at 
Hierapolis is remarkably adapted also to the dyeing 
of wool, so that wool dyed with the roots? rivals 
that dyed with the coccus? or with the marine 
purple. And the supply of water is so abundant 
that the city is full of natural baths. 

15. After Hierapolis one comes to the parts on 
the far side of the Maeander; I have already de- 
scribed 4 those round Laodiceia and Aphrodisias and 
those extending as far as Carura. The next there- 
after are the parts towards the west, I mean the 
city of the Antiocheians on the Maeander, where 
one finds himself already in Caria, and also the parts 
towards the south, I mean Greater Cibyra and Sinda 
and Cabalis, extending as far as the Taurus and 
Lycia. Now Antiocheia is a city of moderate size, 
and is situated on the Maeander itself in the region 
that lies near Phrygia, and there is a bridge over 
the river. Antiocheia has considerable territory on 
each side of the river, which is everywhere fertile, 
and it produces in greatest quantities the “ Anti- 
ocheian” dried fig, as it is called, though they also 
name the same fig “ three-leaved.’”’ This region, too, 
is much subject to earthquakes. Among these people 

1 Madder-root. 2 Kermes-berries. 
8. Using this particular water, of course. 
# 12. 8. 13, 16,17. 


tat Διοτρέφης, οὗ διήκουσεν “TBpéas, ὁ Kal’ 
ἡμᾶς γενόμενος μέγιστος ῥήτωρ. ἷ 

16. Σολύμους δ᾽ εἶναί φασι τοὺς Καβαλεῖς"} 
τῆς γοῦν Τερμησσέων" ἄκρας ὁ ὑπερκείμενος 
λόφος καλεῖται Σόλυμος, καὶ αὐτοὶ δὲ οἱ Τερμησ- 
σεῖς ὃ Σόλυμοι καλοῦνται. πλησίον δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ 
ὁ Βελλεροφόντου χάραξ καὶ ὁ Πεισάνδρου τάφος 
τοῦ υἱοῦ, πεσόντος ἐν τῇ πρὸς Σολύμους μάχη. 
ταῦτα δὲ καὶ τοῖς ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ λεγομένοις 
ὁμολογεῖται" περὶ μὲν γὰρ τοῦ Βελλεροφόντου 
φησὶν οὕτως" . 

δεύτερον ad Σολύμοισι μαχέσσατο κυδαλίμοισι" 
περὶ δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ" 

Ο681 Πείσανδρον ὃ δέ οἱ υἱὸν “Apns τος πολέμοιο 
μαρνάμενον Σολύμοισι κατέκτανεν. 

ἡ δὲ Τερμησσός ἐστι Πισιδικὴ πόλις ἡ μάλιστα 
καὶ ἔγγιστα ὑπερκειμένη τῆς Κιβύρας. 

17. Λέγονται δὲ ἀπόγονον Λυδῶν οἱ Κιβυρᾶται 
τῶν κατασχόντων τὴν Καβαλίδα,Σ ὕστερον δὲ 
Πισιδῶν τῶν ὁμόρων οἰκισάντων ἴ καὶ μετακτι- 
σάντων εἰς ἕτερον τόπον εὐερκέστατον ἐν κύκλῳ 
σταδίων περὶ ἑκατόν. ηὐξήθη δὲ διὰ τὴν εὐνομίαν, 
καὶ αἱ κῶμαι παρεξέτειναν ἀπὸ Πισιδίας. καὶ τῆς 
ὁμόρου Μιλυάδος8 ἕως Λυκίας καὶ τῆς Ῥοδίων 

1 Καβαλεῖς ὦ, Καβαλλεῖς other MSS. 

5. Τερμησσέων, Corais, for Τερμησέως ΟΠ moaz, Τελμήσσεως 
rw, Τελμισσέων E. 

8: Instead of Τερμησσεῖς, CDFAx read TeAunoeis, rw TeAune- 
σεῖς, Ei Τελμισεῖς. 

4 δὲ καὶ τοῖς, Corais, for δ᾽ ἑκάστοις ΟΠ ήγισ, δ᾽ ἑκάστοις 
τοῖς x, δ᾽ ἕκαστα τοῖς, δὲ τοῖς Ἠϊοξ. 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 15-1 

arose a famous sophist, Diotrephes, whose complete 
course was taken by Hybreas, who became the greatest 
orator of my time. 

16. The Cabaleis are said to be the Solymi; at 
any rate, the hill that lies above the fortress of the 
Termessians is called Solymus, and the Termessians 
themselves are called Solymi. Near by is the 
Palisade of Bellerophon, and also the tomb of his 
son Peisander, who fell in the battle against the 
Solymi. This account agrees also with the words of 
the poet, for he says of Bellerophon, “next he 
fought with the glorious Solymi,’ + and of his son, 
“and Peisander? his son was slain by Ares, insatiate 
of war, when he was fighting with the Solymi.” 3 
Termessus is a Pisidian city, which lies directly 
above Cibyra and very near it. 

17. It is said that the Cibyratae are descendants 
of the Lydians who took possession of Cabalis, and 
later of the neighbouring Pisidians, who settled 
there and transferred the city to another site, a 
site very strongly fortified and about one hundred 
stadia in circuit. It grew strong through its good 
laws; and its villages extended alongside it from 
Pisidia and the neighbouring Milyas as far as Lycia 
and the Peraea‘ of the Rhodians. Three bordering 

1 Tliad 6. 184. 
2 The Homeric text reads ‘‘ Isander” (see 12. 8. 5). 
3 Iliad 6. 203. * Mainland territory. 

5 Instead of Πείσανδρον, E reads Micavdpov. The Homeric 
text has Ἴσανδρον. 
6 Καβαλίδα, the editors, for Καβαλλίδα. 
7 DFhorz read οἰκησάντων. 
8 Μιλυάδος, Tzschucke, for Μνυλίαδος, 


περαίας" προσγενομένων δὲ τριῶν πόλεων ὁμόρων, 
Βουβῶνος,: Βαλβούρων, Οἰνοάνδων,3 τετράπολις 
τὸ σύστημα ἐκλήθη, μίαν ἑκάστης ψῆφον ἐχού- 
σης, δύο δὲ τῆς Κιβύρας: ἔστελλε γὰρ αὕτη 
πεζῶν μὲν τρεῖς μυριάδας, ἱππέας δὲ δισχιλίους" 
ἐτυραννεῖτο δ᾽ ἀεί, σωφρόνως δ᾽ ὅμως" ἐπὶ Μοα- 
γέτου δ᾽ ἡ τυραννὶς τέλος ἔσχε, καταλύσαντος 
αὐτὴν Movpnva καὶ Λυκίοις προσορίσαντος τὰ 
Βάλβουρα καὶ τὴν Βουβῶνα" οὐδὲν δ᾽ ἧττον ἐν 
ταῖς μεγίσταις ἐξετάζεται διοικήσεσι τῆς ᾿Ασίας 
ἡ Κιβυρατική. τέτταρσι δὲ γλώτταις ἐχρῶντο 
οἱ Κιβυρᾶται, τῇ Πισιδικῇ, τῇ Σολύμων, τῇ 
᾿Ελληνίδι, τῇ Λυδῶν: τῆς Λυδῶν 3 δὲ οὐδ᾽ ἴχνος 
ἐστὶν ἐν Λυδίᾳ. ἴδιον δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἐν Κιβύρᾳ τὸ τὸν 

/ ΄ € , A 4 ᾽ > \ 
σίδηρον τορεύεσθαι ῥᾳδίως. Μιλύα 4 δ᾽ ἐστὶν 
ἡ ἀπὸ τῶν κατὰ Τερμησσὸν στενῶν καὶ τῆς εἰς 
τὸ ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύρου ὑπερθέσεως δι’ αὐτῶν ἐπὶ 
Ἴσινδα παρατείνουσα ὀρεινὴ μέχρι Σαγαλασσοῦ 
καὶ τῆς ᾿Απαμέων χώρας. 
7 BovBavos, Tzschucke, for Βουβούνων C, Βουβώνων other 

Poet Tzschucke, for Oivodvdpov. 

3 τῆς Λυδῶν, Miiller-Diibner insert; viv i, ταύτης certain 


GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 17 

cities were added to it, Bubon, Balbura, and 
Oenoanda, and the union was called Tetrapolis, 
each of the three having one vote, but Cibyra two; 
for Cibyra could send forth thirty thousand foot- 
soldiers and two thousand horse. It was always 
ruled by tyrants; but still they ruled it with 
moderation. ‘However, the tyranny ended in the 
time of Moagetes, when Murena overthrew it and 
included Balbura and Bubon within the territory of 
the Lycians. But none the less the jurisdiction of 
Cibyra is rated among the greatest in Asia. The 
Cibyratae used four languages, the Pisidian, that of 
the Solymi, Greek, and that of the Lydians;! but 
there is not even a trace of the language of the 
Lydians in Lydia. The easy embossing of iron is 
a peculiar thing at Cibyra. Milya is the mountain- 
range extending from the narrows at Termessus and 
from the pass that leads over through them to the 
region inside the Taurus towards Isinda, as far as 
Sagalassus and the country of the Apameians. 

1See A. H. Sayce, Anatolian Studies presented to Sir 
William Mitchell Ramsay, p. 396. 

4 Instead of M:Ava, DE read MvAla, 0z Μιλία. 


ἐ ἢ , 
“ge εὐτασεβ οί _ 
Oe ee 7 

Pe ᾿ς 

SHA aT Hah 7 er ee ΓΝ Lo Ls: Bb 
Ἢ ἡ 4 ΨΩ 3 uy 
Alona Petes Aa etna ταν gens 

card δυο if * MO BBO. 2 2 eit yasi, 
ΔΟΡῚ σθένος sigs. Fass Hid. fase | 

ΜΒ δὴν JL ὌΝ S00) Foearrene ὦ 
athe ΝΣ ΕΝ Vee 
sila. 91 Does ride’ Use: 
= se 5 gr " ΟΝ Ὁ» sar = 
ΘΙ I YDS Fou rt a 
y 7 φ Φ'υ 
φ errs τ le 
US «ch 7 grits ἐλ: 
ν᾿: Ἢ ΡΣ στ Cc 
# MONIT αἱ vif 
than: et © 
v7 i SPO SAY! tea! ν 
ε HS + Pee. ΕΣ μὲ 2. 
Sd T MRRATHE Geo tEDtg See ὁ aoe 

% ἡ» whi ify as οὔ ES yey hos ® uy 
sod 3 aemibyd. ς οὐδ Ἰὼ ite ΠΣ as 
aes “30 sigugoel a bor pont dain 
ad serie ach sited Ros, qt ode: 
<a δελμεμόσῃ oe ive ἱ : 
Lerepee sa Xk 4 6 Aes rine ρα μῷ util 
οὐκὶ χα day eet, ge iam 
a BEL whoial ical Puree E δι 
Σεῖς ed oe 9: 13, aise jalod “a 

TA ‘ ΤᾺ mes μος τι. ν᾿ sthap Me ᾿ tt Se ὧν 
Ἃ τ, Pn j δι cs Ε La seer 
—— νυν το Sige een -ος-.-.-.- 

Ἴ»" SOY oe ert ‘a ἢ 
4 % , --Ὡ ἐλθέ a yer Ne ΣῈ ue art ς 


ios τ 



Ὁ. Ὁ 




ME  ζιῦτι τ OK 

ὦ: ij 

. ae 
Ὑ “" 
: ὶ 
sue TA 


Ga: s Ἵ ‘ ~~ Sas — 
ὦ. rots 
7 - “ 

co τ : . 
ἡδγιλλετνς She 
ara ς 

τε ἡ ἡ 
.. ἢ 7 a 
é 7 ed 
ov — P 
ire ν᾿ ͵ ms 
(eee ti αὶ 
ν i> 
¢ J. 
2 . 
Ν ὶ 
Ἃ ‘ tite 
“ ᾿ 
4 πὸ κι >! 
¥ ’ 
ris 4 
‘ - 
on " ay ~ 
ἐν 1 

᾿ ᾿ 3 
_ , ᾿ 
Ἷ Ct : 
3 τω Le 
με “᾿ 
f -- Ἀν. ὁ 
~s cle 9 
Ὗ f i" Ὁ 
1a) ς ae 
> Ty be τὰ 
4 ι 1" A a) 
t “i a 
‘ a2 
Ἧ ε 
- ‘ % 
~~ i 
. ὦ ὦ 
τ 34) 
ἢ J 
μ᾿ 7 4 
" Ὧι τ 
ἂ ΕΣ 
Ἢ * 
νυ ν ; 
a ' 
5» ‘2 7 Ἶ 
. ‘ 
ey “~ 
‘ Shu 
) a δ 
a ξ "{ν 
J J 
5 + . Po a 
ty Ἷ ἵ 
γᾶ, tal 
< . a 3, 
iy tm ¢ Ate 
.υ - «ἢ ἐμὲ τὸ πὶ 
-Ὁ- ; ὧν 
> sa 
4 TA 
’ tye Nd " ὶ 
2. 4 
: ξω» 9 


C632 1. Λοιπὸν δ᾽ ἐστὶν εἰπεῖν περὶ ᾿Ιώνων καὶ 
Καρῶν καὶ τῆς ἔξω τοῦ Ταύρου παραλίας, ἣν 
ἔχουσι Δύκιοί τε καὶ Πάμφυλοι καὶ Κίλικες" 
οὕτω γὰρ ἂν ἔχοι τέλος ἡ πᾶσα τῆς χερρονήσου 
περιήγησις, ἧς ἰσθμὸν ἔφαμεν τὴν ὑπέρβασιν τὴν 
ἐκ τῆς Ποντικῆς θαλάττης ἐπὶ τὴν ᾿Ισσικήν. 

2. Ἔστι δὲ τῆς "Iwvias ὁ μὲν περίπλους ὁ 
παρὰ γῆν σταδίων που τρισχιλίων τετρακοσίων 
τριάκοντα διὰ τοὺς κόλπους καὶ διὰ τὸ χερ- 
ρονησίζειν ἐπὶ πλεῖον τὴν χώραν, τὸ δ᾽ ἐπ᾽ 
εὐθείας μῆκος οὐ πολύ. αὐτὸ οὖν τὸ ἐξ ᾿Εφέσου 
μέχρι Σμύρνης ὁδὸς μέν ἐστιν ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας τρια- 
κόσιοι εἴκοσι στάδιοι" εἰς γὰρ Μητρόπολιν ἑκατὸν 
καὶ εἴκοσι στάδιοι, οἱ λοιποὶ δὲ εἰς Σμύρναν, 
περίπλους δὲ μικρὸν ἀπολείπων τῶν δισχιλίων 
καὶ διακοσίων. ἔστι δ᾽ οὖν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ποσειδίου 
τοῦ Μιλησίων καὶ τῶν Καρικῶν ὅρων 5 μέχρι 
Φωκαίας καὶ τοῦ “ἕρμου τὸ πέρας τῆς ᾿Ιωνικῆς 

3. Ταύτης δέ φησι Φερεκύδης Μίλητον μὲν καὶ 
Μυοῦντα καὶ τὰ περὶ Μυκάλην καὶ “Εφεσον 

1 πάμφυλοι DF ; Παμφύλιοι other MSS. 
2 ὅρων, Groskurd, for ὀρῶν ; so the later editors. 

1 For map of Asia Minor, see Vol. V (at end). 


1.1 Ir remains for me to speak of the Ionians and 
the Carians and the seaboard outside the Taurus, 
which last is occupied by Lycians, Pamphylians, and 
Cilicians; for in this way I can finish my entire 
description of the peninsula, the isthmus of which, 
as 1 was saying,” is the road which leads over from 
the Pontic Sea to the Issic Sea. 

2. The coasting voyage round Ionia is about three 
thousand four hundred and thirty stadia, this dis- 
tance being so great because of the gulfs and the 
fact that the country forms a peninsula of unusual 
extent; but the distance in a straight line across the 
isthmus is not great. For instance, merely the 
distance from Ephesus to Smyrna is a journey, in a 
straight line, of three hundred and twenty stadia, 
for the distance to Metropolis is one hundred and 
twenty stadia and the remainder to Smyrna, whereas 
the coasting voyage is but slightly short of two 
thousand two hundred. Be that as it may, the 
bounds of the Ionian coast extend from the 
Poseidium of the Milesians, and from the Carian 
frontiers, as far as Phocaea and the Hermus River, 
which latter is the limit of the Ionian seaboard. 

3. Pherecydes says concerning this seaboard that 
Miletus and Myus and the parts round Mycalé and 

212.1. ὃ, 


Κᾶρας ἔχειν πρότερον, τὴν δ᾽ ἑξῆς παραλίαν 
/ ’ \ / \ , 1 > a 
μέχρι Φωκαίας καὶ Χίου καὶ Σάμου, ἧς ᾿Αγκαῖος 
= ΄, a ’ > ‘ fe \ 
ἦρχε, Λέλεγας: ἐκβληθῆναι δ᾽ ἀμφοτέρους ὑπὸ 
τῶν ᾿Ιώνων, καὶ εἰς τὰ λοιπὰ μέρη τῆς Καρίας 
> 6 Ν / » “ -“ 
ἐκπεσεῖν. ἄρξαι δέ φησιν ᾿Ανδροκλον τῆς τῶν 
Ἰώνων ἀποικίας, ὕστερον τῆς Αἰολικῆς, υἱὸν 
, , “a, 9 a / / 
γνήσιον Κόδρου τοῦ ᾿Αθηνῶν βασιλέως, γενέσθαι 

C 633 δὲ τοῦτον ᾿Εφέσου κτίστην" διόπερ τὸ βασίλειον 
τῶν ᾿Ιώνων ἐκεῖ συστῆναί φασι" καὶ ἔτι νῦν οἱ 
ἐκ τοῦ γένους ὀνομάζονται βασιλεῖς, ἔχοντές τινας 
τιμάς, προεδρίαν τε ἐν ἀγῶσι καὶ πορφύραν ἐπί- 
σημον τοῦ βασιλικοῦ γένους, σκίπωνα ἀντὶ σκήπ- 
τρου, καὶ τὰ ἱερὰ τῆς ᾿Ελευσινίας Δήμητρος. καὶ 
Μίλητον δ᾽ ἔκτισεν Νηλεὺς ἐκ Πύλου τὸ γένος 
v “ cd e / 7 ͵ὔ 
ὦν: οἵ τε Μεσσήνιοι καὶ οἱ Πύλιοι συγγένειάν 
τινα προσποιοῦνται, καθ᾽ ἣν καὶ Μεσσήνιον τὸν 
Νέστορα οἱ νεώτεροΐί φασι ποιηταΐ, καὶ τοῖς περὶ 
Μέλανθον τὸν Κόδρου πατέρα πολλοὺς καὶ τῶν 
Πυλίων συνεξᾶραί φασιν εἰς τὰς ᾿Αθήνας" τοῦτον 
δὴ πάντα τὸν λαὸν μετὰ τῶν ᾿Ιώνων κοινῇ στεῖλαι 

\ > / ἴω \ / eek a , 
τὴν ἀποικίαν. τοῦ δὲ Νηλέως ἐπὶ τῷ Ποσειδίῳ 
βωμὸς ἵδρυμα δείκνυται. Κυδρῆλος δὲ νόθος 
[Δ / a / > , - 
υἱὸς Κόδρου Μνοῦντα κτίζει" ᾿Ανδρόπομπος δὲ 
Λέβεδον, καταλαβόμενος τόπον τινὰ Αρτιν" 
Κολοφῶνα δ᾽ ᾿Ανδραίμων 3 Πύλιος, ὥς φησι καὶ 
Μώμνερμος ἐν Navvot: Πριήνην δ᾽ Αἴπυτος ὁ 
Νηλέως, εἶθ᾽ ὕστερον Φιλώτας ἐκ Θηβῶν λαὸν 
ἀγαγών: Τέω δὲ ᾿Αθάμας μὲν πρότερον, διόπερ 
᾿Αθαμαντίδα καλεῖ αὐτὴν ᾿Ανακρέων, κατὰ δὲ 
2 For Χίου and Σάμου Kramer conj. Χίον and Σάμον." 
2 ᾿Ανδρεμών CF szxz, 

‘ A fragment (Bergk 10) otherwise unknown. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. τ. 3. 

Ephesus were in earlier times occupied by Carians, 
and that the coast next thereafter, as far as Phocaea 
and Chios and Samos, which were ruled by Ancaeus, 
was occupied by Leleges, but that both were driven 
out by the lonians and took refuge in the remaining 
parts of Caria. He says that Androclus, legitimate 
son of Codrus the king of Athens, was the leader 
of the Ionian colonisation, which was later than 
the Aeolian, and that he became the founder of 
Ephesus; and for this reason, it is said, the royal 
seat of the lonians was established there. And still 
now the descendants of his family are called kings ; 
and they have certain honours, I mean the privilege 
of front seats at the games and of wearing purple 
robes as insignia of royal descent, and staff instead 
of sceptre, and of the superintendence of the 
sacrifices in honour of the Eleusinian Demeter. 
Miletus was founded by Neleus, a Pylian by birth. 
The Messenians and the Pylians pretend a kind of 
kinship with one another, according to which the 
more recent poets call Nestor a Messenian; and 
they say that many of the Pylians accompanied 
Melanthus, father of Codrus, and his followers to 
Athens, and that, accordingly, all this people sent 
forth the colonising expedition in common with the 
Ionians. There is an altar, erected by Neleus, to 
be seen on the Poseidium. Myus was founded by 
Cydrelus, bastard son of Codrus; Lebedus by Andro- 
pompus, who seized a place called Artis; Colophon 
by Andraemon a Pylian, according to Mimnermus in 
his Nanno;1 Priené by Aepytus the son of Neleus, 
and then later by Philotas, who brought a colony 
from Thebes; Teos, at first by Athamas, for which 
reason it is by Anacreon called Athamantis, and at 



τὴν Ἰωνικὴν ἀποικίαν Ναῦκλος vids Κόδρου 
νόθος, καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον "Αποικος καὶ Δάμασος 
᾿Αθηναῖοι καὶ Τέρης 5 ἐκ Βοιωτῶν: ᾿Ερυθρὰς δὲ 
Κνῶπος, καὶ οὗτος υἱὸς Kodpou νόθος" Φωκαίαν 
δ᾽ οἱ μετὰ Φιλογένους ᾿Αθηναῖοι: Κλαζομενὰς 
δὲ Πάραλος" Χίον δὲ ᾿᾿ϊὐγέρτιος, σύμμικτον ἐπα- 
γόμενος πλῆθος: Σάμον δὲ Τεμβρίων,3 εἶθ᾽ ὕστερον 

4, Αὗται μὲν δώδεκα ᾿Ιωνικαὶ πόλεις, προσε- 
λήφθη δὲ χρόνοις ὕστερον καὶ Σμύρνα, εἰς τὸ 
Ἰωνικὸν ἐναγαγόντων ᾿Εφεσίων: ἦσαν γὰρ αὐτοῖς 
σύνοικοι τὸ παλαιόν, ἡνίκα καὶ Σμύρνα ἐκαλεῖτο 
¢ mw ~.. 2 “ > U 
ἡ "Ἔφεσος" καὶ KadXivos που οὕτως ὠνόμακεν 
αὐτήν, Σμυρναίους τοὺς ᾿Εφεσίους καλῶν ἐν τῷ 
πρὸς τὸν Δία λόγῳ" 

’ > > / 
Σμυρναίους δ᾽ ἐλέησον" 
καὶ πάλιν' 
μνῆσαι δ᾽ εἴκοτέ τοι μηρία καλὰ βοῶν 
Σμυρναῖοι κατέκηαν.5 
Σμύρνα δ᾽ jv’ Apalov ἡ κατασχοῦσα τὴν Ἔφεσον, 
ἀφ᾽ ἧς τοὔνομα καὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις καὶ τῇ πόλει, 
ὡς καὶ ἀπὸ Σισύρβης Σισυρβῖταί τινες τῶν 
> / > / \ / / n > / 
Εφεσίων ἐλέγοντο" καὶ τόπος δέ τις τῆς Εφέσου 
Σμύρνα ἐκαλεῖτο, ὡς δηλοῖ “Ἱππῶναξ' 
Μ 7» a U 2 4 
ὦκει δ᾽ ὄπισθε τῆς πόληος ἐν Σμύρνῃ 
μεταξὺ Τρηχείης τε καὶ Λεπρῆς ἀκτῆς. 
> a \ \ \ > δὲ € \ Ἐν 2 , 
ἐκαλεῖτο yap Λεπρὴ μὲν ἀκτὴ ὁ Πριὼν ὁ ὑπερκεί- 
μενος τῆς νῦν πόλεως, ἔχων μέρος τοῦ τείχους 
αὐτῆς: τὰ γοῦν ὄπισθεν τοῦ Ilpt@vos κτήματα 
1”Amoixos, Tzschucke, for Ποίκης F, Πύκνης x, Ποίκ»ης other 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 3-4 

the time of the Ionian colonisation by Nauclus, 
bastard son of Codrus, and after him by Apoecus 
and Damasus, who were Athenians, and Geres, a 
Boeotian ; Erythrae by Cnopus, he too a bastard son 
of Codrus; Phocaea by the Athenians under Philo- 
genes ; Clazomenae by Paralus; Chios by Egertius, 
who brought with him a mixed crowd; Samos by 
Tembrion, and then later by Procles. 

4. These are the twelve Ionian cities, but at a 
later time Smyrna was added, being induced by 
the Ephesians to join the Ionian League; for the 
Ephesians were fellow-inhabitants of the Smyrnaeans 
in ancient times, when Ephesus was also called 
Smyrna. And Callinus somewhere so names it, when 
he calls the Ephesians Smyrnaeans in the prayer 
to Zeus, “‘and pity the Smyrnaeans”; and again, 
“remember, if ever the Smyrnaeans burnt up beau- 
tiful thighs of oxen in sacrifice to thee.”* Smyrna 
was an Amazon who took possession of Ephesus ; and 
hence the name both of the inhabitants and of the 
city, just as certain of the Ephesians were called 
Sisyrbitae after Sisyrbé. Also a certain place be- 
longing to Ephesus was called Smyrna, as Hipponax 
plainly indicates: “‘He lived behind the city in 
Smyrna between Tracheia and Lepra Acté” ;* for 
the name Lepra Acté was given to Mt. Prion, which 
lies above the present city and has on it a part of the 
city’s wall. At any rate, the possessions behind Prion 

ἄν. Tad, 2 Frag. 2 (Bergk). 8. Frag. 44 (Bergk). 

2 Tépns, the editors, for yap ἦν. 
3 TeuBplwy, the editors, for TnuBplwr. 
* Instead of Προκλῆς, moxz read Πατροκλῆς (cp. Etym. Mag. 
8. v.). 
5 Σμυρναῖοι κατέκηαν, Jones inserts, from conj. of Corais. 


C 634 ἔτει νυνὶ λέγεται ἐν τῇ ᾿Οπισθολεπρίᾳ Tpayeia 
δ᾽ ἐκαλεῖτο ἡ περὶ τὸν Κορησσὸν παρώρειος. ἡ 
δὲ πόλις ἦν τὸ παλαιὸν περὶ τὸ ᾿Αθήναιον τὸ 
νῦν ἔξω τῆς πόλεως ὃν κατὰ τὴν καλουμένην 
ὙὝπέλαιον, ὥστε ἡ Σμύρνα ἣν κατὰ τὸ νῦν γυμ- 
νάσιον ὄπισθεν μὲν τῆς viv! πόλεως, μεταξὺ 
δὲ Τρηχείης τε καὶ Λεπρῆς 5 ἀκτῆς. ἀπελθόντες 
δὲ παρὰ τῶν ᾿Εφεσίων οἱ Σμυρναῖοι στρατεύουσιν 
ἐπὶ τὸν τόπον, ἐν ᾧ νῦν ἐστὶν ἡ Σμύρνα, Λελέγων 
κατεχόντων! ἐκβαλόντες δ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἔκτισαν τὴν 
παλαιὰν Σμύρναν, διέχουσαν τῆς νῦν περὶ εἴκοσι 
σταδίους. ὕστερον δὲ ὑπὸ Αἰολέων ἐκπεσόντες 
κατέφυγον εἰς Κολοφῶνα, καὶ μετὰ τῶν ἐνθένδε 
ἐπιόντες τὴν σφετέραν ἀπέλαβον: καθάπερ καὶ 
Μίμνερμος ἐν τῇ Ναννοῖ φράζει, μνησθεὶς τῆς 
Σμύρνης, ὅτι περιμάχητος ἀεί" 

ἡμεῖς αἰπὺ 3 Πύλου ὁ Νηλήιον ἄστυ λιπόντες 
ἱμερτὴν ᾿Ασίην νηυσὶν ἀφικόμεθα. 
ἐς δ᾽ ἐρατὴν Κολοφῶνα βίην ὑπέροπλον 
ἔχοντες 5. ΑΕ τως 
ἑζόμεθ᾽ ἀργαλέης ὕβριος ἡγεμόνες. 
κεῖθεν δ᾽ ᾿Αστήεντος ὃ ἀπορνύμενοι ποταμοῖο 
θεῶν βουλῇ Σμύρναν εἵλομεν 1 Αἰολίδα. 
ταῦτα μὲν περὶ τούτων' ἐφοδευτέον δὲ πάλιν τὰ 
καθ᾽ ἕκαστα, τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀπὸ τῶν ἡγεμονικωτέρων 

1 Instead of νῦν, F reads ποτε; whence Kramer conj. 
ποτε and Meineke reads τότε. “ie 
2 Λεπρῆς, the editors, for Aemplns. 
3 Instead of αἰπύ, F reads ἐπεί; re, after αἰπύ, the editors 
since Hopper omit, except Meineke, who writes ἡμεῖς. δηὖτε 
for αἰπύ re. tio 
4 Πύλου Bergk, for Ἰιύλον, which latter Meineke retains, 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. τ. 4 

are still now referred to as in the “ opistholeprian”’ 
territory,’ and the country alongside the mountain 
round Coressus was called “ Tracheia.”’? The city 
was in ancient times round the Athenaeum, which 
is now outside the city near the Hypelaeus,® as it 
is called; so that Smyrna was near the present 
gymnasium, behind the present city, but between 
Tracheia and Lepra Acté. On departing from the 
Ephesians, the Smyrnaeans marched to the place 
where Smyrna now is, which was in the possession 
of the Leleges, and, having driven them out, they 
founded the ancient Smyrna, which is about twenty 
stadia distant from the present Smyrna. But later, 
being driven out by the Aeolians, they fled for 
refuge to Colophon, and then with the Colophonians 
returned to their own land and took it back, as 
Mimnermus tells us in his Nanno, after recalling that 
Smyrna was always an object of contention: “ After 
we left Pylus, the steep city of Neleus, we came by 
ship to lovely Asia, and with our overweening might 
settled in beloved Colophon, taking the initiative in 
grievous insolence. And from there, setting out from 
the Astéeis River, by the will of the gods we took 
Aeolian Smyrna.” * So much, then, on this subject. 
But I must again go over the several parts in detail, 

1 7.e. in the territory ‘‘ behind Lepra.” 
2 2,6... ** Rugged” country. 
8 A fountain. 4 Frag, 9 (Bergk). 

5 ἐρατήν, Wyttenbach, for ἄρα τῆν ; so the editors.. 

ὁ δ᾽ ᾿Αστήεντος is doubtful (see C. Miiller, nd. Var. Lect. 
p. 1028); CFoz read διαστήεντος ; the editors before Kramer, 
δ᾽ ᾿Αστύεντος. 

7 εἵλομεν, Clavier, far εἴδομεν ; so the editors, 



τόπων ποιησαμένους, eh) ὧνπερ καὶ πρῶτον ai 
κτίσεις ἐγένοντο, λέγω δὲ τῶν περὶ Μίλητον 
καὶ "Ἔφεσον. αὗται γὰρ ἄρισται πόλεις καὶ 

5. Μετὰ δὲ τὸ Ποσείδιον τὸ Μιλησίων ἑξῆς 
ἐστὶ τὸ μαντεῖον τοῦ Διδυμέως ᾿Απόλλωνος τὸ ἐν 
Βραγχίδαις, ἀναβάντι ὅσον ὀκτωκαίδεκα σταδίους" 
ἐνεπρήσθη δ᾽ ὑπὸ Ἐέρξου, καθάπερ καὶ τὰ ἄλλα 
ἱερὰ πλὴν τοῦ ἐν ᾿Εφέσῳ: οἱ δὲ Βραγχίδαιε τοὺς 
θησαυροὺς τοῦ θεοῦ παραδόντες τῷ Πέρσῃ φεύ- 
γοντι συναπῆραν, τοῦ μὴ τίσαι δίκας τῆς ἱεροσυ- 
λίας καὶ τῆς προδοσίας. ὕστερον δ᾽ οἱ Μιλήσιοι 
μέγιστον νεὼν τῶν πάντων κατεσκεύασαν, διέμεινε 
δὲ χωρὶς ὀροφῆς διὰ τὸ μέγεθος" κώμης γοῦν 
κατοικίαν ὁ τοῦ σηκοῦ περίβολος δέδεκται καὶ 
ἄλσος ἐντός τε καὶ ἐκτὸς “τολυτελές: ἄλλοι δὲ 
σηκοὶ τὸ μαντεῖον καὶ τὰ ἱερὰ συνέχουσιν' ἐνταῦθα 
δὲ μυθεύεται τὰ περὶ τὸν Βράγχον καὶ τὸν ἔρωτα 
τοῦ ᾿Απόλλωνος" κεκοσμηται δ᾽ ἀναθήμασι τῶν 
ἀρχαίων τεχνῶν πολυτελέστατα" ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ ἐπὶ 
τὴν πόλιν οὐ πολλὴ ὁδός ἐστιν, οὐδὲ πλοῦς. 

6. Φησὶ δ᾽ “Edopos τὸ πρῶτον κτίσμα εἶναι 
Κρητικόν, ὑπὲρ τῆς θαλάττης τετειχισμένον, ὅπου 
νῦν ἡ πάλαι Μίλητός ἐστι, Σαρπηδόνος ἐκ 
Μιλήτου τῆς Κρητικῆς ἀγαγόντος οἰκήτορας καὶ 

C 635 θεμένου τοὔνομα τῇ πόλει τῆς ἐκεῖ πόλεως ἐπώνυ- 
μον, κατεχόντων πρότερον Λελέγων τὸν τόπον" 
τοὺς δὲ περὶ Νηλέα ὕστερον τὴν νῦν τειχίσαι 
πόλιν. ἔχει δὲ τέτταρας λιμένας ἡ νῦν, ὧν ἕνα 
καὶ στόλῳ ἱκανόν. πολλὰ δὲ τῆς πόλεως ἔργα 

1 ἐφ᾽, Corais, for ἀφ᾽, 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 4-6 

beginning with the principal places, those where 
the foundings first took place, 1 mean those round 
Miletus and Ephesus; for these are the best and 
most famous cities. 

5. Next after the Poseidium of the Milesians, 
eighteen stadia inland, is the oracle of Apollo 
Didymeus among the Branchidae.' It was set on 
fire by Xerxes, as were also the other temples, 
except that at Ephesus. The Branchidae gave over 
the treasures of the god to the Persian king, and 
accompanied him in his flight in order to escape 
punishment for the robbing and the betrayal of the 
temple. But later the Milesians erected the largest 
temple in the world, though on account of its size it 
remained without a roof. At any rate, the circuit 
of the sacred enclosure holds a village settlement ; 
and there is a magnificent sacred grove both inside 
and outside the enclosure; and other sacred en- 
closures contain the oracle and the shrines. Here 
is laid the scene of the myth of Branchus and the 
love of Apollo. The temple is adorned with costliest 
offerings consisting of early works of art’ Thence to 
the city is no long journey, by land or by sea. 

6. Ephorus says: Miletus was first founded and 
fortified above the sea by the Cretans, where the 
Miletus of olden times is now situated, being settled 
by Sarpedon, who brought colonists from the Cretan 
Miletus and named the city after that Miletus, the 
place formerly being in the possession of the 
Leleges; but later Neleus and his followers fortified 
the present city. The present city has four harbours, 
one of which is large enough for a fleet. Many are 

1 i.e, at Didyma. On this temple see Herod. 1. 46, 5. 36, 
δ' 10. a 


Tabrns, μέγιστον δὲ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἀποικιῶν" 1 
6 τε yap Eigewos πόντος ὑπὸ τούτων συνῴκισται 
πᾶς καὶ ἡ II ροποντὶς καὶ ἄλλοι πλείους τόποι. 
Meee γοῦν ὁ Λαμψακηνὸς οὕτω φησίν, ὅ ὅτι 
ὶ Ἴκαρον τὴν νῆσον καὶ Λέρον Μιλήσιοι, συνῴ- 
κισαν καὶ περὶ ᾿Ελλήσποντον ἐν μὲν τῇ Χερ- 
ῥονήσῳ Λίμνας, ἐ ἐν δὲ τῇ ᾿Ασίᾳ ΓΑβυδον, ἼΔρισβαν, 
Παισόν" ἐν δὲ τῇ Κυξικηνῶν Kid 3 ᾿Αρτάκην, 
Κύξικον" ἐν δὲ τῇ μεσογαίᾳ τῆς Τ ρωάδ ος Σκῆψιν" 
ἡμεῖς δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς καθ᾽ ἕκαστα λέγομεν καὶ τὰς 
ἄλλας τὰς ὑπὸ τούτου παραλελειμμένας. Οὔλιον 
δ᾽ ᾿Απόλλωνα͵ καλοῦσί τινα καὶ Μιλήσιοι καὶ 
Δήλιοι, οἷον ὑγιαστικὸν καὶ παιωνικόν" τὸ yap 
οὔλειν ὑγιαίνειν, A οὗ καὶ τὸ οὐλὴ Kal τὸ 
οὖλέ τε καὶ μέγα 5 χαῖρε" 
ἰατικὸς γὰρ ὁ ᾿Απόλλων: καὶ ἡ "Ἄρτεμις ἀπὸ τοῦ 
ἀρτεμέας ποιεῖν' καὶ ὁ “Hos δὲ καὶ ἡ Σελήνη 
συνοικειοῦνται τούτοις, ὅτι τῆς περὶ τοὺς ἀέρας 
εὐκρασίας αἴτιοι" καὶ τὰ λοιμικὰ δὲ πάθη καὶ 
τοὺς αὐτομάτους θανάτους τούτοις ἀνάπτουσι τοῖς 

7. "Avipes δ᾽ ἄξιοι “μνήμης ἐγένοντο ἐν τῇ 
Μιλήτῳ Θαλῆς τε, εἷς τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφῶν, ὁ “πρῶτος 
φυσιολογίας ἄρξας ἐν τοῖς Ἕλλησι καὶ μαθη- 
ματικῆς, καὶ ὁ τούτου μαθητὴς ᾿Αναξίμανδρος 
καὶ ὁ τούτου πάλιν ᾿Αναξιμένης, ἔ ἔτι δ᾽ ᾿Εκαταῖος 
ὁ τὴν ἱστορίαν συντάξας, καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς δὲ Αἰσχίνης 

1 ἀποικιῶν, x and the editors, instead of ἀποίκων. 
2 The Homeric text has μάλα instead of μέγα. 

1 6. a ‘healed wound ” ; also a ** scar.” 
2 2.6, ‘safe and sound.” ’ The Sun-god. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 6-7 

the achievements of this city, but the greatest is the 
number of its colonisations; for the Euxine Pontus 
has been colonised everywhere by these people, as 
also the Propontis and several other regions. At 
any rate, Anaximenes of Lampsacus says that the 
Milesians colonised the islands Icaros and Leros; 
and, near the Hellespont, Limnae in the Cherso- 
nesus, as also Abydus and Arisba and Paesus in 
Asia; and Artacé and Cyzicus in the island of 
the Cyziceni; and Scepsis in the interior of the 
Troad. I,however,in my detailed description speak 
of the other cities, which have been omitted by 
him. Both Milesians and Delians invoke an Apollo 
“ Ulius,” that is, as god of “health and healing,” 
for the verb “ulein’’ means “to be healthy’’; 
whence the noun “ ulé’”’? and the salutation, “ Both 
health and great joy to thee”; for Apollo is the 
god of healing. And Artemis has her name from 
the fact that she makes people ‘‘ Artemeas.” 2 And 
both Helius® and Selené4 are closely associated with 
these, since they are the causes of the temperature 
of the air. And both pestilential diseases and 
sudden deaths are imputed to these gods. 7 

7. Notable men were born at Miletus: Thales, 
one of the Seven Wise Men, the first to begin the 
science of natural philosophy® and mathematics 
among the Greeks, and his pupil Anaximander, and 
again the pupil of the latter, Anaximenes, and also 
Hecataeus, the author of the History, and, in my 
time, Aeschines the orator, who remained in exile 

* The Moon-goddess. 

5 Literally ‘‘ physiology,” which again shows the perversion 
of Greek scientific names in English (cf. Vol. I, p. 27, foot- 
note 2). . 



ὁ ῥήτωρ, ὃς ἐν φυγῇ διετέλεσε, παρρησιασάμενος 
πέρα τοῦ μετρίου πρὸς Πομπήιον Μάγνον. ἠτύ- 
᾿ ἐς / > , > / 

nae δ᾽ ἡ πόλις, ἀποκλείσασα ᾿Αλέξανδρον καὶ 
, lal / 4 ΜΝ , 4 \ 
ia ληφθεῖσα, καθάπερ καὶ ᾿Αλικαρνασός" ἔτι δὲ 
πρότερον ὑπὸ Περσῶν" καί φησί γε Καλλισθένης, 
΄ > Be / / “ “ Ψ' 
ὑπ᾽ ᾿Αθηναίων χιλίαις δραχμαῖς ζημιωθῆναι Φρύ- 
νιίχον τὸν τραγικόν, διότι δρᾶμα ἐποίησε Μιλήτου 
ἅλωσιν ὑπὸ Δαρείου. πρόκειται δ᾽ ἡ Λάδη νῆσος 
πλησίον καὶ ta! περὶ τὰς Tpayaias νησία, 

ὑφόρμους gn λῃσταῖς. 
8. «Εξῆς δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὁ Λατμικὸς Σ κόλπος, ἐν @ 
Ηράκλεια ἡ ὑπὸ Λάτμῳ λεγομένη, πολίχνιον 
ὕφορμον ἔχον: ἐκαλεῖτο δὲ πρότερον Λάτμος 
ὁμωνύμως τῷ ὑπερκειμένῳ ὄρει, ὅπερ Ἑκαταῖος 
μὲν ἐμφαίνει τὸ αὐτὸ εἶναι νομίζων τῷ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
ποιητοῦ Φθειρῶν ὄρει λεγομένῳ (ὑπὲρ γὰρ τῆς 
Λάτμου φησὶ τὸ Φθειρῶν ὄρος κεῖσθαι), τινὲς 
C636 δὲ τὸ Γρίον φασίν, ὡς ἂν παράλληλον τῷ 
Λάτμῳ ἀνῆκον ἀπὸ τῆς Μιλησίας πρὸς ἕω διὰ 
τῆς Καρίας μέχρι Εὐρώμου καὶ Χαλκητόρων" 
ὑπέρκειται δὲ ταύτης ἐν ὕψει.58 μικρὸν δ᾽ ἄπωθεν 
διαβάντι ποταμίσκον πρὸς τῷ Λάτμῳ δείκνυται 
τάφος ᾿Ενδυμίωνος ἔν τινι σπηλαίῳ' εἶτα ἀφ᾽ 
€ / ΕΝ ΄ , -“ e / 
Ηρακλείας ἐπὶ Ilvppav πολίχνην πλοῦς ἑκατὸν 

που σταδίων. 

9. Μικρὸν δὲ πλέον τὸ ἀπὸ Μιλήτου εἰς 
Ἡράκλειαν ἐγκολπίζοντι, εὐθυπλοίᾳ δ᾽ εἰς Πύρ- 


1 +d, omitted by MSS. except E. 

2 Λατμικός, Xylander, for Λητομηκός F, Λατομμικός 8, 
Λατομικός other MSS. 

3 For ὕψει Groskurd conj. ὄψει, and Meineke so reads. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 7-9 

to the end, since he spoke freely, beyond modera- 
tion, before Pompey the Great. But the city was 
unfortunate, since it shut its gates against Alexander 
and was taken by force, as was also the case with 
Halicarnassus; and also, before that time, it was 
taken by the Persians. And Callisthenes says that 
Phrynichus the tragic poet was fined a thousand 
drachmas by the Athenians because he wrote a play 
entitled The Capture of Miletus by Dareius. The 
island Ladé lies close in front of Miletus, as do also 
the isles in the neighbourhood of the Tragaeae, 
which afford anchorage for pirates. 

8. Next comes the Latmian Gulf, on which is 
situated ‘ Heracleia below Latmus,’ as it is called, 
a small town that has an anchoring-place. It was at 
first called Latmus, the same name as the mountain 
that lies above it, which Hecataeus indicates, in his 
opinion, to be the same as that which by the poet 
is called “the mountain of the Phtheires’’! (for he 
says that the mountain of the Phtheires lies above 
Latmus), though some say that it is Mt. Grium, which 
is approximately parallel to Latmus and extends 
inland from Milesia towards the east through Caria 
to Euromus and Chalcetores.2, This mountain lies 
above Heracleia, and at a high elevation.? At 
a slight distance away from it, after one has crossed 
a little river near Latmus, there isto be seen the 
sepulchre of Endymion, in a cave. Then from 
Heracleia to Pyrrha, a small town, there is a voyage 
of about one hundred stadia. 

9. But the voyage from Miletus to Heracleia, 
including the sinuosities of the gulfs, is a little more 

1 Iliad 2. 868. 2 See 14. 2, 22. 
8 Or rather, perhaps, ‘‘and in sight of it” (see critical note). 


ραν ἐκ Μιλήτου τριάκοντα" τοσαύτην ἔχει 
μακροπορίαν ὁ παρὰ γῆν πλοῦς. ἀνάγκη δ᾽ 
ἐπὶ τῶν ἐνδόξων τόπων ὑπομένειν τὸ περισκελὲς 
nh ae γεωγραφίας. 

Ἔκ δὲ Πύρρας ἐπὶ τὴν ἐκβολὴν τοῦ 
Masév8pov πεντήκοντα" τεναγώδης δ᾽ ὁ τόπος 
καὶ ἑλώδης: ἀναπλεύσαντι δ᾽ ὑπηρετικοῖς σκά- 
φεσι τριάκοντα σταδίους πόλις Μυοῦς, μία 
τῶν ᾿Ιάδων τῶν δώδεκα, ἣ νῦν ov’ ὀλιγανδρίαν 
Μιλησίοις συμπεπόλισται. ταύτην ὄψον λέ- 
yetat Θεμιστοκλεῖ δοῦναι Ἐβξέρξης, ἄρτον δὲ 
annie aes οἶνον δὲ Λάμψακον. 

Ἔνθεν ἐν σταδίοις τέτταρσι κώμη Καρικὴ 
πρίν ὅν map ἣν "Αορνόν ἐστι σπήλαιον ἱερόν, 
Χαρώνιον λεγόμενον ὀλεθρίους ἔχον ἀποφοράς. 
ὑπέρκειται δὲ Μαγνησία ἡ πρὸς Μαιάνδρῳ, 
Μαγνήτων ἀ ἀποικία τῶν ἐν Θετταλίᾳ καὶ Κρητῶν, 
περὶ ἧς αὐτίκα ἐροῦμεν. 

12. Μετὰ δὲ τὰς ἐκβολὰς τοῦ “Μαιάνδρου ὁ 
κατὰ Πριήνην ἐστὶν αἰγιαλός, ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ & ἡ 
Πριήνη καὶ Μυκάλη τὸ ὄρος, εὔθηρον καὶ εὖ- 
δενδρον. ἐπίκειται δὲ τῇ Σαμίᾳ καὶ ποιεῖ “πρὸς 
αὐτὴν ἐπέκεινα τῆς Τρωγιλίου καλουμένης ἄκρας 
ὅσον ἑπταστάδιον πορθμόν. λέγεται δ᾽ ὑπό 
τινων ἡ Πριήνη Κάδμη, ἐπειδὴ Φιλώτας. ὁ 
ἐπικτίσας αὐτὴν Βοιώτιος ὑπῆρχεν" ἐκ Πριήνης 
δ᾽ ἦν Βίας, εἷς τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφῶν, περὶ οὗ φησιν 
οὕτως Ἱππῶναξ' 

καὶ δικάσσασθαι Βίαντος τοῦ Πριηνέως 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 9-12 

than one hundred stadia, though that from Miletus 
to Pyrrha, in a straight course, is only thirty—so 
much longer is the journey along the coast. But in 
the case of famous places my reader must needs 
endure the dry part of such geography as this. 

10. The voyage from Pyrrha to the outlet of the 
Maeander River is fifty stadia, a place which consists of 
shallows and marshes; and, going inland in row- 
boats thirty stadia, one comes to the city Myus, one 
of the twelve Ionian cities, which, on account of its 
sparse population, has now been incorporated into 
Miletus. Xerxes is said to have given this city to 
Themistocles to supply him with fish, Magnesia to 
supply him with bread, and Lampsacus with wine. 

11. Thence, within four stadia, one comes to a 
village, the Carian Thymbria, near which is Aornum, 
a sacred cave, which is called Charonium, since it 
emits deadly vapours. Above it lies Magnesia on 
the Maeander, a colony of the Magnesians of Thessaly 
and the Cretans, of which I shall soon speak,? 

12. After the outlets of the Maeander comes the 
shore of Priené, above which lies Priené, and also the 
mountain Mycalé, which is well supplied with wild 
animals and with trees. This mountain lies above 
the Samian territory? and forms with it, on the far 
side of the promontory called Trogilian, a strait 
about seven stadia in width. Priené is by some 
writers called Cadmé, since Philotas, who founded 
it, was a Boeotian. Bias, one of the Seven Wise 
Men, was a native of Priené, of whom Hipponax says 
“stronger in the pleading of his cases than Bias of 
Priené,” 3 

1 §§ 39-40 following. 2 The isle of Samos. 
8 Frag. RQ τ Bergk). 


13. Τῆς δὲ Τρωγιλίου πρόκειται νησίον ὁμώ- 
νυμον' ἐντεῦθεν δὲ τὸ ἐγγυτάτω δίαρμά ἐστιν 
ἐπὶ Σούνιον σταδίων χιλίων ἑξακοσίων, κατ᾽ 
ἀρχὰς μὲν Σάμον ἐν δεξιᾷ ἔχοντι καὶ Ἰκαρίαν 
καὶ Κορσίας,1 τοὺς δὲ Μελαντίους 3 σκοπέλους 
ἐξ εὐωνύμων, τὸ λοιπὸν δὲ διὰ μέσων τῶν 
Κυκλάδων νήσων. καὶ αὐτὴ δ᾽ ἡ Τρωγίλιος 
ἄκρα πρόπους τις τῆς Μυκάλης ἐστί. τῇ 
Μυκάλῃ δ᾽ ὄρος ἄλλο πρόσκειται τῆς ᾿Ἐφεσίας 
Πακτύης: καὶ ἡ Μεσωγηὶς δὲ εἰς αὐτὴν κατα- 

14, ᾿Απὸ δὲ τῆς Τρωγιλίου στάδιοι τεττα- 
ράκοντα εἰς τὴν Σάμον" βλέπει δὲ πρὸς νότον 
καὶ αὐτὴ καὶ ὁ λιμήν, ἔχων ναύσταθμον. ἔστι 

C 637 δ᾽ αὐτῆς ἐν ἐπιπέδῳ τὸ πλέον, ὑπὸ τῆς θαλάττης 
κλυξόμενον, μέρος δέ τι καὶ εἰς τὸ ὄρος ἀνέχει 
τὸ ὑπερκείμενον. ἐν δεξιᾷ μὲν οὖν προσπλέουσι 
πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐστὶ τὸ Ποσείδιον, ἄκρα ἡ 
ποιοῦσα πρὸς τὴν Μυκάλην τὸν ἑπταστάδιον 
πορθμόν, ἔχει δὲ νεὼν Ποσειδῶνος" πρόκειται 
δ᾽ αὐτοῦ νησίδιον ἡ Ναρθηκίς" ἐπ᾽ ἀριστερᾷ δὲ 
τὸ προάστειον τὸ πρὸς τῷ “Ηραίῳ καὶ ὁ “IuBpacos 
ποταμὸς καὶ τὸ Ἡραῖον, ἀρχαῖον ἱερὸν καὶ νεὼς 
μέγας, ὃς νῦν πινακοθήκη ἐστί: χωρὶς δὲ τοῦ 
πλήθους τῶν ἐνταῦθα κειμένων πινάκων ἄλλαι 
πινακοθῆκαι καὶ ναΐσκοι τινές εἰσι πλήρεις τῶν 
ἀρχαίων τεχνῶν" τό τε ὕπαιθρον ὁμοίως μεστὸν 
ἀνδριάντων ἐστὶ τῶν ἀρίστων" ὧν τρία Μύρωνος 
ἔργα κολοσσικὰ ἱδρυμένα ἐπὶ μιᾶς βάσεως, ἃ 

1 Καρσίας F ; Tzschucke emends to Κορασσίας. 

- MeAarrtous, Tzschucke, from conj. of Voss, for Μελαν- 
@lovs; so the later editors. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 13-14 

13. Off the Trogilian promontory lies an isle ot 
the same name. Thence the nearest passage across 
to Sunium is one thousand six hundred stadia; on 
the voyage one has at first Samos and lecaria and 
Corsia on the right, and the Melantian rocks on the 
left; and the remainder of the voyage is through 
the midst of the Cyclades islands. The Trogilian 
promontory itself is a kind of spur of Mt. Mycalé. 
Close to Mycalé lies another mountain, in the 
Ephesian territory, 1 mean Mt. Pactyes,in which the 
Mesogis terminates. 

14. The distance from the Trogilian promontory 
to Samos? is forty stadia. Samos faces the south, 
both it and its harbour, which latter has a naval 
station. The greater part of it is on level ground, 
being washed by the sea, but a part of it reaches up 
into the mountain that lies above it. Now on the 
right, as one sails towards the city, is the Poseidium, 
a promontory which with Mt. Mycalé forms the 
seven-stadia strait ; and it has a temple of Poseidon ; 
and in front of it lies an isle called Narthecis; and 
on the left is the suburb near the Heraeum, and also 
the Imbrasus River, and the Heraeum, which con- 
sists of an ancient temple and a great shrine, which 
latter is now a repository of tablets.2, Apart from 
the number of the tablets placed there, there are 
other repositories of votive tablets and some small 
chapels full of ancient works of art. And the temple, 
which is open to the sky, is likewise full of most 
excellent statues. Of these, three of colossal size, 
the work of Myron, stood upon one base; Antony 

1 2.6. the city Samos. 
* Whether maps or paintings, or both, the translator does 
not know. 



ἦρε μὲν ᾿Αντώνιος, ἀνέθηκε δὲ πάλιν ὁ Σεβαστὸς 
Καῖσαρ εἰς τὴν αὐτὴν βάσιν τὰ δύο, τὴν ᾿Αθηνᾶν 
‘ \ «ς , Ν ‘ / ? \ ¢ 
καὶ τὸν Ηρακλέα, tov δὲ Δία eis τὸ Καπετώλιον 
μετήνεγκε, κατασκευάσας αὐτῷ ναΐσκον. 
15. Περίπλους δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῆς Σαμίων νήσου 
/ e / > ων \ / 
σταδίων ἑξακοσίων. ἐκαλεῖτο δὲ Παρθενία 
πρότερον οἰκούντων Καρῶν, εἶτα ᾿Ανθεμοῦς," 
- Μ xX / ¥t 2 ? > 4 yw 3? > , 
eta Μελαμφυλλος," εἶτα Σάμος, εἴτ᾽ ἀπὸ τινος 
> / 4 LIS "1A / ὶ Κ rAX / 
ἐπιχωρίου ἥρωος, εἴτ᾽ ἐξ ᾿Ιθάκης καὶ Κεφαλληνίας 
ἀποικήσαντος.5 καλεῖται μὲν οὖν καὶ ἄκρα τις 
ΕἾ / / \ \ 6 ? S 4 
Αμπελος βλέπουσά πως πρὸς TO τῆς ᾿Ικαρίας 
Δρέπανον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ ὄρος ἅπαν, ὃ ποιεῖ τὴν 
ὅλην νῆσον ὀρεινήν, ὁμωνύμως λέγεται: ἔστι δ᾽ 
οὐκ εὔοινος, καίπερ εὐοινουσῶν τῶν κύκλῳ νήσων, 
καὶ τῆς ἠπείρου σχεδόν τι τῆς προσεχοῦς πάσης 
τοὺς ἀρίστους ἐκφερούσης οἴνους, οἷον Χίου καὶ 
, \ lal 4 \ ‘ ΝΑ Rh / \ ; 
Λέσβου καὶ Κῶ." καὶ μὴν καὶ ὁ ᾿Εφέσιος καὶ Mn- 
> oe \ ay fe na) 
τροπολίτης ayaboi, ἥ τε Μεσωγὶς καὶ ὁ 'Γμῶλος 
καὶ ἡ Κατακεκαυμένη καὶ Κνίδος καὶ Σμύρνα 
καὶ ἄλλοι ἀσημότεροι τόποι διαφόρως χρηστοι- 
νοῦσιν ἢ πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν ἢ πρὸς διαίτας ἰατρι- 
Kas. περὶ μὲν ovv® οἴνους οὐ πάνυ εὐτυχεῖ 
s ΄ \ ὃ Μ ἡὃ 7 ς δῇ » a 
Σάμος, τὰ ὃ ἄλλα εὐδαίμων, ὡς δῆλον EK TE TOU 
περιμάχητον γενέσθαι καὶ ἐκ τοῦ τοὺς ἐπαινοῦντας 
μὴ ὀκνεῖν ἐφαρμόττειν αὐτῇ τὴν λέγουσαν πα- 
ροιμίαν, ὅτε φέρει καὶ ὀρνίθων γώλα, καθάπερ 

1 For ᾿Ανθεμοῦς, Corais, following Eustathius (note on 
Dionys. 533), reads ᾿Ανθεμίς: By some writers the name is 
spelled ᾿Ανθεμοῦσα. 

2 MeAdugvados, Meineke, for Μελάμφυλος. 

3 ἀποικήσαντος Ε', ἀποικίσαντος other MSS. 

4 οἷον... Κῶ, Meineke ejects. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 14-15 

took these statues away,} but Augustus Caesar 
restored two of them, those of Athena and Heracles, 
to the same base, although he transferred the Zeus 
to the Capitolium, having erected there a small chapel 
for that statue. 

15. The voyage round the island of the Samians 
is six hundred stadia. In earlier times, when it was 
inhabited by Carians, it was called Parthenia, then 
Anthemus, then Melamphyllus, and then Samos, 
whether after some native hero or after someone 
who colonised it from Ithaca and Cephallenia.2 Now 
in Samos there is a promontory approximately facing 
Drepanum in Icaria which is called Ampelus, but 
the entire mountain which makes the whole of the 
island mountainous is called by the same name. 
The island does not produce good wine, although 
good wine is produced by the islands all round, and 
although most of the whole of the adjacent main- 
land produces the best of wines, for example, Chios 
and Lesbos and Cos. And indeed the Ephesian and 
Metropolitan wines are good; and Mt. Mesogis 
and Mt. Tmolus and the Catacecaumene country 
and Cnidos and Smyrna and other less significant 
places produce exceptionally good wine, whether for 
enjoyment or medicinal purposes. Now Samos is 
not altogether fortunate in regard to wines, but in 
all other respects it is a blest country, as is clear 
from the fact that it became an object of contention 
in war, and also from the fact that those who praise 
it do not hesitate to apply to it the proverb, that “ it 

1 See 13. 1. 30. 2 See 10. 2. 17. 

5 οὖν, before οἴνους, Meineke inserts. 

C 638 


που καὶ Μένανδρος. ἔφη." τοῦτο δὲ καὶ τῶν 
τυραννίδων αἴτιον αὐτῇ κατέστη, καὶ τῆς πρὸς 
᾿Αθηναίους ἔχθρας. 

16. Αἱ μὲν οὗν τυραννίδες ἤκμασαν κατὰ 
Πολυκράτη μάλιστα καὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ 
Συλοσῶντα: ἣν δ᾽ ὁ μὲν καὶ τύχῃ καὶ δυνάμει 
λαμπρός, ὥστε καὶ θαλαττοκρατῆσαι" τῆς δ᾽ 
εὐτυχίας αὐτοῦ σημεῖον τιθέασιν, ὅτε ῥίψαντος 
εἰς τὴν θάλατταν ἐπίτηδες τὸν δακτύλιον λίθου 
καὶ γλύμματος πολυτελοῦς, ἀνήνεγκε μικρὸν 
ὕστερον τῶν ἁλιέων τις τὸν καταπιόντα ἰχθὺν 
αὐτόν: ἀνατμηθέντος δ᾽ εὑρέθη ὁ δακτύλιος" 
mudoper ov δὲ τοῦτο τὸν Αὐγυπτίων βασιλέα 
φασὶ μαντικῶς πως ᾿ἀποφθέγξασθαι, ὡς ἐν 
βραχεῖ καταστρέψει τὸν βίον εἰς οὐκ “εὐτυχὲς 
τέλος ὁ τοσοῦτον ἐξηρμένος ταῖς εὐπραγίαις" καὶ 
δὴ καὶ συμβῆναι τοῦτο’ ληφθέντα γὰρ ἐξ 
ἀπάτης ὑπὸ τοῦ σατρώπου τῶν Περσῶν κρε- 
μασθῆναι. τούτῳ συνεβίωσεν ᾿Ανακρέων ὁ 
μελοποιός" καὶ δὴ καὶ πᾶσα ἡ ποίησις πλήρης 
ἐστὶ τῆς περὶ αὐτοῦ μνήμης. ἐπὶ τούτου δὲ 
καὶ Πυθαγόραν ἱ ἱστοροῦσιν ἰδόντα φυομένην τὴν 
τυραννίδα ἐκλιπεῖν τὴν πόλιν καὶ ἀπελθεῖν εἰς 
Αἴγυπτον καὶ Βαβυλῶνα φιλομαθείας χάριν' 
ἐπανιόντα δ᾽ ἐκεῖθεν, ὁρῶντα ἔτι συμμένουσαν 
τὴν τυραννίδα, πλεύσαντα εἰς ᾿Ιταλίαν ἐκεῖ 
διατελέσαι τὸν βίον. περὶ Πολυκράτους μὲν 

11. Συλοσῶν δ᾽ ἀπελείφθη μὲν ἰδιώτης ὑπὸ τοῦ 
ἀδελφοῦ, Δαρείῳ δὲ τῷ Ὑστάσπεω χαρισάμενος 

1 καθάπερ . - - ἔφη, Meineke ejects, 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 15-17 

produces even birds’ milk,’ as Menander somewhere 
says. This was also the cause of the establishment 
of the tyrannies there, and of their enmity against 
the Athenians. 

16. Now the tyrannies reached their greatest 
height in the time of Polycrates and his brother 
Syloson. Polycrates was such a brilliant man, both 
in his good fortune and in his natural ability, that 
he gained supremacy over the sea; and it is set 
down,’ as a sign of his good fortune, that he purposely 
flung into the sea his ring, a ring of very costly stone 
and engraving, and that a little later one of the 
fishermen brought him the very fish that swallowed 
it; and that when the fish was cut open the ring 
was found; and that on learning this the king of 
the Egyptians, it is said, declared in a kind of 
prophetic way that any man who had been exalted 
so highly in welfare would shortly come to no happy 
end of life ; and indeed this is what happened, for 
he was captured by treachery by the satrap of the 
Persians and hanged. Anacreon the melic poet 
lived in companionship with Polycrates; and indeed 
the whole of his poetry is full of his praises. It was 
in his time, as we are told, that Pythagoras, seeing 
that the tyranny was growing in power, left the city 
and went off to Egypt and Babylon, to satisfy his 
fondness for learning; but when he came back and 
saw that the tyranny still endured, he set sail for 
Italy and lived there to the end of his life. So much 
for Polycrates. 

17. Syloson was left a private citizen by his 
brother, but to gratify Dareius, the son of Hystas- 

1 See Herodotus, 3. 40-43, and 120, 125. 
VOL, VI. ηΗ 3217] 


ἐσθῆτα, ἧς ἐπεθύμησεν ἐκεῖνος φοροῦντα ἰδών, 
οὔπω δ᾽ ἐβασίλευε τότε, βασιλεύσαντος ἀντέλαβε 
δῶρον τὴν τυραννίδα. πικρῶς δ᾽ ἦρξεν, ὥστε 
καὶ ἐλειπάνδρησεν ἡ πόλις" κἀκεῖθεν ἐκπεσεῖν 
συνέβη τὴν παροιμίαν" 

ἕκητι Συλοσῶντος εὐρυχωρίη. 

18. ᾿Αθηναῖοι δὲ πρότερον μὲν πέμψαντες 
στρατηγὸν Περικλέα καὶ σὺν αὐτῷ Σοφοκλέα 
τὸν ποιητὴν πολιορκίᾳ κακῶς διέθηκαν ἀπει- 
θοῦντας τοὺς Σαμίους, ὕστερον δὲ καὶ κληρού- 
yous ἔπεμψαν δισχιλίους ἐξ ἑαυτῶν, ὧν ἣν καὶ 
Νεοκλῆς, ὁ ᾿Επικούρου τοῦ φιλοσόφου πατήρ, 
γραμματοδιδάσκαλος, ὥς φασι' καὶ δὴ καὶ 
τραφῆναί φασιν ἐνθάδε καὶ ἐν Τέῳ, καὶ ἐφη- 
βεῦσαι ᾿Αθήνησι γενέσθαι δ᾽ αὐτῷ συνέφηβον 
Μένανδρον τὸν κωμικόν' Σάμιος 8 ἣν καὶ 
Κρεώφυλος, ὅν φασι δεξώμενον ξενίᾳ ποτὲ 
“Ὅμηρον, λαβεῖν δῶρον τὴν ἐπιγραφὴν τοῦ ποιή- 
ματος, ὃ καλοῦσιν Οἰχαλίας ἅλωσιν. Καλλί- 
μαχος δὲ τοὐναντίον ἐμφαίνει δι’ ἐπιγρώμματός 
τινος, ὡς ἐκείνου μὲν ποιήσαντος, λεγομένου δ᾽ 
Ὁμήρου διὰ τὴν λεγομένην Eeviav" 

τοῦ Σαμίου πόνος εἰμί, δόμῳ ποτὲ θεῖον 

δεξαμένου: κλείω 1 δ᾽ Εὔρυτον, ὅσσ᾽ ἔπαθεν, 
καὶ ξανθὴν ᾿Ιόλειαν᾽ ‘Opnpevov δὲ καλεῦμαι 
,ὕ , n / a / 
γράμμα Κρεωφύλχῳ, Ζεῦ φίλε, τοῦτο μέγα. 
C 639 τινὲς δὲ διδάσκαλον Ὁμήρου τοῦτόν φασιν, οἱ 
δ᾽ οὐ τοῦτον, ἀλλ᾽ ᾿Αριστέαν τὸν Προκοννήσιον. 

1 κλείω, Meineke, for καίω ; κλαίω Tzschucke. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 17-18 

pes, he gave him a robe which Dareius desired 
when he saw him wearing it; and Dareius at that 
time was not yet king, but when Dareius became 
king, Syloson received as a return-gift the tyranny of 
Samos. But he ruled so harshly that the city became 
depopulated ; and thence arose the preverb, “ by the 
will of Syloson there is plenty of room.”’ 

18. The Athenians at first sent Pericles as general 
and with him Sophocles the poet, who by a siege 
put the disobedient Samians in bad plight; but 
later they sent two thousand allottees from their 
own people, among whom was Neocles, the father 
of Epicurus the philosopher, a schoolmaster as they 
eall him. And indeed it is said that Epicurus grew 
up here and in Teos, and that he became an 
ephebus! at Athens, and that Menander the comic 
poet became an ephebus at the same time. Creo- 
pbylus, also, was a Samian, who, it is said, once 
entertained Homer and received as a gift from him 
the inscription of the poem called The Capture of 
Oechalia. But Callimachus clearly indicates the con- 
trary in an epigram of his, meaning that Creophylus 
composed the poem, but that it was ascribed to 
Homer because of the story of the hospitality shown 
him: “I am the toil of the Samian, who once 
entertained in his house the divine Homer. I 
bemoan Eurytus, for all that he suffered, and golden- 
haired Ioleia. [1 am called Homer's writing. For 
Creophylus, dear Zeus, this is a great achievement.”’ 
Some call Creophylus Homer’s teacher, while others 
say that it was not Creophylus, but Aristeas the 
Proconnesian, who was his teacher. 

1 i.e. at eighteen years of age underwent a “‘scrutiny ” and 
was registered as an Athenian citizen. 


19. Παράκειται δὲ τῇ Σάμῳ νῆσος “Inapia, 
3 ᾽ δέν / / Φ > ’ , 
ἀφ᾽ ἧς τὸ Ἰκάριον πέλαγος. αὕτη δ᾽ ἐπώνυμός 
> ᾽ / Ν a , “ 
ἐστιν ᾿Ικάρου, παιδὸς τοῦ Δαιδάλου, ὅν φασι 
τῷ πατρὶ κοινωνήσαντα τῆς φυγῆς, ἡνίκα 
, a »-“" 
ἀμφότεροι πτερωθέντες ἀπῆραν ἐκ Κρήτης, πεσεῖν 
ἐνθάδε, μὴ κρατήσαντα τοῦ δρόμου: μετεωρισ- 
θέντι γὰρ πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον ἐπὶ πλέον περιρρυῆναι 
τὰ πτερά, τακέντος τοῦ κηροῦ. τριακοσίων δ᾽ 
’, lol 
ἐστὶ τὴν περίμετρον σταδίων ἡ νῆσος ἅπασα 
\ > , \ ig / » 3 e / 
καὶ ἀλίμενος, πλὴν ὑφοόορμων, ὧν ὁ κάλλιστος 
᾿Ιστοὶ λέγονται" ἄκρα δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀνατείνουσα πρὸς 
/ » \ \ » φ Ud ’ 
ζέφυρον. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ᾿Αρτέμιδος ἱερόν, καλού- 
μενον Ἰαυροπόλιον, ἐν τῇ νήσῳ καὶ πολισμάτιον 
Οἰνόη, καὶ ἄλλο Δράκανον, ὁμώνυμον τῇ ἄκρᾳ, 
γ 1)» τ & ; ¥ <i ae > 
ἐφ᾽ ἡ ἵδρυται, πρόσορμον ἔχον" ἡ δὲ ἄκρα διέχει 
“ fal ΄ 
τῆς Σαμίων ἄκρας, τῆς Κανθαρίου καλουμένης, 
ὀγδοήκοντα σταδίους, ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἐλάχιστον 
δίαρμα τὸ μεταξύ. νυνὶ μέντοι λειπανδροῦσαν 
Σάμιοι νέμονται τὰ πολλὰ βοσκημάτων χάριν. 
20. Μετὰ δὲ τὸν Σάμιον πορθμὸν τὸν πρὸς 
Μυκάλῃ πλέουσιν εἰς “Edecov ἐν δεξιᾷ ἐστὶν 
ἡ ᾿Εφεσίων παραλία: μέρος δέ τι ἔχουσιν αὐτῆς 
καὶ οἱ Σάμιοι. πρῶτον δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ παραλίᾳ 
τὸ Πανιώνιον, τρισὶ σταδίοις ὑπερκείμενον τῆς 
θαλάττης, ὅπου τὰ Ἰ]ανιώνια, κοινὴ πανήγυρις 
nr a a & an 
τῶν ᾿Ιώνων, συντελεῖται τῷ “EXtxwvio Ποσειδῶνι 
καὶ θυσία" ἱερῶνται δὲ ἸΠριηνεῖς" εἴρηται δὲ περὶ 
αὐτῶν ἐν τοῖς ελοποννησιακοῖς. εἶτα Νεά- 
aA , \ io > / a \ 
Tons, ἣ πρότερον μὲν ἦν ᾿Εφεσίων, viv δὲ 

1 i.e. the wax which joined the wings to his body. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 19-20 

19. Alongside Samos lies the island Icaria, whence 
was derived the name of the Icarian Sea. This 
island is named after Icarus the son of Daedalus, 
who, it is said, having joined his father in flight, 
both being furnished with wings, flew away from 
Crete and fell here, having lost control of their 
course ; for, they add, on rising too close to the sun, 
his wings slipped off, since the wax! melted. The 
whole island is three hundred stadia in perimeter; 
it has no harbours, but only places of anchorage, the 
best of which is called Histi.2. It has a promontory 
which extends towards the west. There is also on 
the island a temple of Artemis, called Tauropolium ; 
and a small town Oenoé; and another small town 
Dracanum, bearing the same name as the pro- 
montory on which it is situated and having near by 
a place of anchorage. The promontory is eighty 
stadia distant from the promontory of the Samians 
called Cantharius, which is the shortest distance 
between the two. At the present time, however, 
it has but few inhabitants left, and is used by Samians 
mostly for the grazing of cattle. 

20. After the Samian strait, near Mt. Mycalé, as 
one sails to Ephesus, one comes, on the right, to the 
seaboard of the Ephesians; and a part of this sea- 
board is held by the Samians. First on the seaboard 
is the Panionium, lying three stadia above the sea 
where the Pan-Ionia, a common festival of the 
Ionians, are held, and where sacrifices are performed 
in honour of the Heliconian Poseidon ; and Prienians 
serve as priests at this sacrifice, but I have spoken 
of them in my account of the Peloponnesus.*? Then 
comes Neapolis, which in earlier times belonged to 

2 2,2. Masts. * 8. 7. 2. 

C 640 


Σαμίων, διαλλαξαμένων. πρὸς τὸ Μαραθήσιον, 
τὸ ἐγγυτέρω πρὸς τὸ ἀπωτέρω" εἶτα Πύγελα 
πολίχνιον, ἱερὸν ἔχον ᾿Αρτέμιδος. Μουνυχίας, 
ἵδρυμα ᾿Αγαμέμνονος, οἰκούμενον ὑπὸ μέρους τῶν 
ἐκείνου λαῶν" Tuyadyéas! γάρ τινάς φασι καὶ 
γενέσθαι καὶ κληθῆναι, κάμνοντας δ᾽ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
πάθους καταμεῖναι, καὶ τυχεῖν οἰκείου pee 
τοῦ ὀνόματος τὸν τόπον. εἶτα λιμὴν Ilavop 
καλούμενος, ἔχων ἱερὸν τῆς ᾿Εφεσίας ᾿Αρτέμιδος 
εἶθ᾽ ἡ πόλις. ἐν δὲ τῇ αὐτῇ παραλίᾳ μικρὸν 
ὑπὲρ τῆς θαλάττης ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ᾿Ορτυγία, δια- 
πρεπὲς ἄλσος παντοδαπῆς ὕλης, κυπαρίττου 
δὲ τῆς πλείστης. διαρρεῖ δὲ ὁ Κέγχριος 
ποταμός, οὗ φασὶ νίψασθαι τὴν Λητὼ μετὰ 
τὰς ὠδῖνας. ἐνταῦθα γὰρ μυθεύουσι, τὴν λοχείαν 
καὶ τὴν «τροφὸν τὴν Ὀρτυγίαν καὶ τὸ ἄδυτον, 
ἐν ᾧ ἡ λοχεία, καὶ τὴν πλησίον ἐλαίαν, 
ἣ πρῶτον ἐπαναπαύσασθαί φασι τὴν θεὸν 
ἀπολυθεῖσαν τῶν ὠδίνων. ὑπέρκειται δὲ τοῦ 
ἄλσους ὄρος ὁ Σολμισσύς, ὅπου otavtas φασὶ 
τοὺς “Κουρῆτας τῷ ψόφῳ τῶν ὅπλων ἐκπλῆξαι 
τὴν “ραν ζηλοτύπως ἐφεδρεύουσαν, καὶ λαθεῖν 
συμπράξαντας τὴν λοχείαν τῇ Λητοῖ. ὄντων δ᾽ 
ἐν τῷ τόπῳ πλειόνων ναῶν, τῶν μὲν ἀρχαίων, 
τῶν δ᾽ ὕστερον γενομένων, ἐν “μὲν τοῖς ἀρχαίοις 
ἀρχαῖά ἐστι “ξόανα, ἐν δὲ τοῖς ὕστερον Σκόπα 
ἔργα" * ἡ μὲν Λητὼ σκῆπτρον. ἔχουσα, ἡ δ᾽ 
Ὀρτυγία παρέστηκεν ἑκατέρᾳ τῇ χειρὶ παιδίον 

1 πυγαλγέας, Corais, for πυγαλλίας Coxz, πυγαλίας other 
MSS. ; πυγαλγίας Meineke. 

2 φασι, Jones inserts, 

8 Instead of Σκόπα ἔργα, F has σκολιὰ σκόπ᾽ ἔργα ; other 
MSS. σκολιὰ ἔργα, except v which has Σκόπα in the margin. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 20 

the Ephesians, but now belongs to the Samians, who 
gave in exchange for it Marathesium, the more dis- 
tant for the nearer place. Then comes Pygela, a 
small town, with a temple of Artemis Munychia, 
founded by Agamemnon and inhabited by a part 
of his troops; for it is said that some of his soldiers 
became afflicted with a disease of the buttocks! and 
were called “diseased-buttocks,” and that, being 
afflicted with this disease, they stayed there, and 
that the place thus received this appropriate name. 
Then comes the harbour called Panormus, with a 
temple of the Ephesian Artemis; and then the city 
Ephesus. On the same coast, slightly above the 
sea, is also Ortygia, which is a magnificent grove 
of all kinds of trees, of the cypress most of all. It 
is traversed by the Cenchrius River, where Leto is 
said to have bathed herself after her travail.* For 
here is the mythical scene of the birth, and of the 
nurse Ortygia, and of the holy place where the birth 
took place, and of the olive tree near by, where the 
goddess is said first to have taken a test after she was 
relieved from her travail. Above the grove lies Mt. 
Solmissus, where, it is said, the Curetes stationed 
themselves, and with the din of their arms frightened 
Hera out of her wits when she was jealously spying 
on Leto, and when they helped Leto to conceal from 
Hera the birth of her children. There are several 
temples in the place, some ancient and others built 
in later times; and in the ancient temples are many 
ancient wooden images, but in those of later times 
there are works of Scopas ; for example, Leto holding 
a sceptre and Ortygia standing beside her with a 

1 In Greek, with ‘‘ pygalgia.” 
2 Referring, of course, to the birth of Apollo and Artemis. 



ἔχουσα. πανήγυρις δ᾽ ἐνταῦθα συντελεῖται κατ᾽ 
ἔτος, ἔθει δέ τινι οἱ νέοι φιλοκαλοῦσι, μάλιστα 
περὶ τὰς ἐνταῦθα εὐωχίας λαμπρυνόμενοι" τότε 
δὲ καὶ τῶν Κουρήτων ἀρχεῖον συνάγει συμπόσια, 
καί τινας μυστικὰς θυσίας ἐπιτελεῖ. 

21. Τὴν δὲ πόλιν ῴκουν μὲν Kadpés τε καὶ 
Λέλεγες, ἐκβαλὼν. δ᾽ ὁ "Ανδροκλος τοὺς πλείο- 
TOUS ὠκισεν ἐκ τῶν συνελθόντων αὐτῷ περὶ τὸ 
᾿Αθήναιον καὶ τὴν Ὑπσέλαιον, προσπεριλαβὼν 
καὶ τῆς περὶ τὸν Κορησσὸν παρωρείας. μέχρι 
μὲν δὴ τῶν κατὰ Κροῖσον οὕτως φκεῖτο, ὕστερον 
δ᾽ ἀπὸ τῆς παρωρείου καταβάντες, περὶ τὸ νῦν 
ἱερὸν ὥκησαν μέχρι ᾿Αλεξάνδρου. Λυσίμαχος 
δὲ τὴν νῦν πόλιν τειχίσας, ἀηδῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων 
μεθισταμένων, τηρήσας καταρράκτην ὄμβρον 
συνήργησε καὶ αὐτὸς καὶ τοὺς ῥινούχους ἐνέ- 
φραξεν, ὥστε κατακλύσαι τὴν πόλιν: οἱ δὲ 
μετέστησαν ἄσμενοι. ἐκάλεσε δ᾽ ᾿Αρσινόην ἀπὸ 
τῆς γυναικὸς τὴν πόλιν, ἐπεκράτησε μέντοι τὸ 
ἀρχαῖον ὄνομα. ἦν δὲ γερουσία καταγραφομένη, 
τούτοις δὲ συνήεσαν οἱ ἐπίκλητοι καλούμενοι καὶ 
διώκουν πάντα. 

22. Τὸν δὲ νεὼν τῆς ᾿Αρτέμιδος πρῶτος" μὲν 
Χερσίφρων ἠρχιτεκτόνησεν, εἶτ᾽ ἄλλος * ἐποίησε 
pet Soo" ὡς δὲ τοῦτον Ἡρόστρατός τις ἐνέπρησεν, 
ἄλλον ἀμείνω κατεσκεύασαν συνενέγκαντες τὸν 
τῶν γυναικῶν κόσμον καὶ τὰς ἰδίας οὐσίας, 
διαθέμενοι δὲ καὶ τοὺς προτέρους κίονας" τούτων 
δὲ μαρτύριά ἐστι τὰ γενηθέντα τότε ψηφίσματα, 

1 πρῶτον F. 3 ἄλλος, Xylander, for ἄλλον. 

1 Men specially summoned, privy-councillors. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 2ο--22 

child in each arm. A general festival is held there 
annually; and by a certain custom the youths vie 
for honour, particularly in the splendour of their 
banquets there. At that time, also, a special college 
of the Curetes holds symposiums and performs certain 
mystic sacrifices. 

21. The city of Ephesus was inhabited both by 
Carians and by Leleges, but Androclus drove them 
out and settled the most of those who had come 
with him round the Athenaeum and the Hypelaeus, 
though he also included a part of the country situ- 
ated on the slopes of Mt. Coressus. Now Ephesus 
was thus inhabited until the time of Croesus, but 
later the people came down from the mountain- 
side and abode round the present temple until the 
time of Alexander. Lysimachus built a wall round 
the present city, but the people were not agreeably 
disposed to change their abodes to it; and therefore 
he waited for a downpour of rain and himself took 
advantage of it and blocked the sewers so as to 
inundate the city; and the inhabitants were then 
glad to make the change. He named the city after 
his wife Arsinoé; the old name, however, prevailed. 
There was a senate, which was conscripted ; and with 
these were associated the Epicleti,1 as they were 
called, who administered all the affairs of the city. 

22. As for the temple of Artemis, its first architect 
was Chersiphron; and then another man made it 
larger. But when it was set on fire by a certain 
Herostratus, the citizens erected another and better 
one, having collected the ornaments of the women 
and their own individual belongings, and having sold 
also the pillars of the former temple. Testimony is 
borne to these facts by the decrees that were made 

H 2 


ἅπερ ἀγνοοῦντά φησιν ὁ ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος τὸν 
Ταυρομενίτην Τίμαιον, καὶ ἄλλως βάσκανον 
ὄντα καὶ συκοφάντην (διὸ καὶ ᾿Εἰπιτίμαιον 1 
κληθῆναι), λέγειν, ὡς ἐκ τῶν Περσικῶν παρα- 
καταθηκῶν ἐποιήσαντο τοῦ ἱεροῦ τὴν ἐπισκευήν' 
οὔτε δὲ ὑπάρξαι παρακαταθήκας τότε, εἴ τε 
ὑπῆρξαν, συνεμπεπρῆσθαι ἂν 5 τῷ ναῷ’ μετὰ δὲ 
τὴν ἔμπρησιν τῆς ὀροφῆς ἠφανισμένης, ἐν 
ὑπαίθρῳ τῷ σηκῷ τίνα ἂν ἐθελῆσαι παρακατα- 
θήκην κειμένην ἔχειν ; ᾿Αλέξανδρον. δὴ τοῖς 

C 641 ᾿Εφεσίοις ὑποσχέσθαι τὰ γεγονότα καὶ τὰ μέλ- 
λοντα ἀναλώματα, ἐφ᾽ ᾧ τε τὴν ἐπιγραφὴν 
αὐτὸν ἔχειν, τοὺς δὲ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι, πολὺ μᾶλλον 
οὐκ ἂν ἐθελήσαντας ἐξ ἱεροσυλίας καὶ ἀποστε- 
ρήσεως φιλοδοξεῖν: ἐπαινεῖ τε τὸν εἰπόντα τῶν 
᾿Εφεσίων πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα, ὡς οὐ πρέποι θεῷ 
θεοῖς ἀναθήματα κατασκευάζειν. 

28. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν τοῦ νεὼ συντέλειαν, ὅν φησιν 
εἶναι Χειροκράτους ὃ ἔργον (τοῦ. δ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν 
᾿Αλεξανδρείας. κτίσιν: τὸν δ᾽ αὐτὸν ὑποσχέσθαι 
᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ τὸν “A@w διασκευάσειν εἰς αὐτόν, 
ὡσανεὶ ἐκ πρόχου τινὸς εἰς φιάλην καταχέοντα 
σπονδήν, ποιήσοντα, πόλεις δύο, τὴν μὲν ἐκ 
δεξιῶν τοῦ ὄρους, τὴν δ᾽ ἐν ἀριστερᾷ, ἀπὸ δὲ 
τῆς ἑτέρας εἰς τὴν ἑτέραν ῥέοντα ποταμόν). 

1 "Επιτίμαιον, Ἐ' ; ἐπιτίμιον other MSS. 

3 ἄν, Jones inserts. 

83 Instead of Xeipoxpdrovs, w has Δεινοκράτους, which is 
apparently correct ; and so read Corais and Meineke. 

1 Calumniator. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 22-23 

at that time. Artemidorus says: Timaeus of Tauro- 
menium, being ignorant of these decrees and being 
anyway an envious and slanderous fellow (for which 
reason he was also called Epitimaeus),! says that 
they exacted means for the restoration of the temple 
from the treasures deposited in their care by the 
Persians ; but there were no treasures on deposit in 
their care at that time, and, even if there had been, 
they would have been burned along with the temple ; 
and after the fire, when the roof was destroyed, who 
could have wished to keep deposits of treasure lying 
in a sacred enclosure that was open to the sky? 
Now Alexander, Artemidorus adds, promised the 
Ephesians to pay all expenses, both past and future, 
on condition that he should have the credit therefor 
on the inscription, but they were unwilling, just as 
they would have been far more unwilling to acquire 
glory by sacrilege and a spoliation of the temple.” 
And Artemidorus praises the Ephesian who said to 
the king® that it was inappropriate for a god to 
dedicate offerings to gods. 

23. After the completion of the temple, which, 
he says, was the work of Cheirocrates* (the same 
man who built Alexandreia and the same man who 
proposed to Alexander to fashion Mt. Athos into 
his likeness, representing him as pouring a libation 
from a kind of ewer into a broad bowl, and to make 
two cities, one on the right of the mountain and the 
other on the left, and a river flowing from one to 

2 Referring, of course, to the charge that they took the 
Persian treasures. 

3 Alexander. 

1 Apparently an error for ““ Deinocrates,” a Macedonian 
architect (cf. Vitruvius 1. 1. 4). 



μετὰ δ᾽ οὖν τὸν νεὼν τὸ τῶν ἄλλων ἀναθημάτωι 
πλῆθος εὑρέσθαι τῇ ἐκτιμήσει τῶν δημιουργῶν. 
τὸν δὲ δὴ βωμὸν εἶναι τῶν Πραξιτέλους ἔργων 
ἅπαντα σχεδόν τι πληρη. ἡμῖν δ᾽ ἐδείκνυτο καὶ 
τῶν Θράσωνός τινα, οὗπερ καὶ τὸ “Εκατήσιόν 
ἐστι καὶ ἡ κηρίνη " Πηνελόπη καὶ ἡ πρεσβῦτις 
ἡ Εὐρύκλεια. ἱερέας δ᾽ εὐνούχους εἶχον, obs 
ἐκάλουν Μεγαβύζξους, καὶ ἀλλαχόθεν μετιόντες 
ἀεί τινᾶς ἀξίους τῆς τοιαύτης προστασίας, καὶ ᾿ 
ἦγον ἐν τιμῇ μεγάλῃ" συνιερᾶσθαι δὲ τούτοις 
ἐχρῆν παρθένους. νυνὶ δὲ τὰ μὲν φυλάττεται 
τῶν νομίμων, τὰ δ᾽ ἧττον, ἄσυλον δὲ μένει τὸ 
ἱερὸν καὶ νῦν καὶ πρότερον' τῆς δ᾽ ἀσυλίας τοὺς 
ὅρους “ἀλλαγῆναι συνέβη πολλάκις, ᾿Αλεξάνδρου 
μὲν ἐπὶ στάδιον ἐκτείναντος, Μιθριδάτου δὲ 
τόξευμα ἀφέντος ἀπὸ τῆς γωνίας τοῦ κεράμου 
καὶ δόξαντος ὑπερβαλέσθαι μικρὰ τὸ στάδιον, 
᾿Αντωνίου δὲ διπλασιάσαντος τοῦτοΞ καὶ συμ- 
περιλαβόντος τῇ ἀσυλίᾳ μέρως τι τῆς πόλεως" 
ἐφάνη δὲ τοῦτο βλαβερὸν. καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς κακούρ- 
OLS ποιοῦν τὴν πόλιν, ὥστ᾽ ἠκύρωσεν ὁ Σεβαστὸς 

Ἔχει δ᾽ ἡ πόλις καὶ νεώρια καὶ λιμένα" 
ays Salt δ᾽ ἐποίησαν οἱ ἀρχιτέκτονες, συν- 
εξαπατηθέντες τῷ κελεύσαντι βασιλεῖ. οὗτος δ᾽ 
ἣν ἼΛτταλος ὁ Φιλάδελφος" οἰιθεὶς γὰρ οὗτος 

1 κηοίνη F (and Meineke); κρήνη other MSS. 
2 διπλ σιάσιντος τοῦτο CF, πλησιάσαντας τουτῳ other MSS. 

1 Artemidorus means, of course, that the local artists were 
actuated by piety and patriotism, 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 23-24 

the other)—after the completion of the temple, he 
says, the great number ot dedications in general 
were secured by means of the high honour they 

d their artists} but the whole of the altar 
was filled, one might say, with the works of 
Praxiteles. Th«y showed me also some of the works 
of Thrason, who made the chapel of Hecaté, the 
waxen image of Penelopé, and the old woman 
Eurycleia. They had eunuchs as priests, whom 
they called Megabyzi. And they were always 
in quest of persons from other places who were 
worthy of this preferment, and they held them in 
great honour. And it was obligatory for maidens 
to serve as colleagues with them in their priestly 
office. But though at the present some of their 
usages are being preserved, yet others are not; but 
the temple remains a place of refuge, the same as 
in earlier times, although the limits of the refuge 
have often been changed; for example, when Alex- 
ander extended them for a stadium,and when Mith- 
ridates shot an arrow from the corner of the roof 
and thought it went a little farther than a stadium, 
and when Antony doubled this distance and included 
within the refuge a part of the city. But this 
extension of the refuge proved harmful, and put the 
city in the power of criminals; and it was therefore 
nullified by Augustus Caesar. 

24. The city has both an arsenal and a harbour. 
The mouth of the harbour was made narrower by 
the engineers,? but they, along with the king who 
ordered it, were deceived as to the result, I mean 
Attalus Philadelphus; for he thought that the 

2 Literally, “architects.” 

C 642 


βαθὺν. τὸν εἴσπλουν ὁλκάσι μεγάλαις ἔσεσθαι 
καὶ αὐτὸν τὸν λιμένα, τεναγώδη ὄντα πρότερον 
διὰ τὰς ἐκ τοῦ Καύστρου προσχώσεις, ἐὰν 
παραβληθῇ χῶμα τῷ στόματι, πλατεῖ τελέως 
ὄντι, ἐκέλευσε γενέσθαι τὸ χῶμα. συνέβη δὲ 
τοὐναντίον" ἐντὸς γὰρ ἡ χοῦς εἰργομένη τεναγίξειν 
μᾶλλον ἐποίησε τὸν λιμένα σύμπαντα μέχρι τοῦ 
στόματος" πρότερον δ᾽ ἱκανῶς αἱ πλημμυρίδες 
καὶ ἡ παλίρροια τοῦ “πελάγους ἀφήρει τὴν χοῦν 
καὶ ἀνέσπα πρὸς τὸ ἐκτός. ὁ μὲν οὖν λιμὴν 
τοιοῦτος" ἡ δὲ πόλις τῇ πρὸς τὰ ἄλλα “εὐκαιρίᾳ 
τῶν τόπων αὔξεται καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν, ἐμ- 
πόριον ovca μέγιστον τῶν κατὰ τὴν ᾿Ασίαν τὴν 
ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύρου. 

25. "Avdpes δ᾽ ἀξιόλογοι γεγόνασιν ἐν αὐτῇ τῶν 
μὲν Tarai dv Ἡράκλειτός τε ὁ σκοτεινὸς καλούμε- 
νος καὶ ‘Eppodepos, περὶ οὗ ὁ αὐτὸς οὗτός φησιν" 

ἼΑξιον ᾿Εφεσίοις ἡβηδὸν ἀπάγξασθαι, οἵτινες 
“Ἑρμόδωρον ἄνδρα ἑωυτῶν ὀνήιστον ἐξέβαλον, 
φάντες, «Ημέων μηδεὶς ὀνήιστος ἔστω, εἰ δὲ μή, 
ἄλλῃ τε καὶ μετ᾽ ἄλλων" δοκεῖ δ᾽ οὗτος ὁ ἀνὴρ 
νόμους τινὰς Ρωμαίοις συγγράψαι. καὶ Ἵπ- 
πῶναξ δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὁ ποιητὴς ἐξ ᾿Εφέσου καὶ 
Παρράσιος ὁ ζωγράφος καὶ ᾿Απελλῆς, τῶν δὲ 
νεωτέρων ᾿Αλέξανδρος ῥήτωρ ὁ Λύχνος προσα- 
γορευθείς, ὃ ὃς καὶ ἐπολιτεύσατο καὶ συνέγραψεν 
ἱστορίαν καὶ ἔπη κατέλιπεν, ἐν οἷς τά τε 
οὐράνια διατίθεται καὶ τὰς ἠπείρους γεωγραφεῖ, 
καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἐκδοὺς ποίημα.3 

26. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἐκβολὴν τοῦ Καὕστρου 

1 προσχώσεις Emo, προχώσεις other MSS. and Meineke. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 24-26 

entrance would be deep enough for large merchant 

vessels—as also the harbour itself, which formerly 
had shallow places because of the silt deposited by 
the Cajster River—if a mole were thrown up at the 
mouth, which was very wide, and therefore ordered 
that the mole should be built. But the result was 
the opposite, for the silt, thus hemmed in, made the 
whole of the harbour, as far as the mouth, more 
shallow. Before this time the ebb and flow of the 
tides would carry away the silt and draw it to the 
sea outside. Such, then, is the harbour; and the 
city, because of its advantageous situation in other 
respects, grows daily, and is the largest emporium 
in Asia this side the Taurus. 

25. Notable men have been born in this city: in 
ancient times, Heracleitus the Obscure, as he is 
ealled ; and Hermodorus, concerning whom Heraclei- 
tus himself says: “It were right for the Ephesians 
from youth upwards to be hanged, who banished 
their most useful man, saying: ‘ Let no man of us 
be most useful ; otherwise, let him be elsewhere and 
with other people.’”” Hermodorus is reputed to have 
written certain laws for the Romans. And Hipponax 
the poet was from Ephesus; and so were Parrhasius 
the painter and Apelles, and more recently Alexander 
the orator, surnamed Lychnus,! who was a statesman, 
and wrote history, and left behind him poems in 
which he describes the position of the heavenly 
bodies and gives a geographic description of the 
continents, each forming the subject of a poem. 

26. After the outlet of the Caister River comes 

1 2,6. Lamp. 

2 ποίημα F, ποιήματα other MSS. 


λίμνη ἐστὶν ἐκ τοῦ πελάγους ἀναχεομένη, 
καλεῖται δὲ Σελινουσία, καὶ ἐφεξῆς ἄλλη σύρ- 
ρους αὐτῇ, μεγάλας ἔχουσαι προσόδους" ἃς οἱ 
βασιλεῖς μέν, ἱερὰς οὔσας, ἀφείλοντο τὴν θεόν, 
Ῥωμαῖοι δ᾽ ἀπέδοσαν' πάλιν δ᾽ οἱ ᾿δημοσιῶναι 
βιασάμενοι περιέστησαν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς τὰ τέλη, 
πρεσβεύσας δὲ ὁ ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος, ὥς φησι, Tas 
τε λίμνας ἀπέλαβε τῇ θεῷ, καὶ τὴν Ηρακλεῶτιεν 
ἀφισταμένην ἐξενίκησε, κριθεὶς ἐν Ῥώμῃ" ἀντὶ 
€ τούτων εἰκόνα χρυσῆν ἀνέστησεν ἡ πόλις 
ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ. τῆς δὲ λίμνης. ἐν τῷ κοιλοτάτῳ 
βασιλέως ἐστὶν ἱερόν: φασὶ δ᾽ ᾿Αγαμέμνονος 

27. Kira τὸ Ταλλήσιον ὄρος καὶ ἡ Κολοφών, 
πόλις ἸἸωνική, καὶ τὸ πρὸ αὐτῆς ἄλσος τοῦ 
Κλαρίου ᾿Απόλλωνος, ἐν ᾧ καὶ μαντεῖον ἣν ποτὲ 
παλαιόν. λέγεται δὲ Κάλχας ὁ “μάντις μετ᾽ 
᾿Αμφιλόχου τοῦ ᾿Αμφιαράου κατὰ τὴν ἐκ Τροίας 
ἐπάνοδον πεζῇ δεῦρο, ἀφικέσθαι, περιτυχὼν δ᾽ 
ἑαυτοῦ κρείττονι μάντει κατὰ τὴν Κλάρον, 
Μόψῳ τῷ Μαντοῦς τῆς Τειρεσίου θυγατρός, 
διὰ λύπην ἀποθανεῖν. Ἡσίοδος μὲν οὖν οὕτω 
πως διασκευάζει τὸν μῦθον" προτεῖναι γάρ τι 
τοιοῦτο τῷ Μόψῳ τὸν Κάλχαντα" 

θαῦμά pw ἔχει κατὰ θυμόν, ὅσους ἐρινειὸς 

"ὀλύνθους 1 

οὗτος ἔχει, μικρός περ ἐών' εἴποις ἂν ἀριθμόν ; 
τὸν δ᾽ ἀποκρίνασθαι" 

4 ’ > > / > \ / / 

μύριοί εἰσιν ἀριθμόν, ἀτὰρ μέτρον γε μέδιμνος" 

1 ὅσους ἐρινειὸς ὀλύνθους, Tzschucke and later editors, for 
épiveds ὅσους ὀλύνθου. 


an a 

ae δή 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 26--27 

a lake that runs inland from the sea, called Seli- 
nusia; and next comes another lake that is confluent 
with it, both affording great revenues. Of these 
revenues, though sacred, the kings deprived the 
goddess, but the Romans gave them back; and 
again the tax-gatherers forcibly converted the tolls 
to their own use; but when Artemidorus was sent 
on an embassy, as he says, he got the lakes back 
for the goddess, and he also won the decision over 
Heracleotis, which was in revolt,! his case being 
decided at Rome; and in return for this the city 
erected in the temple a golden image of him. In 
the innermost recess of the lake there is a temple 
of a king, which is said to have been built by 

27. Then one comes to the mountain Gallesius, 
and to Colophon, an Jonian city, and to the sacred 
precinct of Apollo Clarius, where there was once an 
ancient oracle. The story is told that Calchas the 
prophet, with Amphilochus the son of Amphiarius, 
went there on foot on his return from Troy, and 
that having met near Clarus a prophet superior to 
himself, Mopsus, the son of Manto, the daughter of 
Teiresias, he died of grief. Now Hesiod? revises 
the myth as follows, making Calchas propound to 
Mopsus this question: “I am amazed in my heart at 
all these figs on this wild fig tree, small though it 
is; can you tell me the number?’’ And he makes 
Mopsus reply: ‘‘ They are ten thousand in number, 
and their measure is a medimnus;* but there is one 

1 2,6. from Ephesus, 
2 Frag. 160 (Rzach). 
8. About a bushel and a half. 



els δὲ περισσεύει, τὸν ἐπενθέμεν οὔ κε δύναιο. 
Δ / A ΄ > \ > 7 v 
ὡς φάτο' καί σφιν ἀριθμὸς ἐτήτυμος εἴδετο 
καὶ τότε δὴ Κάλχανθ᾽ ὕπνος θανάτοιο κάλυψε. 
C 613 Φερεκύδης δέ φησιν ὗν προβαλεῖν ἔγκυον τὸν 
Κάλχαντα, πόσους ἔχει χοίρους, τὸν δ᾽ εἰπεῖν, 
ὅτε τρεῖς, ὧν ἕνα θῆλυν; ἀληϑεύσαντος δ᾽, ἀπο- 
- ν Ν / e \ \ \ / 
θανεῖν ὑπὸ λύπης. οἱ δὲ τὸν μὲν Κάλχαντα 
προβαλεῖν τὴν ὗν φασί, τὸν δὲ τὸν ἐρινεόν, καὶ 
τὸν μὲν εἰπεῖν τἀληθές, τὸν δὲ μή, ἀποθανεῖν 
‘ id Ν / \ / / / ᾽ 
δὲ ὑπὸ λύπης καὶ κατά τι λόγιον. λέγει ὃ 
᾽ Ν “ ᾽ ¢ / > / 4 e 
αὐτὸ Σοφοκλῆς ἐν “EXé€vns ἀπαιτήσει, ὡς εἷμαρ- 
μένον εἴη ἀποθανεῖν, ὅταν κρείττονι ἑαυτοῦ 
μάντει περιτύχῃ" οὗτος δὲ καὶ εἰς Κιλικίαν 
μεταφέρει τὴν ἔριν καὶ τὸν θάνατον τοῦ Καλ- 
χαντος. τὰ μὲν παλαιὰ τοιαῦτα. 
> / , \ \ > 4 
28, ᾿Εκτήσαντο δέ ποτε καὶ ναυτικὴν ἀξιό- 
λογον δύναμιν Κολοφώνιοι καὶ ἱππικήν, ἐν ἡ 
a a Ν “ ᾽ oe \ 
τοσοῦτον διέφερον τῶν ἄλλων, ὥσθ᾽, ὅπου ποτὲ 
ἐν τοῖς δυσκαταλύτοις πολέμοις τὸ ἱππικὸν τῶν 
Κολοφωνίων ἐπικουρήσειε, λύεσθαι τὸν πόλεμον 
bd J ® \ \ , > a \ / 
ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ τὴν παροιμίαν ἐκδοθῆναι τὴν λέ- 
\ - ᾽ / “ / 
γουσαν, τὸν Korodava ἐπέθηκεν, ὅταν τέλος 
> an / -“ , a , ’ / 
ἐπιτεθῇ βέβαιον τῷ πράγματι. ἄνδρες δ᾽ ἐγέ 
vovto Κολοφώνιοι τῶν μνημονευομένων Μέμνερ- 
μος, αὐλητὴς ἅμα καὶ ποιητὴς ἐλεγείας, καὶ 
"-- ξ . 
Ξενοφάνης ὁ φυσικός, ὁ τοὺς σίλλους ποιήσας 
la ποιημάτων: λέγει δὲ Πίνδαρος καὶ Πολύ- 
, -“ 
μναστόν τινα τῶν περὶ τὴν μουσικὴν ἐλλογίμων' 

1 ἐπενθέμεν, Spohn, for ἐπελθέμεν ; so the later editors. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 27-28 

over, which you cannot put in the measure.” ! 
“Thus he spake,’’ Hesiod adds, “and the number 
the measure could hold proved true. And then the 
eyes of Calchas were closed by the sleep of death,” 
But Pherecydes says that the question propounded 
by Calchas was in regard to a pregnant sow, how 
many pigs she carried, and that Mopsus said, “ three, 
one of which is a female,” and that when Mopsus 
proved to have spoken the truth, Calchas died of 
grief. Some say that Calchas propounded the question 
in regard to the sow, but that Mopsus propounded 
the question in regard to the wild fig tree, and that 
the latter spoke the truth but that the former did not, 
and died of grief, and in accordance with a certain 
oracle. Sophocles tells the oracle in his Reclaiming 
of Helen, that Calchas was destined to die when he 
met a prophet superior to himself, but he transfers 
the scene of the rivalry and of the death of Calchas 
to Cilicia. Such are the ancient stories. 

28. The Colophonians once possessed notable naval 
and cavalry forces, in which latter they were so far 
superior to the others that wherever in wars that 
were hard to bring to an end, the cavalry of the 
Colophonians served as ally, the war came to an 
end ; whence arose the proverb, “he put Colophon 
to it,’ which is quoted when a sure end is put to 
any affair. Native Colophonians, among those of 
whom we have record, were: Mimnerimus, who was 
both a flute-player and elegiac poet; Xenophanes, 
the natural philosopher, who composed the “ Silli” ? 
in verse; and Pindar® speaks also of a certain 

1 2,6. the measure would hold only 999 of these figs. 
2 Satires, or lampoons, attacking Homer and Hesiod. 
® Frag. 188 (Bergk). 


φθέγμα μὲν πάγκοινον ἔγνωκας Πολυμνάστον 
Κολοφωνίου ἀνδρός" 

καὶ Ὅμηρον δέ τινες ἐντεῦθεν εἶναί φασιν. 
εὐθυπλοίᾳ μὲν οὖν ἑβδομήκοντα στάδιοί εἰσιν 
ἐξ ᾿Εφέσου, ἐγκολπίζοντι δὲ ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι. 

29 Μετὰ δὲ Κολοφῶνα ὄρος Κοράκιον καὶ 
νησίον ἱερὸν ᾿Αρτέμιδος, εἰς ὃ διανηχομένας 
τίκτειν τὰς ἐλάφους πεπιστεύκασιν. εἶτα Λέ- 
βεδος, διέχουσα Κολοφῶνος ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι" 
ἐνταῦθα τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνιτῶν ἡ 
σύνοδος καὶ κατοικία τῶν ἐν ᾿Ιωνίᾳ “μέχρι 
Ἑλλησπόντου, ἐν ἡ πανήγυρίς τε καὶ ἀγῶνες 
κατ᾽ ἔτος συντελοῦνται τῷ Διονύσῳ. ἐν Τέῳ 
δὲ ᾧῴκουν πρότερον τῇ ἐφεξῆς πόλει τῶν “lover 
ἐμπεσούσης δὲ στάσεως, εἰς Ἔφεσον κατέφυγον. 
᾿Αττάλου δ᾽ εἰς Μνόννησον αὐτοὺς καταστήσαντος 
μεταξὺ Τέω καὶ Λεβέδου, πρεσβεύονται “᾿ήιοι 
δεόμενοι “Ρωμαίων, μὴ περιιδεῖν ἐπιτειχιξομένην 
σφίσι τὴν Μυόννησον, οἱ δὲ μετέστησαν εἰς 
Λέβεδον, δεξαμένων τῶν Λεβεδίων ἀσμένως διὰ 
τὴν κατέχουσαν αὐτοὺς ὀλιγανδρίαν. καὶ Τέως 
δὲ Λεβέδου διέχει ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι, μεταξὺ δὲ 
νῆσος ᾿Ασπίς, οἱ δ᾽ ᾿Αρκόννησον καλοῦσι" καὶ 
ἡ Μυόννησος δὲ ἐφ᾽ ὕψους χερρονησίζοντος 

C644 80. Καὶ ἡ Τέως δὲ ἐπὶ “χερρονήσῳ ἵδρυται, 
λιμένα ἔχουσα" ἐνθένδ᾽ ἐστὶν ᾿Ανακρέων ὁ 
μελοποιός, ἐφ᾽ οὗ Τήιοι, τὴν πόλιν ἐκλιπόντες, 
εἰς ΓΛβδηρα ἀπῴκησαν, Θρᾳκίαν πόλιν, οὐ 
φέροντες τὴν τῶν Ἱ]ερσῶν ὕβριν, ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ 
τοῦτ᾽ εἴρηται" 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1, 28-30 

Polymnastus as one of the famous musicians: “Thou 
knowest the voice, common to all, of Polymnastus 
the Colophonian.” And some say that Homer was 
from there. On a straight voyage it is seventy stadia 
from Ephesus, but if one includes the sinuosities of 
the gulfs it is one hundred and twenty. 

29. After Colophon one comes to the mountain 
Coracius and to an isle sacred to Artemis, whither 
deer, it has been believed, swim across and give 
birth to their yonng. Then comes Lebedus, which 
is one hundred and twenty stadia distant from Colo- 

hon. This is the meeting-piace and settlement of 
all the Dionysiac artists in lonia as far as the Helles- 
pont: and this is the place where both games and a 
general festal assembly are held every year in honour 
of Dionysus. They formerly lived in Teos, the city 
of the Ionians that comes next after Colophon, but 
when the sedition broke out they fled for refuge 
to Ephesus And when Attalus settled them in 
Myonnesus between Teos and Lebedus the Téians 
sent an embassy to beg of the Romans not to permit 
Myonnesus to be fortified against them; and they 
migrated to Lebedus, whose inhabitants gladly 
received them because of the dearth of population 
by which they were then afflicted. Teos, also, is one 
hundred and twenty stadia distant from Lebedus; 
and in the intervening distance there is an island 
Aspis, by some called Arconnesus. And Myonnesus 
is settled on a height that forms a peninsula. 

30. Teos also is situated on a peninsula; and it 
has a harbour. Anacreon the melic poet was from 
Teos; in whose time the Téians abandoned their 
city and migrated to Abdera, a Thracian city, being 
unable to bear the insolence of the Persians; and 



"ABénpa, καλὴ Τηίων ἀποικία. 
πάλιν δ᾽ ἐπανῆλθόν τινες αὐτῶν χρόνῳ ὕστερον" 
εἴρηται δὲ καὶ περὶ ᾿Απελλικῶντος, ὅτε Τήιος 
ἣν κἀκεῖνος" γέγονε δὲ καὶ συγγραφεὺς “Ἑκαταῖος 
ἐκ τῆς αὐτῆς πόλεως. ἔστι καὶ ἄλλος λιμὴν ὁ 
πρόσβορρος ἀπὸ τριάκοντα σταδίων τῆς πόλεως, 

31. Εἶτα Χαλκιδεῖς καὶ ὁ τῆς Χερρονήσου 
ἰσθμὸς τῆς Τηίων καὶ ᾿Ερυθραίων: ἐντὸς μὲν 
οὖν τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ οἰκοῦσιν οὗτοι, ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ δὲ τῷ 
ἰσθμῷ Τήιοι καὶ Κλαζομένιοι" τὸ μὲν γὰρ νότιον 
τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ πλευρὸν ἔχουσι Τήιοι, τοὺς Χαλκι- 
δέας, τὸ δὲ πρόσβορρον Κλαζομένιοι, καθ᾽ ὃ 
συνάπτουσι τῇ ᾿Βρυθραίᾳ. κεῖται δ' Ὕπόκρημ- 
νος ὁ τόπος ἐπὶ τῇ ἀρχῇ τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ, ἐντὸς 
μὲν ἀπολαμβάνων τὴν ᾿Ερυθραίαν, ἐκτὸς 5. δὲ 
τὴν τῶν Κλαζομενίων. ὑπέρκειται δὲ τῶν 
Χαλκιδέων ἄλσος καθιερωμένον ᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ τῷ 
Φιλίππου, καὶ ἀγὼν ὑπὸϑ τοῦ κοινοῦ τῶν 
Ἰώνων ᾿Αλεξάνδρεια καταγγέλλεται, συντελού- 
μενος ἐνταῦθα. ἡ δ᾽ ὑπέρβασις τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ τοῦ 
ἀπὸ τοῦ ᾿Αλεξανδρείου καὶ τῶν Χαλκιδέων μέχρι 
τοῦ Ὑποκρήμνου πεντήκοντά εἰσι στάδιοι, ὁ δὲ 
περίπλους πλείους ἢ χίλιοι. κατὰ μέσον δέ που 
τὸν περίπλουν αἱ ᾿Ερυθραί, πόλις ᾿Ιωνική, λιμέ- 
να ἔχουσα, καὶ νησῖδας προκειμένας τέτταρας 
Ὕππους καλουμένας. 

32. Πρὶν δ᾽ ἐλθεῖν ἐπὶ τὰς ᾿Ερυθράς, πρῶτον 
μὲν “Epar πολίχνιόν ἐστι Τηίων εἶτα Κώρυκος, 

1 καί, the editors insert. 2 ἐκτός E, ἐντός other MSS. 
3 ὑπό, Corais, for ἀπό. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. τ. 30-32 

hence the verse in reference to Abdera. “Abdera, 
beautiful colony of the Téians.”” But some of them 
returned again in later times. As I have already 
said} Apellicon also was a Téian ; and Hecataeus the 
historian was from the same city. And there is also 
another harbour to the north, thirty stadia distant 
from the city, called Gerrhaeidae, 

31. Then one comes to Chalcideis, and to the 
isthmus of the Chersonesus, belonging to the Téians 
and Erythraeans. Now the latter people live this 
side the isthmus, but the Téians and Clazomenians 
live on the isthmus itself; for the southern side of 
the isthmus, | mean the Chalcideis, is occupied by 
Téians, but the northern by Clazomenians, where 
their territory joins the Erythraean. At the be- 
ginning of the isthmus lies the place called Hypo- 
cremnus, which lies between the Erythraean territory 
this side the isthmus and that of the Clazomenians 
on the other side Above the Chalcideis is situated 
a sacred precinct consecrated to Alexander the son 
ot Philip; and games, called the Alexandreia, are 
proclaimed by the general assembly of the lonians 
and are celebrated there. The passage across the 
isthmus from the sacred precinct of Alexander and 
from the Chalcideis to Hypocremnus is fifty stadia, 
but the voyage round by sea is more than one 
thousand. Somewhere about the middle of the 
circuit is Erythrae, an Ionian city,-which has a 
harbour, and also four isles lying off it, called 

32. Before coming to Erythrae, one comes first to 
a small town Erae belonging to the Téians ; and then 

213. 1. 54. 2 2,6, Horses, 


ὄρος ὑψηλόν, καὶ λιμὴν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῷ Κασύστης 
καὶ ἄλλος ᾿Ερυθρᾶς λεμὴν καλούμενος καὶ ἐφεξῆς 
πλείους ἕτεροι. φασὶ δὲ τὸν παράπλουν τοῦ 
Κωρύκου πάντα λῃστήριον ὑπάρξαι τῶν Κωρυ- 
καίων καλουμένων, εὑρομένων τρόπον καινὸν τῆς 
ἐπιβουλῆς τῶν πλοϊξομένων" κατεσπαρμένους 
γὰρ ἐν τοῖς λιμέσι τοῖς καθορμιξομένοις ἐμπόροις 
προσφοιτᾶν καὶ ὠτακουστεῖν, τί φέροιεν καὶ ποῦ 
πλέοιεν, εἶτα συνελθόντας ἀναχθεῖσι τοῖς ἀν- 
θρώποις ἐπιτίθεσθαι καὶ καθαρπάζξειν' ἀφ᾽ οὗ 
δὴ πάντα τὸν πολυπράγμονα καὶ κατακούειν 
ἐπιχειροῦντα τῶν λάθρα καὶ ἐν ἀπορρήτῳ δια- 
λεγομένων Κωρυκαῖον καλοῦμεν, καὶ ἐν παροιμίᾳ 
τοῦ δ᾽ ap} ὁ Kwpuxaios ἠκροάζετο, 

ὅταν δοκῇ τις πράττειν δι᾿ ἀπορρήτων ἢ λαλεῖν, 
μὴ λανθάνῃ δὲ διὰ τοὺς κατασκοποῦντας καὶ 
φιλοπευστοῦντας τὰ μὴ προσήκοντα. 
33. Μετὰ δὲ Κώρυκον ᾿Αλόννησος νησίον" 
C 645 εἶτα τὸ "A pyevvor, ἄκρα τῆς ᾿Ερυθραίας πλησιά- 
ζουσα μάλιστα τῷ Χίων ἸΠοσειδίῳ, ποιοῦντι 
πορθμὸν ὅσον ἑξήκοντα σταδίων. μεταξὺ δὲ 
τῶν ᾿Ερυθρῶν καὶ τοῦ Ὕποκρήμνου Μίμας ἐστὶν 
ὄρος ὑψηλόν, εὔθηρον, πολύδενδρον" εἶτα κώμη 
Κυβελία καὶ ἄκρα Μέλαινα καλουμένη, μύλων 
ἔχουσα λατόμιον. 
34. ᾿Εκ δ᾽ ᾿Ερυθρῶν Σίβυλλά ἐστιν, “ἔνθους 
καὶ μαντικὴ γυνὴ τῶν ἀρχαίων τις" κατ᾽ ᾿Αλέ- 
ἕανδρον δὲ ἄλλη ἣν τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον μαντική, 

1 ἅν᾽, Jones, from conj. of Professor Capps, for ap’. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 32-34 

to Corycus, a high mountain, and to a harbour at the 
foot of it, Casystes, and to another harbour called 
Erythras, and to several others in order thereafter. 
The waters along the coast of Mt. Corycus, they say, 
were everywhere the haunt of pirates, the Cory- 
caeans, as they are called, who had found a new way 
of attacking vessels; for, they say, the Corycaeans 
would scatter themselves among the harbours, follow 
up the merchants whose vessels lay at anchor in 
them, and overhear what cargoes they had aboard 
and whither they were bound, and then come together 
and attack the merchants after they had put to sea 
and plunder their vessels; and hence it is that we 
call every person who is a busybody and tries to over- 
hear private and secret conversations a Corycaean ; 
and that we say in a proverb: ‘“ Well then, the 
Corycaean was listening to this,” when one thinks 
that he is doing or saying something in secret, but 
fails to keep it hidden because of persons who spy 
on him and are eager to learn what does not concern 

33. After Mt. Corycus one comes to Halonnesos, a 
small island. Then to Argennum, a promontory of 
the Erythraean territory; it is very close to the 
Poseidium of the Chians, which latter forms a strait 
about sixty stadia in width. Between Erythrae and 
Hypocremnus lies Mimas, a lofty mountain, which is 
well supplied with game and well wooded, Then one 
comes to a village Cybelia, and to a promontory 
Melaena, as it is called, which has a millstone quarry. 

34, Erythrae was the native city of Sibylla, a 
woman who was divinely inspired and had the gift of 
prophecy, one of the ancients. And in the time of 
Alexander there was another woman who likewise 



καλουμένη ᾿Αθηναΐς, ἐκ τῆς αὐτῆς πόλεως" Kal 
καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς Ἡρακλείδης Ἡροφίλειος ἰατρός, 
συσχολαστὴς ᾿Απολλωνίου τοῦ Μυός. 

35. ἫἩ δὲ Χίος τὸν μὲν περίπλουν ἐστὶ σταδίων 
ἐννακοσίων παρὰ γὴν φερομένῳ, πόλιν δ᾽ ἔχει 
εὐλίμενον καὶ ναύσταθμον ναυσὶν ὀγδοήκοντα. 
ἐν δὲ τῷ περίπλῳ δεξιὰν τὴν νῆσον ἔχοντι ἀπὸ 
τῆς πόλεως πρῶτον μέν ἐστι τὸ Ποσείδιον, εἶτα 
Davar, λιμὴν βαθύς, καὶ νεὼς ᾿Απόλλωνος καὶ 
ἄλσος φοινίκων" εἶτα Νότιον, ὕφορμος αἰγιαλός: 
εἶτα Aaious, καὶ οὗτος ὕφορμος αἰγιαλός, ὅθεν 
εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἑξήκοντα σταδίων ἰσθμός" περί- 
mous δὲ τριακοσίων ἑξήκοντα, ὃν ἐπήλθομεν. 
εἶτα Μέλαινα ἄκρα, καθ᾽ ἣν τὰ Ψύρα, νῆσος ἀπὸ 
πεντήκοντα σταδίων τῆς ἄκρας, ὑψηλή, πόλιν 
ὁμώνυμον ἔχουσα" κύκλος δὲ τῆς νήσου τετταρά- 
κοντα στάδιοι. εἶθ᾽ ἡ ᾿Αριουσία χώρα τραχεῖα 
καὶ ἀλίμενος, σταδίων ὅσον τριάκοντα," οἶνον 
ἄριστον φέρουσα τῶν ᾿Ἑλληνικῶν. εἶτα τὸ 
Πελιεναῖον ὄρος ὑψηλότατον τῶν ἐν , τῇ νήσῳ. 
ἔχει δ᾽ ἡ νῆσος καὶ λατόμιον μαρμάρου λίθου. 
ἄνδρες δὲ Χῖοι γεγόνασιν ἐλλόγεμοι Ἴων τε ὁ 
τραγικὸς καὶ Θεόπομπος ὁ συγγραφεὺς καὶ 
Θεόκριτος ὁ σοφιστής" οὗτοι δὲ καὶ ἀντεπολι- 
τεύσαντο ἀλλήλοις. ἀμφισβηφοῦσε, δὲ καὶ 
Ὁμήρου Χῖοι, μαρτύριον “μέγα 3 τοὺς Ὁμηρίδας 
καλουμένους, ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐκείνου γένους προχειριζό- 
μενοι, ὧν καὶ [Πίνδαρος μέμνηται: 

1 Ἡροφίλειος, Tzschucke, for ‘Hpé diAos. 

2 τριάκοντα, Kramer, following Stephanus, for τριακοσίων ; 
80 Meineke. 

ἢ μέγα, Meineke, for μετά ; μέν moxz, κατά το ; word omitted 
In &, 

δια ἊΨ ΡΝ 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 34-35 

had the gift of prophecy; she was called Athenais, 
and was a native of the same city. And, in my time, 
Heracleides the Herophileian physician, fellow-pupil 
of Apollonius Mys,' was born there. 

35. As for Chios, the voyage round it along the 
coast is nine hundred stadia; and it has a city with 
a good port and with a naval station for eighty ships. 
On making the voyage round it from the city, with the 
island on the right, one comes first to the Poseidium. 
Then to Phanae, a deep harbour, and to a temple of 
Apollo and a grove of palm trees. ‘Then to Notium, 
a shore suited to the anchoring of vessels. Then to 
Laius, this too a shore suited to the anchoring of 
vessels; whence to the city there is an isthmus of 
sixty stadia, but the voyage round, which I have 
just now described, is three hundred and sixty 
stadia. Then to Melaena, a promontory, opposite 
to which lies Psyra, an island fifty stadia distant 
from the promontory, lofty, and having a city of the 
same name. The circuit of the island is forty stadia. 
Then one comes to Ariusia,a rugged and harbourless 
country, about thirty stadia in extent, which produces 
the best of the Grecian wines. Then to Pelinaeus, 
the highest mountain in the island. And the island 
also has a marble quarry. Famous natives of Chios 
are: Ion the tragic poet, and Theopompus the 
historian, and Theocritus the sophist. The two latter 
were political opponents of one another. The Chians 
also claim Homer, setting forth as strong testimony 
that the men called Homeridae were descendants 
of Homer's family ; these are mentioned by Pindar :? 

1 Mus, z.e. Mouse. 2 Nemean Udes 2. 1. 



ὅθεν περ καὶ ‘Ounpidat 

ῥαπτῶν ἐπέων τὰ πόλλ᾽ ἀοιδοί. 
ἐκέκτηντο δὲ καὶ ναυτικόν ποτε Χῖοι, καὶ 
ἀνθήπτοντο τῆς κατὰ θάλατταν ἀρχῆς καὶ 
ἐλευθερίας. ἐκ Χίου δ᾽ ἐς Λέσβον νότῳ τετρα- 
κόσιοί που στάδιοι. 

36. Ἔκ δὲ τοῦ Ὑποκρήμνου Χύτριόν ἐστι 
τόπος, ὅπου πρότερον ἵδρυντο Κλαξομεναί" εἶθ᾽ 
ἡ νῦν “πόλις, νησία ἔχουσα προκείμενα ὀκτὼ 
γεωργούμενα. ,Κλαξομένιος δ᾽ ἦν ἀνὴρ ἐπιφανὴς 
᾿Αναξαγόρας ὁ φυσικός, ᾿Αναξιμένους ὁμιλητὴς 
τοῦ Μιλησίου" δεήκουσαν δὲ τούτου ᾿Αρχέλαος 
ὁ φυσικὸς καὶ Βὐριπίδης ὁ ποιητής. εἶθ᾽ ἱερὸν 
᾿Απόλλωνος καὶ θερμὰ ὕδατα καὶ ὁ Σμυρναίων 
κόλπος καὶ ἡ πόλις. 

C 646 37. Ἑξῆς δὲ ἄλλος κόλπος, ἐν ᾧ ἡ παλαιὰ 
Σμύρνα ἀπὸ εἴκοσι σταδίων τῆς νῦν. Λυδῶν δὲ 
κατασπασάντων τὴν “Σμύρναν, περὶ τετρακόσια 
ἔτη διετέλεσεν οἰκουμένη κωμηδόν' εἶτα ἀνήγειρεν 
αὐτὴν ᾿Αντίγονος, καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα Λυσίμαχος, 
καὶ νῦν ἐστὶ καλλίστη τῶν πασῶν, μέρος μέν 
TL ἔχουσα ἐπ᾽ ὄρει τετειχισμένον, τὸ δὲ πλέον 
ἐν “πεδίῳ πρὸς τῷ λιμένι, καὶ πρὸς τῷ Μητρῴῳ 
καὶ πρὸς “γυμνασίῳ. ἔστι δ᾽ ἡ ῥυμοτομία 
διάφορος ἐπ᾽ εὐθειῶν εἰς δύναμιν καὶ αἱ ὁδοὶ 
λιθόστρωτοι. στοαί τε μεγάλαι τετράγωνοι, ἐπί- 
πεδοί τε καὶ ὑπερῶοι" ἔστι δὲ καὶ ιβλιοθήκη 
καὶ τὸ Ὁμήρειον, στοὰ τετράγωνος, ἔχουσα νεὼν 
Ὁμήρου καὶ ξόανον: μεταποιοῦνται γὰρ καὶ οὗτοι 

1 ὑὙποκρήμνου F, ᾿Αποκρήμνου other MSS. ; but ep.‘ Ὑποκρήμνου 
in 14. 1. 33. 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. τ. 35-37 

« Whence also the Homeridae, singers of deftly woven 
lays, most often... .” The Chians at one time 
possessed also a fleet, and attained to liberty and to 
maritime empire. The distance from Chios to Lesbos, 
sailing southwards, is about four hundred stadia. 

36. After Hypocremnus one comes to Chytrium, 
the site on which Clazomenae was situated in earlier 
times. Then to the present Clazomenae, with eight 
small islands lying off it that are under cultivation. 
Anaxagoras, the natural philosopher, an illustrious 
man and associate of Anaximenes the Milesian, was 
a Clazomenian. And Archelius the natural philo- 
sopher and Euripides the poet took his entire course. 
Then to a temple of Apollo and to hot springs, and 
to the gulf and the city of the Smyrnaeans. 

37. Next one comes to another gulf, on which is 
the old Smyrna, twenty stadia distant from the 
present Smyrna. After Smyrna had been rased by 
the Lydians, its inhabitants continued for about four 
hundred years to live in villages. Then they were 
reassembled into a city by Antigonus, and after- 
wards by Lysimachus, and their city is now the most 
beautiful of all; a part of it is on a mountain and 
walled, but the greater part of it is in the plain near 
the harbour and near the Metréum and near the 
gymnasium. The division into streets is except- 
ionally good, in straight lines as far as possible ; 
and the streets are paved with stone; and there 
are large quadrangular porticoes, with both lower 
and upper stories. There is also a library; and the 
Homereium, a quadrangular portico containing a 
shrine and wooden statue! of Homer; for the 

1 The primary meaning of the Greek word here used for 
“statue,” xoanon, is ‘‘a prehistoric statue carved of wood.” 



διαφερόντως τοῦ ποιητοῦ, καὶ δὴ καὶ νόμισμά 
TL χαλκοῦν παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς “Ομήρειον λέγεται. ῥεῖ 
δὲ πλησίον τοῦ τείχους ὁ Μέλης ποταμός. ἔστι 
δὲ πρὸς τῇ ἄλλῃ κατασκευῇ τῆς πόλεως καὶ 
λιμὴν κλειστός. ν δ᾽ ἐλάττωμα τῶν ἀρχιτεκτό- 
νων οὐ μικρόν, ὅτε τὰς ὁδοὺς στορνύντες,, 
ὑπορρύσεις οὐκ ἔδωκαν αὐταῖς, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπιπολάζει 
τὰ σκύβαλα, καὶ μάλιστα ἐν τοῖς ὄμβροις 
ἐπαφιεμένων τῶν ἀποσκευῶν. ἐνταῦθα Δολο- 
βέλλας Τρεβώνιον ἐκπολιορκήσας ἀνεῖλεν, ἕνα 
τῶν δολοφονησάντων Καίσαρα τὸν Θεόν, καὶ 
τῆς πόλεως παρέλυσε πολλὰ μέρη. 

38. Μετὰ δὲ Σμύρναν αἱ Λεῦκαι πολίχνιον, ὃ 
ἀπέστησεν ᾿Αριστόνικος μετὰ τὴν ᾿Αττάλου τοῦ 
Φιλομήτορος τελευτήν, δοκῶν τοῦ γένους εἶναι 
τοῦ τῶν βασιλέων καὶ διανοούμενος εἰς ἑαυτὸν 
ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἀρχήν' ἐντεῦθεν μὲν οὖν ἐξέπεσεν, 
ἡττηθεὶξ ναυμαχίᾳ περὶ τὴν Κυμαίαν ὑπὸ 
᾿Εφεσίων, εἰς δὲ τὴν μεσόγαιαν ἀνιὼν ἤθροισε 
διὰ ταχέων πλῆθος ἀπόρων τε ἀνθρώπων καὶ 
δούλων ἐπ᾽ ἐλευθερίᾳ κατακεκλημένων, ods 
ς , . , a \ 2 , 
ΗἩλιοπολίτας ἐκάλεσε. πρῶτον μὲν οὖν παρεισέ- 
πεσεν εἰς Θυάτειρα, εἶτ᾽ ᾿Απολλωνίδα ἔσχεν, 
εἶτ᾽ ἄλλων ἐφίετο φρουρίων: οὐ πολὺν δὲ διε- 
γένετο χρόνον, ἀλλ᾽ εὐθὺς αἵ τε πόλεις ἔπεμψαν 
πλῆθος, καὶ Νικομήδης ὁ Βιθυνὸς ἐπεκούρησε 
καὶ οἱ τῶν Καππαδόκων βασιλεῖς. ἔπειτα 
πρέσβεις Ῥωμαίων πέντε ἧκον, καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα 

1 στορνύντες Meineke, for στρωννύντες E, στορνήντες F, 
στορέννυντες Other MSS. 
3 ἀποσκευῶν, Corais, for maproKevar. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 37-38 

Smyrnaeans also lay especial claim to the poet; and 
indeed a bronze coin οἵ theirs is called Homereium. 
The River Meles flows near the walls; and, in addi- 
tion to the rest of the city’s equipment, there is also 
a harbour that can be closed. But there is one 
error, not a small one, in the work of the engineers, 
that when they paved the streets they did not give 
them underground drainage; instead, filth covers 
the surface, and particularly during rains, when the 
cast-off filth is discharged upon the streets. It was 
here that Dolabella captured by siege, and slew, 
Trebonius, one of the men who treacherously 
murdered the deified Caesar; and he set free} many 
parts of the city. 

38. After Smyrna one comes to Leucae, a small 
town, which after the death of Attalus Philometor 2 
was caused to revolt by Aristonicus, who was reputed 
to belong to the royal family and intended to usurp 
the kingdom. Now he was banished from Smyrna, 
after being defeated in a naval battle near the 
Cymaean territory by the Ephesians, but he went 
up into the interior and quickly assembled a large 
number of resourceless people, and also of slaves, 
invited with a promise of freedom, whom he called 
Heliopolitae.* Now he first fell upon Thyateira 
unexpectedly, and then got possession of Apollonis, 
and then set his efforts against other fortresses, But 
he did not last long; the cities immediately sent a 
large number of troops against him, and they were 
assisted by Nicomedes the Bithynian and by the 
kings of the Cappadocians. Then came five Roman 

! Others translate the verb “‘ destroyed,” or the like, but 
ef. its use in 8. 6. 14 and Herodotus 1. 149. 
* See 13.4.2. ὃ Citizens of the city of Helius (Sun-god). 


C 647 


στρατιὰ καὶ ὕπατος Πόπλιος Κράσσος, καὶ 
μετὰ ταῦτα Μάρκος Περπέρνας, ὃς καὶ κατέλυσε 
τὸν πόλεμον, ξωγρίᾳ λαβὼν τὸν ᾿Αριστόνικον καὶ 
ἀναπέμψας εἰς Ῥώμην. ἐκεῖνος μὲν οὖν ἐν τῷ 
δεσμωτηρίῳ κατέστρεψε τὸν βίον, Περπέρναν δὲ 
νόσος διέφθειρε, Κράσσος δὲ περὶ Λεύκας, ἐπιθε- 
μένων τινῶν, ἔπεσεν ἐν μάχῃ. Μάνιος δ᾽ ᾿Ακύλ- 
λίος, ἐπελθὼν ὕπατος μετὰ δέκα πρεσβευτῶν, 
διέταξε τὴν ἐπαρχίαν εἰς τὸ νῦν ἔτι συμμένον 
τῆς πολιτείας σχῆμα. μετὰ δὲ Λεύκας Φώκαια 
ἐν κόλπῳ" περὶ δὲ ταύτης “εἰρήκαμεν ἐν τῷ περὶ 
Μασσαλίας λόγῳ. εἶθ᾽ οἱ ὅροι τῶν Ἰώνων καὶ 
τῶν Αἰολέων" εἴρηται δὲ καὶ περὶ τούτων. ἐν 
δὲ τῇ μεσογαίᾳ τῆς ἸἸωνικῆς παραλίας λοιπά 
ἐστι τὰ περὶ τὴν ὁδὸν τὴν ἐξ ᾿Εφέσου μέχρι 
᾿Αντιοχείας καὶ τοῦ Μαιάνδρου. ἔστι δὲ καὶ 
τὰ χωρία ταῦτα Λυδοῖς καὶ Καρσὶν ἐπίμικτα καὶ 
tots” EXAneot. 

39. Πρώτη δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἐξ ᾿Εφέσου Μαγνησία, 
πόλις Αἰολίς, λεγομένη δὲ ἐπὶ Μαιάνδρῳ" πλησίον 
γὰρ αὐτοῦ ἵδρυται" πολὺ δὲ πλησιαίτερον ὁ 
Ληθαῖος, ἐμβάλλων εἰς τὸν Μαίανδρον, τὴν δ᾽ 
ἀρχὴν ἔχων ἀπὸ Πακτύου " τοῦ τῶν ᾿Εφεσίων 
ὄρους" ἕτερος δ᾽ ἐστὶ Ληθαῖος ὁ ἐν Τορτύνῃ καὶ 
ὁ περὶ Τρίκκην, ἐφ᾽ ᾧ ὁ ᾿Ασκληπιὸς γεννηθῆναι 
λέγεται, καὶ ἔτι ἐν τοῖς 'Ἑσπερίταις Λέβυσι. 
κεῖται δ᾽ ἐν πεδίῳ πρὸς ὄρει καλουμένῳ Θώρακι 
ἡ πόλις, ἐφ᾽ ᾧ σταυρωθῆναί φασι Δαφίταν τὸν 
γραμματικόν, λοιδορήσαντα τοὺς βασιλέας διὰ 

1 στρατιά, Corais, for στρατεία. 
2 Πακτύου, Xylander, for Πακτίου. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 38-39 

ambassadors, and after that an army under Publius 
Crassus the consul,! and after that Marcus Perpernas, 
who brought the war to an end, having captured 
Aristonicus alive and sent him to Rome. Now 
Aristonicus ended his life in prison; Perpernas died 
of disease ; and Crassus, attacked by certain people 
in the neighbourhood of Leucae, fell in battle. And 
Manius Aquillius came over as consul? with ten 
lieutenants and organised the province into the form 
of government that still now endures. After Leucae 
one comes to Phocaea, on a gulf, concerning which 
I have already spoken in my account of Massalia. 
Then to the boundaries of the Ionians and the 
Aeolians; but I have already spoken of these. In 
the interior above the Ionian seaboard there remain 
to be described the places in the neighbourhood of 
the road that leads from Ephesus to Antiocheia and 
the Maeander River. These places are occupied by 
Lydians and Carians mixed with Greeks. 

39. The first city one comes to after Ephesus is 
Magnesia, which is an Aeolian city and is called 
* Magnesia on the Maeander,” for it is situated near 
that river. But it is much nearer the Lethaeus 
River, which empties into the Maeander and has its 
beginning in Mt. Pactyes, the mountain in the 
territory of the Ephesians. There is another Lethaeus 
in Gortyna, and another near Triccé, where Asclepius 
is said to have been born, and still another in the 
country of the Western Libyans. And the city lies 
in the plain near the mountain called Thorax, on 
which Daphitas the grammarian is said to have been 
crucified, because he reviled the kings in a distich: 

1 131 B.c. 2 129 8.6. 

8 διστἴΐχου F, στίχου other MSS. 
VOL. V1. : Ὁ 


πορφύρεοι μώλωπες, ἀπορρινήματα γάξης 
Λυσιμάχου, Λυδῶν ἄρχετε καὶ Φρυγίης. 

καὶ λόγιον δ᾽ ἐκπεσεῖν αὐτῷ λέγεται, φυλάττεσθαι 
τὸν Θώρακα. 

40. Δοκοῦσι δ᾽ εἶναι Μάγνητες Δελφῶν ἀπό- 
γονοι, τῶν ἐποικησάντων τὰ Δίδυμα ὄρη ἐν 
Θετταλίᾳ, περὶ ὧν φησὶν ᾿Ησίοδος" 

ἢ οἵη Διδύμους i ἱεροὺς ναίουσα κολωνούς, 
Δωτίῳ ἐν πεδίῳ πολυβότρυος ἀ ἀντ᾽ ᾿Αμύροιο, 
νίψατο Βοιβιάδος λίμνης πόδα παρθένος ἀδμής. 

ἐνταῦθα δ' ἣν καὶ τὸ τῆς Δινδυμήνης ἱερόν, 
Μητρὸς θεῶν" ἱεράσασθαι 1 δ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὴν Θεμι- 
στοκλέους γυναῖκα, οἱ δὲ θυγατέρα παραδιδόασι" 
νῦν δ᾽ οὐκ ἔστι τὸ ἱερὸν διὰ τὸ τὴν πόλιν εἰς 
ἄλλον μετῳκίσθαι τόπον' ἐν δὲ τῇ νῦν πόλει τὸ 
τῆς Λευκοφρυήνης ἱερόν ἐστιν ᾿Αρτέμιδος, ὃ ὃ τῷ 
μὲν μεγέθει τοῦ ναοῦ καὶ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ἀναθη- 
μάτων λείπεται τοῦ ἐν Ἐφέσῳ, τῇ δ᾽ εὐρυθμίᾳ 
καὶ τῇ τέχνῃ τῇ περὶ τὴν κατασκευὴν τοῦ σηκοῦ 
πολὺ διαφέρει" καὶ τῷ μεγέθει ὑπεραίρει πάντας 
τοὺς ἐν ᾿Ασίᾳ πλὴν δυεῖν, τοῦ ἐν ᾿Εφέσῳ καὶ 
τοῦ ἐν Διδύμοις. καὶ τὸ παλαιὸν δὲ συνέβη 
τοῖς Μάγνησιν ὑπὸ Tenpav ἄρδην ἀναιρεθῆναι, 
Κιμμερικοῦ, ἔθνους, εὐτυχήσαντας τ πολὺν χρόνον" 
τῷ δ᾽ ἑξῆς ἔτει Μιλησίους κατασχεῖν τὸν τόπον. 
Καλλῖνος μὲν οὖν ὡς εὐτυχούντων ere TOV 
Μαγνήτων. μέμνηται καὶ κατορθούντων ἐν τῷ 
πρὸς τοὺς ᾿Εφεσίους πολέμῳ, ᾿Αρχίλοχος δὲ ἤδη 
φαίνεται γνωρίζων τὴν γενομένην αὐτοῖς συμφο- 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 39-40 

“ Purpled with stripes, mere filings of the treasure of 
Lysimachus, ye rule the Lydians and Phrygia.” It 
is said that an oracle was given out that Daphitas 
should be on his guard against Thorax. 

40. The Magnetans are thought to be descendants 
of Delphians who settled in the Didyman hills, in 
Thessaly, concerning whom Hesiod says: “ Or as the 
unwedded virgin who, dwelling on the holy Didyman 
hills, in the Dotian Plain, in front of Amyrus, bathed 
her foot in Lake Boebeis.”4 Here was also the 
temple of Dindymené, Mother of the gods. Accord- 
ing to tradition, the wife of Themistocles, some say 
his daughter, served as a priestess there. But the 
temple is not now in existence, because the city has 
been transferred to another site. In the present city 
is the temple of Artemis Leucophryené, which in 
the size of its shrine and in the number of its votive 
offerings is inferior to the temple at Ephesus, but in 
the harmony and skill shown in the structure of the 
sacred enclosure is far superior to it. And in size it 
surpasses all the sacred enclosures in Asia except 
two, that at Ephesus and that at Didymi. In ancient 
times, also, it came to pass that the Magnetans were 
utterly destroyed by the Treres, a Cimmerian tribe, 
although they had for a long time been a prosperous 
people, but the Milesians took possession of the place 
in the following year. Now Callinus mentions the 
Magnetans as still being a prosperous people and as 
being successful in their war against the Ephesians, 
but Archilochus is obviously already aware of the 

1 Also quoted in 9. 5. 22. 

1 ἱεράσασθαι Dh, ἱερᾶσθαι other MSS. 
3 εὐτυχήσαντας F, εὐτυχήσαντος other MSS. 


κλαίειν τὰ Oaciwv,' ov? τὰ Μαγνήτων κακά' 

C 648 ἐξ οὗ καὶ αὐτὸν νεώτερον εἶναι τοῦ ΚΚαλλίνου 
τεκμαίρεσθαι πάρεστιν. ἄλλης δέ τινος ἐφόδου 
τῶν Κιμμερίων μέμνηται πρεσβυτέρας ὁ Καλλῖνος, 
ἐπὰν φῇ: 

νῦν δ᾽ ἐπὶ Κιμμερίων στρατὸς ἔρχεται ὀβρι- 


ἐν 4 τὴν Σάρδεων ἅλωσιν δηλοῖ. 
_ Al. “Avépes δ᾽ _ ἐγένοντο γνώριμοι Μάγνητες 
Ηγησίας τε ὁ ῥήτωρ, ὃς ἦρξε μάλιστα τοῦ 
᾿Ασιανοῦ λεγομένου ζήλου, παραφθείρας τὸ 
καθεστηκὸς ἔθος τὸ ᾿Αττικόν, καὶ Σῖμος 8 ὁ μελο- 
ποιός, παραφθείρας καὶ αὐτὸς τὴν τῶν προτέρων 
μελοποιῶν ἀγωγὴν καὶ τὴν Σιμῳδίαν εἰσαγαγών, 
καθάπερ ἔτι μᾶλλον Λυσιῳδοὶ καὶ Μαγῳδοί, 
καὶ Κλεόμαχος ὁ πύκτης, ὃς εἰς ἔρωτα ἐμπεσὼν 
κιναίδου τινὸς καὶ παιδίσκης ὑπὸ τῷ  κιναίδῳ 
τρεφομένης ἀπεμιμήσατο τὴν ἀγωγὴν τῶν παρὰ 
τοῖς κιναΐδοις διαλέκτων καὶ τῆς ἠθοποιίας" ἦρξε 
δὲ Σωτάδης μὲν πρῶτος τοῦ κιναιδολογεῖν, ἔπειτα 
᾿Αλέξανδρος ὁ Αἰτωλός" ἀλλ᾽ οὗτοι μὲν ἐν ψιλῷ 
λόγῳ, μετὰ μέλους δὲ Λῦσις, καὶ ἔτι πρότερος 
τούτου ὁ Σῖμος. ᾿Αναξήνορα δὲ τὸν κιθαρῳδὸν 
ἐξῆρε μὲν καὶ τὰ θέατρα, ἀλλ᾽ ὅτειῦ μάλιστα 
᾿Αντώνιος, ὅς ὃ ye καὶ τεττάρων πόλεων ἀπέδειξε 
φορολόγον, στρατιώτας αὐτῷ συστήσας. καὶ ἡ 

1 τὰ Θασίων, Tyrwhitt, for θάσ(σ)γων ; so Tzschucke and 

2 οὐ, Tzschucke and Corais, for οὗ. 

3 Siuos, Tzschucke, for Σίμων ; so Meineke, 

4 τῷ, Corais inserts ; so Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. τ. 40-41 

misfortune that befell them: “to bewail the woes 
of the Thasians, not those of the Magnetans”’ 9} 
whence one may judge that he was more recent 
than Callinus. And Callinus recalls another, and 
earlier, invasion of the Cimmerians when he says: 
* And now the army of the Cimmerians, mighty in 
deeds, advanceth,’* in which he plainly indicates 
the capture of Sardeis. 

41. Well-known natives of Magnesia are: He- 
gesias the orator, who, more than any other, initiated 
the Asiatic style, as it is called, whereby he corrupted 
the established Attic custom; and Simus the melic 
poet, he too a man who corrupted the style handed 
down by the earlier melic poets and introduced the 
Simoedia,’ just as that style was corrupted still more 
by the Lysioedi and the Magoedi, and by Cleomachus 
the pugilist, who, having fallen in love with a certain 
cinaedus* and with a young female slave who was 
kept as a prostitute by the cinaedus, imitated the 
style of dialects and mannerisms that was in vogue 
among the cinaedi. Sotades was the first man to 
write the talk of the cinaedi; and then Alexander 
the Aetolian. But though these two men imitated 
that talk in mere speech, Lysis accompanied it with 
song; and so did Simus, who was still earlier than 
he. As for Anaxenor, the citharoede,® the theatres 
exalted him, but Antony exalted him all he possibly 
could, since he even appointed him exactor of tribute 
from four cities, giving him a body-guard of soldiers. 

1 Frag. 20 (Bergk). 2 Frag. 3 (Bergk). 

3 A loose song. 4 An obscene talker. 

5 One who played the cithara and sang to its accompaniment 
(cf. 9. 3. 10 and note on ‘‘ the citharoedes”’). 

5 ὅτι, Meineke, for ἔτι. 6 ὅς, Kramer, for ὅν. 


C 649 


ὶ δ᾽ e n δ᾽. ” / > / 
πατρὶς δ᾽ ἱκανῶς αὐτὸν ηὔξησε, πορφύραν ἐνδύ- 
σασα, ἱερωμένον" τοῦ Σωσιπόλιδος Διός, καθά- 
περ καὶ ἡ γραπτὴ εἰκὼν ἐμφανίζει ἡ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ. 
ἔστι δὲ καὶ χαλκῆ εἰκὼν ἐν τῷ θεάτρῳ, ἐπιγραφὴν 

Μ \ , \ 3 / ᾽ \ > “Ε 

ἤτοι μὲν τόδε καλὸν ἀκουέμεν ἐστὶν ἀοιδοῦ 

a>’ vO 3 , “ ᾽ ’ > cal 
τοιοῦδ᾽, οἷος ὅδ᾽ ἐστί, θεοῖς ἐναλίγκιος αὐδῇ. 

οὐ στοχασάμενος δὲ ὁ ἐπιγράψας τὸ τελευταῖον 
γράμμα τοῦ δευτέρου ἔπους παρέλιπε, τοῦ πλά- 
τους τῆς βάσεως μὴ συνεξαρκοῦντος" ὥστε τῆς 
πόλεως ἀμαθίαν καταγινώσκειν παρέσχε διὰ τὴν 
ἀμφιβολίαν τὴν περὶ τὴν γραφήν, εἴτε τὴν 
ὀνομαστικὴν δέχοιτο πτῶσιν τῆς ἐσχάτης προση- 
γορίας, εἴτε τὴν δοτικήν᾽ πολλοὶ γὰρ χωρὶς TOU t 
γράφουσι τὰς δοτικὰς καὶ ἐκβάλλουσι δὲ τὸ 
ἔθος φυσικὴν αἰτίαν οὐκ ἔχον. 

42. Μετὰ δὲ Μαγνησίαν ἡ ἐπὶ Τράλλεις ἐστὶν 
ὁδὸς ἐν ἀριστερᾷ μὲν τὴν Μεσωγίδα ἔχουσιν, 
ἐν αὐτῇ δὲ τῇ ὁδῷ καὶ ἐν δεξιᾷ τὸ Μαιάνδρου 
πεδίον, Λυδῶν ἅμα καὶ Καρῶν νεμομένων καὶ 
» 7 / \ ’ ΝΜ \ > ,ὔ 
Ιώνων, Μιλησίων τε καὶ Μυησίων, ἔτι δὲ Αἰολέων 
τῶν ἐν Μαγνησίᾳ᾽ ὁ δ᾽ αὐτὸς τρόπος 4 τῆς το- 
ποθεσίας καὶ μέχρι Νύσης καὶ ᾿Αντιοχείας. 
ἵδρυται δ᾽ ἡ μὲν τῶν Τραλλιανῶν πόλις ἐπὶ 
τραπεζίου τινός, ἄκραν ἔχοντος ἐρυμνήν" καὶ τὰ 
κύκλῳ δ᾽ ἱκανῶς εὐερκῆ" συνοικεῖται δὲ καλῶς, 
εἴ τις ἄλλη τῶν κατὰ τὴν ᾿Ασίαν, ὑπὸ εὐπόρων 
ἀνθρώπων, καὶ ἀεί τινες ἐξ αὐτῆς εἰσὶν οἱ 
πρωτεύοντες κατὰ τὴν ἐπαρχίαν, ods ᾿Ασιάρχας 

1 Instead of ἱερωμένον, CDmoz have ἱερωμένην. 
5 περί, Kramer, for παρά. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. τ. 41-42 

Further, his native land greatly increased his honours, 
having clad him in purple as consecrated to Zeus 
Sosipolis,! as is plainly indicated in his painted image 
in the market-place. And there is also a bronze 
statue of him in the theatre, with the inscription, 
« Surely this is a beautiful thing, to listen toa singer 
such as this man is, like unto the gods in voice.’ 
But the engraver, missing his guess, left out the 
last letter of the second verse, the base of the statue 
not being wide enough for its inclusion; so that he 
laid the city open to the charge of ignorance, because 
of the ambiguity of the writing, as to whether the last 
word should be taken as in the nominative case or 
in the dative ;* for many write the dative case without 
the iota, and even reject the ordinary usage as being 
without natural cause. 

42. After Magnesia comes the road to Tralleis, with 
Mt. Mesogis on the left, and, at the road itself and 
on the right, the plain of the Maeander River, which 
is occupied by Lydians and Carians, and by Ionians, 
both Milesians and Myesians, and also by the Aeo- 
lians of Magnesia. And the same kind of topogra- 
phical account applies as far as Nysa and Antiocheia. 
The city of the Tralleians is situated upon a trape- 
zium-shaped site, with a height fortified by nature ; 
and the places all round are well defended. And it 
is as well peopled as any other city in Asia by people 
of means; and always some of its men hold the chief 
places in the province, being called  Asiarchs. 

1 City-Saviour. 2 Odyssey 9. 3. 
3 i.e. as ATAH or ATAHI. 

3 δέ, Meineke, for γε; Corais τε. 
4. καί, after τρόπος, omitted by mozz. 



Kahovow ὧν Πυθόδωρός τε ἦν, ἀνὴρ Νυσαεὺς 
τὸ ἐξ ἀρχῆς, ἐκεῖσε δὲ μεταβεβηκὼς διὰ τὴν 
ἐπιφάνειαν, καὶ ἐν τῇ πρὸς Πομπήιον φιλίᾳ 
διαπρέπων μετ᾽ ὀλίγων" περιεβέβλητο δὲ καὶ 
οὐσίαν βασιλικὴν πλειόνων ἢ δισχιλίων τα- 
λάντων, ἣν ὑπὸ Καίσαρος τοῦ Θεοῦ πραθεῖσαν 
διὰ τὴν πρὸς Πομπήιον φιλίαν ἐξωνησάμενος οὐχ 
ἥττω τοῖς παισὶ κατέλιπε" τούτου δ᾽ ἐστὶ L θυγάτηρ 
Πυθοδωρίς, ” νῦν βασιλεύουσα ἐν τῷ Πόντῳ, 
περὶ ἧς εἰρήκαμεν. οὗτος δὴ Kal? ἡμᾶς ἤκμασε 
καὶ Μηνόδωρος, ἀνὴρ λόγιος, καὶ ἄχλως σεμνὸς 
καὶ βαρύς, ἔχων τὴν ἱερωσύνην τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ 
Λαρισαίου: κατεστασιάσθη δ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν Δομετίου 
τοῦ ᾿Αηνοβάρβου φίλων, καὶ ἀνεῖλεν αὐτὸν 
ἐκεῖνος, ὡς ἀφιστάντα τὸ ναυτικόν, πιστεύσας 
τοῖς ἐνδειξαμένοις. ἐγένοντο δὲ καὶ ῥήτορες 
ἐπιφανεῖς Διονυσοκλῆς τε καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα Δάμα- 
σος ὁ Σκόμβρος. κτίσμα δέ φασιν εἷναι τὰς 
Τράλλεις ᾿ Α ργείων καί τινων Θρᾳκῶν Τραλλίων, 
ἀφ᾽ ὧν τοὔνομα. τυραννηθῆναι δ᾽ ὀλίγον συνέ- 
πεσε χρόνον τὴν πόλιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἸΚρατίππου 
παίδων κατὰ τὰ Μιθριδατικά. 

48. Νῦσα δ᾽ ἵδρυται πρὸς τῇ Μεσωγίδι τὸ 
πλέον τῷ ὄρει προσανακεκλιμένη, ἔστι δ᾽ ὥσπερ 
δίπολις, διαιρεῖ γὰρ αὐτὴν χαράδρα τις, ποιοῦσα 
φάραγγα, ἧς τὸ μὲν γέφυραν ἐπικειμένην ἔχει, 
συνάπτουσαν τὰς δύο πόλεις, τὸ δ᾽ ἀμφιθεάτρῳ 
κεκόσμηται, κρυπτὴν ἔχοντι τὴν ὑπόρρυσιν τῶν 
χαραδρωδῶν ὑδάτων" τῷ δὲ θεάτρῳ δύο ἄκραι, 
ὧν τῇ μὲν ὑπόκειται τὸ γυμνάσιον τῶν νέων, 

1 12. 8. 29, 31, 37. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 42-43 

Among these was Pythodorus, originally a native of 
Nysa, but he changed his abode to Tralleis because 
of its celebrity ; and with only a few others he stood 
out conspicuously as a friend of Pompey. And he 
came into possession of the wealth of a king, worth 
more than two thousand talents, which, though 
sold by the deified Caesar, was redeemed by him 
through his friendship with Pompey and was left by 
him unimpaired to his children. He was the father 
of Pythodoris, the present queen in Pontus, of whom 
I have already spoken. Pythodorus, then, flourished 
in my time, as also Menodorus, a man of learning, 
and otherwise august and grave, who held the 
priesthood of Zeus Larisaeus. But he was over- 
thrown by a counter-party friendly to Dometius 
Ahenobarbus; and Dometius, relying on his in- 
formers, slew him, as guilty of causing the fleet to 
revolt. Here were born famous orators: Dionysocles 
and afterwards Damasus Scombrus. Tralleis is said 
to have been founded by Argives and by certain 
Tralleian Thracians, and hence the name. And the 
city was ruled for a short time by tyrants, the 
sons of Cratippus, at the time of the Mithridatic 

43. Nysa is situated near Mt. Mesogis, for the 
most part lying upon its slopes; and it is a double 
city, so to speak, for it is divided by a torrential 
stream that forms a gorge, which at one place 
has a bridge over it, joining the two cities, and at 
another is adorned with an amphitheatre, with a 
hidden underground passage for the torrential waters. 
Near the theatre are two heights, below one of 
which is the gymnasium of youths; and below the 
other is the market-place and the gymnasium for 



τῇ δ᾽ , ἀγορὰ καὶ τὸ γεροντικόν" πρὸς δὲ νότον 
ὑποπέπτωκε τῇ πόλει τὸ πεδίον, καθάπερ καὶ 
ταῖς Τράλλεσιν. 

44, ᾿Εν δὲ τῇ ὁδῷ τῇ μεταξὺ τῶν Τράλλεων 
καὶ τῆς Νύσης, κώμη τῶν Νυσαέων ἐστὶν οὐκ 
ἄπωθεν τῆς πόλεως ᾿Αχάρακα, ἐν 4 τὸ Πλου- 
τώνιον, ἔχον καὶ ἄλσος πολυτελὲς καὶ νεὼν 
Πλούτωνός τε καὶ Κόρης," καὶ τὸ Χαρώνιον, 
ἄντρον ὑπερκείμενον τοῦ ἄλσους θαυμαστὸν τῇ 
φύσει: λέγουσι γὰρ “δὴ καὶ τοὺς νοσώδεις καὶ 
προσέχοντας ταῖς τῶν θεῶν τούτων θεραπείαις 
φοιτᾶν ἐκεῖσε καὶ διαιτᾶσθαι ἐ ἐν τῇ κώμῃ πλησίον 
τοῦ ἄντρου παρὰ τοῖς ἐμπείροις τῶν ἱερέων, οἱ 
ἐγκοιμῶνταί τε ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν καὶ διατάττουσιν 
ἐκ τῶν ὀνείρων τὰς θεραπείας. οὗτοι δ᾽, εἰσὶ καὶ 
οἱ ἐγκαλοῦντες THY τῶν θεῶν ἰατρείαν' ἄγουσι δὲ 
πολλάκις εἰς τὸ ἄντρον καὶ ἱδρύουσι μένοντας 
καθ᾽ ἡσυχίαν ἐκεῖ, καθάπερ ἐν pared σιτίων 
χωρὶς ἐπὶ πλείους ἡμέρας. ἔστι δ᾽ ὅτε καὶ 
ἰδίοις ἐνυπνίοις οἱ νοσηλευόμενοι, προσέχουσι, 
μυσταγωγοῖς δ᾽ ὅμως καὶ συμβούλοις. ἐκείνοις 
χρῶνται, ὡς ἂν ἱερεῦσι" τοῖς δ᾽ ἄλλοις ΤΣ 
ἐστιν ὁ τόπος καὶ ὀλέθριος. πανήγυρις δ᾽ 
τοῖς ᾿Αχαράκοις συντελεῖται κατ᾽ ἔτος, καὶ τότε 
μάλιστα ὁρᾶν ἔστι καὶ ἀκούειν περὶ τῶν το- 
σούτων " τοὺς πανηγυρίζοντας" τότε δὲ καὶ περὶ 
τὴν μεσημβρίαν ὑπολαβόντες ταῦρον οἱ ἐκ τοῦ 
γυμνασίου νέοι καὶ ἔφηβοι, γυμνοὶ den" «ἀληλιμ- 
μένοι,3 μετὰ σπουδῆς ἀνακομίξουσιν εἰς τὸ ἄντρον" 
ἀφεθεὶς δέ, μικρὸν προελθὼν πίπτει καὶ ἔκπνους 

1 Κόρης, second hand in Ὁ, for Ἥρας elsewhere. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 43-44 

older persons. The plain lies to the south of the 
city, as it does to the south of Tralleis. 

44, On the road between the Tralleis and Nysa 
is a village of the Nysaeans, not far from the city, 
Acharaca, where is the Plutonium, with a costly 
sacred precinct and a shrine of Pluto and Coré, and 
also the Charonium, a cave that lies above the sacred 
precinct, by nature wonderful; for they say that 
those who are diseased and give heed to the cures 
prescribed by these gods resort thither and live in 
the village near the cave among experienced priests, 
who on their behalf sleep in the cave and through 
dreams prescribe the cures. These are also the men 
who invoke the healing power of the gods. And 
they often bring the sick into the cave and leave 
them there, to remain in quiet, like animals in their 
lurking-holes, without food for many days. And some- 
times the sick give heed also to their own dreams, but 
still they use those other men, as priests, to initiate 
them into the mysteries and to counsel them. To 
all others the place is forbidden and deadly. A 
festival is celebrated every year at Acharaca; and at 
that time in particular those who celebrate the 
festival can see and hear concerning all these 
things; and at the festival, too, about noon, the 
boys and young men of the gymnasium, nude and 
anointed with oil, take up a bull and with haste 
earry him up into the cave; and, when let loose, 
the bull goes forward a short distance, falls, and 
breathes out his life. 

2 τοσούτων is emended by Corais and Meineke to vo- 
8 χίπ᾽ ἀληλιυμένοι, Meineke, for ἀπαληλιμμένοι. 



45. ᾿Απὸ δὲ τριάκοντα σταδίων τῆς Νύσης 
ὑπερβᾶσι μῶλον καὶ τὸ ὄρος τὴν Μεσωγίδα 
ἐπὶ τὰ πρὸς τὸν νότον μέρη καλεῖται τόπος 
Λειμών, εἰς ὃν ἐξοδεύουσ, πανηγυριοῦντες 
Νυσαεῖς τε καὶ οἱ κύκλῳ πάντες: οὐ πόρρω δὲ 
τούτου στόμιόν ἐστιν ἱερὸν τῶν αὐτῶν θεῶν, ὅ 
φασι καθήκειν μέχρι τῶν ᾿Αχαράκων. τοῦτον 
δὲ τὸν λειμῶνα ὀνομάζειν τὸν ποιητήν φασιν, 
ὅταν φῇ, 

᾿Ασίῳ ἐν λειμῶνι, 
δεικνύντες Καύστρίου καὶ ᾿Ασίου τινὸς ἡρῷον καὶ 
τὸν Κάῦστρον πλησίον ἀπορρέοντα. 

46. ἹΙστοροῦσι δὲ τρεῖς ἀδελφούς, "Αθυμβρόν 

. 7 Z , ὧ , 3 
te καὶ ᾿Αθύμβραδον καὶ “Tédpnror, ἐλθόντας ἐκ 
Λακεδαίμονος, τὰς ἐπωνύμους αὐτῶν κτίσαι 
πόλεις, λειπανδρῆσαι δ᾽ ὕστερον, ἐξ ἐκείνων δὲ 
συνοικισθῆναι τὴν Νῦσαν' καὶ νῦν Αθυμβρον 
ἀρχηγέτην νομίζουσιν οἱ Νυσαεῖς. 

47. Περίκεινται δὲ ἀξιόλογοι κατοικίαι πέραν 
τοῦ Μαιάνδρου, Κοσκίνια καὶ ᾿Ορθωσία: ἐντὸς δὲ 
Βρίουλα, Μάσταυρα, ᾿Αχάρακα, καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς 
πόλεως ἐν τῷ ὄρει τὰ "Αρομα 3 (συστέλλοντες τὸ 
ῥῶ γράμμα)" ὅθεν ἄριστος Μεσωγίτης οἶνος ὁ 

! καί, before τὸ ὄρος, Jones inserts. Εἰ reads τὸ ὄρος καὶ τὴν 


2 “Apoua, Corais. for ᾿Αρώματα CDF (the o being above w in 
D), ᾿Αρόματα Ehimoz. 

3 The words in parenthesis are probably a gloss, and are 
ejected by Meineke. 

1 The text, which seems to be corrupt, is recast and 
emended by Groskurd to read, ‘“‘ having crossed the Mesogis 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 45-47 

45. Thirty stadia from Nysa, after one crosses over 
Mt. Tmolus and the mountain called Mesogis, 
towards the region to the south of the Mesogis,! there 
is a place called Leimon,? whither the Nysaeans and 
all the people about go to celebrate their festivals. 
And not far from Leimon is an entrance into the 
earth sacred to the same gods, which is said to 
extend down as far as Acharaca. The poet is said 
to name this meadow when he says, ‘On the Asian 
meadow’’; and they point out a hero-temple of 
Cajster and a certain Asius, and the Cayster River 
that streams forth near by. 

46. The story is told that three brothers, Athym- 
brus and Athymbradus and Hydrelus, who came 
from Lacedaemon, founded the three cities which 
were named after them, but that the cities later 
became scantily populated, and that the city Nysa 
was founded by their inhabitants; but that Athym- 
brus is now regarded by Nysaeans as their original 

47. Near Nysa, on the far side of the Maeander 
River, are situated noteworthy settlements; I mean 
Coscinia and Orthosia; and this side the river, 
Briula, Mastaura and Acharaca, and above the city, 
on the mountain, Aroma (in which the letter rho? is 
short), whence comes the best Mesogitan wine, I 
mean the Aromian. 

towards the region to the south of Tmolus.” But the simple 
rectification of the text made by the present translator solves 
the difficulty quite as well (see critical note). 

2 ¢.2, meadow. 

3 Apparently an error for “‘in which name the letter omega 
is shortened to omicron (cp. the well-known Greek word 
Aréma, which may mean either ‘‘spice” or ‘‘arable land.”’) 


C 651 


48. “Avdpes δὲ “γεγόνασιν ἔνδοξοι Νυσαεῖς 
᾿Απολλώνιός τε ὁ Στωικὸς φιλόσοφος, τῶν 
Παναιτίου γνωρίμων ἄριστος, καὶ Mevexparns, 
᾿Αριστάρχου μαθητής, καὶ ᾿Αριστόδημος, ἐκείνου 
υἱός, οὗ διηκούσαμεν ἡμεῖς ἐσχατόγηρω νέοι 
παντελῶς ἐν τῇ Νύση" καὶ Σώστρατος δέ, ὁ 
ἀδελφὸς τοῦ ᾿Αριστοδήμου, καὶ ἄλλος ᾿Αριστό- 
δημος, ἀνεψιὸς αὐτοῦ, ὁ παιδεύσας Μάγνον Πομ- 
πήιον, ἀξιόλογοι γεγόνασι γραμματικοῖΐ" ὁ δ᾽ 
ἡμέτερος καὶ ἐρρητόρευε, καὶ ἐν τῇ Ῥόδῳ καὶ ἐν 
τῇ πατρίδι δύο σ ολὰς συνεῖχε, πρωὶ μὲν τὴν 
ῥητορικήν, δείλης δὲ τὴν γραμματικὴν σχολήν' 
ἐν δὲ τῇ “Ῥώμῃ τῶν Μάγνου παίδων ἐπιστατῶν 
ἠρκεῖτο τῇ γραμματικῇ σχολῇ. 


1. Ta δὲ πέραν ἤδη τοῦ “Μαιάνδρου, τὰ λειπό- 
μενα τῆς περιοδείας, πάντ᾽ ἐστὶ Καρικά, οὐκέτι 
τοῖς Λυδοῖς ἐπιμεμιγμένων ἐνταῦθα τῶν Καρῶν, 
ποτὰ ἤδη καθ᾽ αὑτοὺς ὄντων, πλὴν εἴ τι Μιλήσιοι 

αἱ Μυήσιοι τῆς παραλίας “ἀποτέτμηνται. ἀρχὴ 
μὲν οὖν τῆς παραλίας ἐστὶν ἡ τῶν “Ῥοδίων περαία 
πρὸς θαλάττης, τέλος δὲ τὸ Ποσείδιον τῶν 
Μιλησίων" ἐν δὲ τῇ μεσογαίᾳ τὰ ἄκρα τοῦ 
Ταύρου “μέχρι Μαιάνδρου. “λέγουσι γὰρ ἀρχὴν 
εἶναι τοῦ Ταύρου τὰ ὑπερκείμενα ὄρη. τῶν Χελι- 
δονίων καλουμένων νήσων, αἵπερ ἐν μεθορίῳ τῆς 
Παμφυλίας καὶ τῆς Λυκίας πρόκεινται" ἐντεῦθεν 
γὰρ ἐξαίρεται πρὸς ὕψος ὁ Ταῦρος" τὸ δ᾽ ἀληθὲς καὶ 

1 For map of Asia Minor, see Vol. V. (at end). 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 48-2. 1 

48. Famous men born at Nysa are: Apollonius 
the Stoic philosopher, best of the disciples of Panae- 
tius; and Menecrates, pupil of Aristarchus; and 
Aristodemus, his son, whose entire course, in his 
extreme old age, | in my youth took at Nysa; and 
Sostratus, the brother of Aristodemus, and another 
Aristodemus, his cousin, who trained Pompey the 
Great, proved themselves notable grammarians. 
But my teacher also taught rhetoric and had two 
schools, both in Rhodes and in his native land, teach- 
ing rhetoric in the morning and grammar in the 
evening; at Rome, however, when he was in charge 
of the children of Pompey the Great, he was content 
with the teaching of grammar. 


1. Comine now to the tar side of the Maeander,} 
the parts that remain to be described are all Carian, 
since here the Lydians are no longer intermingled 
with the Carians, and the latter occupy all the country 
by themselves, except that a segment of the sea- 
board is occupied by Milesians and Myesians. Now 
the beginning of the seaboard is the Peraea® of the 
Rhodians on the sea, and the end of it is the 
Poseidium of the Milesians; but in the interior are 
the extremities of the ‘Taurus, extending as far as 
the Maeander River. For it is said that the moun- 
tains situated above the Chelidonian islands, as they 
are called, which islands lie off the confines of 
Pamphylia and Lycia, form the beginning of the 
Taurus, for thence the Taurus rises to a height; 

2 Mainland territory. 


τὴν Λυκίαν ἅπασαν ὀρεινὴ ῥάχις τοῦ Ταύρου διείρ- 
yee πρὸς τὰ ἐκτὸς καὶ τὸ νότιον μέρος ἀπὸ τῶν 
Κιβυρατικῶν μέχρι τῆς περαίας τῶν “Ροδίων. 
κἀνταῦθα δ᾽ ἐστὶ συνεχὴς ὀρεινή, πολὺ μέντοι 
ταπεινοτέρα, καὶ οὐκέτι τοῦ Ταύρου νομίζεται, 
οὐδὲ τὰ μὲν ἐκτὸς αὐτοῦ, τὰ δ᾽ ἐντός, διὰ τὸ 
σποράδας εἶναι τὰς ἐξοχὰς καὶ τὰς εἰσοχὰς 
ἐπίσης els! τε πλάτος καὶ μῆκος τῆς χώρας 
ἁπάσης καὶ μηδὲν ἔχειν ὅμοιον διατειχίσματι. 
ἔστι & ἅπας μὲν ὁ περίπλους κατακολπίζοντι 
σταδίων τετρακισχιλίων ἐννακοσίων, αὐτὸς δὲ 
ὁ τῆς περαίας τῶν Ῥοδίων ἐγγὺς χιλίων καὶ 

2. ᾿Αρχὴ δὲ τὰ Δαίδαλα, τῆς “Podias χωρίον, 
πέρας δὲ τὸ καλούμενον ὄρος Φοϊνιξ, καὶ τοῦτο 
τῆς Ῥοδίας. πρόκειται δ᾽ ᾿λαιοῦσσα 3 νῆσος 
διέχουσα τῆς Ῥόδου σταδίους ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι. 
μεταξὺ δὲ πρῶτον μὲν ἀπὸ Δαιδάλων πλέουσιν 
ἐπὶ τὴν δύσιν ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας τῇ ἐκ Κιλικίας καὶ 
Παμφυλίας καὶ Λυκίας παραλίᾳ κόλπος ἐστὶν εὐλί- 
μενος, Γλαῦκος καλούμενος, εἶτα τὸ ᾿Αρτεμίσιον 
ἄκρα καὶ ἱερόν, εἶτα τὸ Λητῷον ἄλσος" ὑπὲρ 
αὐτοῦ δὲ καὶ τῆς θαλάττης ἐν ἑξήκοντα σταδίοις 
Κάλυνδα38 πόλις: εἶτα Καῦνος καὶ ποταμὸς 
πλησίον Κάλβις βαθύς, ἔχων εἰσαγωγήν, καὶ 
μεταξὺ Πέίσιλις. 

8. Ἔχει δ᾽ ἡ πόλις νεώρια καὶ λιμένα κλειστόν" 
ὑπέρκειται δὲ τῆς πόλεως ἐν ὕψει φρούριον 

1 εἰς, Kramer inserts ; so the later editors, 

2 Ἐλαιοῦσσα, Tzschucke, for Ἐλεοῦσσα; so Corais and 

8 KdAuvda, Casaubon, for Κάλυμνα ; so the later editors. 


ie ee 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 1-3 

but the truth is that the whole of Lycia, towards 
the parts outside and on its southern side, is separ- 
tated by a mountainous ridge of the Taurus from the 
country of the Cibyrans as far as the Peraea of the 
Rhodians. From here the ridge continues, but is 
much lower and is no longer regarded asa part of the 
Taurus ; neither are the parts outside the Taurus and 
this side of it so regarded, because of the fact that 
the eminences and depressions are scattered equally 
throughout the breadth and the length of the whole 
country, and present nothing like a wall of partition. 
The whole of the voyage round the coast, following 
the sinuosities of the gulfs, is four thousand nine 
hundred stadia, and merely that round the Peraea 
of the Rhodians is close to fifteen hundred. 

2. The Peraea of the Rhodians begins with 
Daedala, a place in the Rhodian territory, but ends 
with Mt. Phoenix, as it is called, which is also in the 
Rhodian territory. Off the Peraea lies the island 
Elaeussa, distant one hundred and twenty stadia from 
Rhodes. Between the two, as one sails towards the 
west from Daedala in a straight line with the coast 
of Cilicia and Pamphylia and Lycia, one comes to a 
gulf called Glaucus, which has good harbours; then 
to the Artemisium, a promontory and temple; then 
to the sacred precinct of Leto, above which, and 
above the sea, at a distance of sixty stadia, lies 
Calynda, a city; then to Caunus and to the Calbis, a 
river near Caunus, which is deep and affords passage 
for merchant vessels; and between the two lies 

3. The city! has dockyards, and a harbour that 
can be closed. Above the city, on a height, lies 

1 Caunus. 


C 652 


Ἴμβρος. τῆς δὲ χώρας εὐδαίμονος οὔσης, ἡ 

πόλις τοῦ θέρους ὁμολογεῖται παρὰ πάντων εἶναι 
δυσάερος καὶ τοῦ μετοπώρου διὰ τὰ καύματα καὶ 
τὴν ἀφθονίαν τῶν ὡραίων’ καὶ δὴ καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα 
διηγημάτια θρυλεῖται, ὅ ὅτι Στρατόνικος ὁ ὁ κιθαρισ- 
τὴς ἰδὼν ἐπιμελῶς * χλωροὺς τοὺς Καυνίους, τοῦτ᾽ 
εἶναι ἔφη τὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ" 

οἵη περ φύλλων γενεή, τοιήδε καὶ igen 

μεμφομένων δέ, ὡς σκώπτοιτο αὐτῷ " ἡ πόλις ὡς 
νοσερά, "Eye, ἔφη, ταύτην θαρρήσαιμ᾽ ἂν λέγειν 
νοσεράν, ὅπου καὶ οἱ νεκροὶ περιπατοῦσιν ; ἀπέ- 
στησαν δέ ποτε Καύνιοι τῶν ‘Podior: κριθέντες 
δ᾽ ἐπὶ τῶν Ῥωμαίων ἀπελήφθησαν πάλιν: καὶ 
ἔστι λόγος Μόλωνος κατὰ Καυνίων. φασὶ δ᾽ 
αὐτοὺς ὁμογλώττους μὲν εἶναι τοῖς Καρσίν, 
ἀφῖχθαι δ᾽ ἐκ Κρήτης 3 καὶ χρῆσθαι νόμοις 

4, Ἑξῆς δὲ Φύσκος πολίχνη, λιμένα ἔχουσα 
καὶ ἄλσος Λητῷον' εἶτα Λώρυμα, παραλία 
τραχεῖα, καὶ ὄρος ὑψηλότατον τῶν ταύτῃ; ἐπ᾽ 
ἄκρῳ δὲ φρούριον ὁμώνυμον τῷ "ὄρει Φοϊνιξ' 
πρόκειται δ᾽ ἡ ᾿Ελαιοῦσσα * νῆσος ἐν τέτρασι 
σταδίοις κύκλον ἔχουσα ὅσον ὀκτωστάδιον. 

1 ἐπιμελῶς seems to be corrupt. For various conjectures, 
see Miller, Ind. Var, Lect., Ὁ. 1030. 

2 αὐτῷ, the editors (except Corais), for αὐτῶν. 

3 δ᾽ ἐκ Konrns (from Herod. 1. 172), Corais, for δὲ Κρήτης. 

4 Ἐλαιοῦσσα, Tzschucke, for "EAcotoca; so Corais and 

1 An attempt to translate ἐπιμελῶς, which seems to be 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 3-4 

Imbrus, a stronghold. Although the country is 
fertile, the city is agreed by all to have foul air in 
summer, as also in autumn, because of the heat and 
the abundance of fruits. And indeed little tales of 
the following kind are repeated over and over, that 
Stratonicus the citharist, seeing that the Caunians 
were pitiably! pale,? said that this was the thought 
of the poet in the verse, “ Even as is the generation 
of leaves, such is that also of men”; and when 
people complained that he was jeering at the city as 
though it were sickly, he replied, “ Would 1 be so 
bold as to call this city sickly, where even the corpses 
walk about?” The Caunians once revolted from the 
Rhodians, but by a judicial decision of the Romans 
they were restored to them. And there is extant a 
speech of Molon® entitled Against the Caunians. It 
is said that they speak the same language as the 
Carians, but that they came from Crete and follow 
usages of their own.! 

4. Next one comes to Physcus, a small town, which 
has a harbour and a sacred precinct of Leto; and 
then to Loryma, a rugged coast, and to the highest 
mountain in that part of the country ; and on top of 
the mountain is Phoenix, a stronghold bearing the 
same name as the mountain; and off the mountain, 
at a distance of four stadia, lies Elaeussa, an island, 
which is about eight stadia in circuit. 

corrupt. Others translate the word either ‘‘somewhat” or 

2 Or, more strictly, “‘ pale green.” 

8 Apollonius Molon of Alabanda, the rhetorician and 
orator ; ambassador of the Rhodians at Rome (81 B.c.), and 
teacher of Cicero and Julius Caesir. 

4 On their origin, language, and usages, cf. Herodotus 1. 



5. ‘H δὲ τῶν “Podiwy πόλις κεῖται μὲν ἐπὶ τοῦ 
nw ᾿ « ΄“- 
ἑωθινοῦ ἀκρωτηρίου, λιμέσι δὲ καὶ ὁδοῖς καὶ τείχεσι 
καὶ τῇ ἄλλη κατασκευῇ τοσοῦτον διαφέρει τῶν 
ΝΜ ov τ > Μ > - e la > > > \ 
ἄλλων, ὥστ᾽ οὐκ ἔχομεν εἰπεῖν ἑτέραν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ 
πάρισον, μή τί γε κρείττω ταύτης τῆς πόλεως. 
θαυμαστὴ δὲ καὶ ἡ εὐνομία καὶ ἡ ἐπιμέλεια πρός 
τε τὴν ἄλλην πολιτείαν καὶ τὴν περὶ τὰ ναυτικά, 
27? φ > , \ Ld \ \ 
ad’ ἧς ἐθαλαττοκράτησε πολὺν χρόνον καὶ τὰ 
λῃστήρια καθεῖλε καὶ Ῥωμαίοις ἐγένετο φίλη καὶ 
ῃστήρια κι , μαίοις ey φίλη κ 
τῶν βασιλέων τοῖς φιλορωμαΐοις τε καὶ φιλέλ- 
> > ® > 7 ‘ lé \ “ 
λησιν" ἀφ᾽ ὧν αὐτόνομὸός τε διετέλεσε καὶ πολλοῖς 
ἀναθήμασιν ἐκοσμήθη, ἃ κεῖται τὰ μὲν πλεῖστα 
-“ Ὁ“ υ Μ 
ἐν τῷ Διονυσίῳ καὶ τῷ γυμνασΐῳ, ἄλλα δ᾽ ἐν 
” ‘ Ν Δ, Ἂν ae 5 
ἄλλοις τόποις. ἄριστα δὲ ὅ τε τοῦ “Ηλίου κολοσ- 
\ 9 - 
σός, ὅν φησιν ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἰαμβεῖον, ὅτι 
ἑπτάκις δέκα 
, ᾽ Jf “ e / 
Χάρης ἐποΐει πηχέων ὁ Λίνδιος. 
a an \ a 
κεῖται δὲ νῦν ὑπὸ σεισμοῦ πεσών, περικλασθεὶς 
A > 
ἀπὸ τῶν γονάτων" οὐκ ἀνέστησαν δ᾽ αὐτὸν κατά 
Tt λόγιον. τοῦτό τε δὴ τῶν ἀναθημάτων κράτισ- 
τον (τῶν γοῦν ἑπτὰ θεαμάτων ὁμολογεῖται), καὶ 
an > 
ai τοῦ Ilpwroyévous γραφαί, 6 te ᾿Ιάλυσος καὶ ὁ 
Σάτυρος παρεστὼς στύλῳ, ἐπὶ δὲ τῷ στύλῳ 
πέρδιξ ἐφειστήκει" πρὸς ὃν οὕτως ἐκεχήνεσαν, ὡς 
ἔοικεν, οἱ ἄνθρωποι, νεωστὶ ἀνακειμένου τοῦ 
δ nw , « 
πίνακος, ὥστ᾽ ἐκεῖνον ἐθαύμαζον, ὁ δὲ Σάτυρος 
παρεωρᾶτο, καίτοι σφόδρα κατωρθωμένος" ἐξέ- 
᾽ a , 
TANTTOV δ᾽ ETL μᾶλλον οἱ περδικοτρόφοι, Kopi- 

1 The god of the Sun. 2 Unknown. 
τὰ Tutelary hero of Rhodes and reputed grandson of 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 5 

5. The city of the Rhodians lies on the eastern 
promontory of Rhodes; and it isso far superior to all 
others in harbours and roads and walls and improve- 
ments in general that I am unable to speak of any 
other city as equal to it, or even as almost equal to 
it, much less superior to it. It is remarkable also 
for its good order, and for its careful attention to 
the administration of affairs of state in general; and 
in particular to that of naval affairs, whereby it 
held the mastery of the sea for a long time and 
overthrew the business of piracy, and became a 
friend to the Romans and to all kings who favoured 
both the Romans and the Greeks. Consequently it 
not only has remained autonomous but also has 
been adorned with many votive offerings, which for 
the most part are to be found in the Dionysium 
and the gymnasium, but partly in other places, 
_ The best of these are, first, the Colossus of Helius,} 
of which the author? of the iambic verse says, 
“seven times ten cubits in height, the work of 
Chares the Lindian”; but it now lies on the 
ground, having been thrown down by an earth- 
quake and broken at the knees. In accordance 
with a certain oracle, the people did not raise it 

in. This, then, is the most excellent of the 
votive offerings (at any rate, it is by common agree- 
ment one of the Seven Wonders); and there are 
also the paintings of Protogenes, his Ialysus* and 
also his Satyr, the latter standing by a pillar, on top 
of which stood a male partridge. And at this part- 
ridge, as would be natural, the people were so agape 
when the picture had only recently been set up, 
that they would behold him with wonder but over- 
look the Satyr, although the latter was a very great 



ἕοντες τοὺς τιθασοὺς καὶ τιθέντες καταντικρύ" 
ἐφθέγγοντο γὰρ πρὸς τὴν γραφὴν οἱ πέρδικες καὶ 
ὠχλαγώγουν. ὁρῶν δὲ ὁ Πρωτογένης τὸ ἔργον 
πάρεργον γεγονὸς ἐδεήθη τῶν τοῦ τεμένους προε- 
στώτων “ἐπιτρέψαι παρελθόντα ἐξαλεῖ b τὸν 
ὄρνιν, καὶ ἐποίησε. δημοκηδεῖς δ᾽ εἰσὶν οἱ “Ῥόδιοι, 
καίπερ οὐ δημοκρατούμενοι, συνέχειν δ᾽ ὅμως 

C 653 βουλόμενοι τὸ τῶν πενήτων πλῆθος. σιταρχεῖται 

δὴ ὁ δῆμος καὶ οἱ εὔποροι τοὺς ἐνδεεῖς ὑπολαμ- 
βάνουσιν ἔθει τινὶ πατρίῳ, λειτουργίαι τέ τινές 
εἰσιν ὀψωνιξόμεναι, ὥσθ' ἅμα τόν τε πένητα 
ἔχειν τὴν διατροφὴν καὶ τὴν πόλιν τῶν χρειῶν 
μὴ καθυστερεῖν, καὶ μάλιστα πρὸς τὰς vav- 
στολίας. τῶν δὲ ναυστάθμων τινὰ καὶ κρυπτὰ 
ἣν καὶ ἀπόρρητα τοῖς πολλοῖς, τῷ δὲ KATONTED- 
σαντι ἢ παρελθόντι εἴσω θάνατος ὥριστο ἡ 
ζημία. κἀνταῦθα δέ, ὥσπερ ἐν Μασσαλίᾳ καὶ 
Κυξίκῳ, τὰ περὶ τοὺς ἀ χιτέκτονας καὶ τὰς 
ὀργανοποιίας καὶ θησαυροὺς ὅπλων τε καὶ τῶν 
ἄλλων ἐσπούδασται διαφερόντως, καὶ ἔτι γε τῶν 
Tap ἄλλοις μᾶλλον. 

6. Δωριεῖς δ᾽ εἰσίν, ὥσπερ καὶ ᾿Αλικαρνασεῖς 
καὶ Κνίδιοι καὶ Κῷοι, οἱ γὰρ Δωριεῖς οἱ τὰ 
Μέγαρα" κτίσαντες μετὰ τὴν Κόδρου τελευτήν, 
οἱ μὲν ἔμειναν αὐτόθι, οἱ δὲ σὺν ᾿Αλθαιμένει τῷ 
᾿Αργείῳ τῆς εἰς Κρήτην ἀποικίας ἐκοινώνησαν, οἱ 

1 ὀψωνιζόμεναι F and Corais ; ὀψωνιαζόμενοι other MSS. 
2 Μέγαρα, Xylander, for μεγάλα ; so the later editors. 

1 Public offices to which the richer citizens were appointed. 
These citizens were usually appointed by rotation, according 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 5-6 

success. But the partridge-breeders were still more 
amazed, bringing their tame partridges and placing 
them opposite the painted partridge; for their 
partridges would make their call to the painting 
and attract a mob of people. But when Pro- 
togenes saw that the main part of the work had 
become subordinate, he begged those who were 
in charge of the sacred precinct to permit him to 
go there and efface the partridge, and so he did. 
The Rhodians are concerned for the people in 
general, although their rule is not democratic ; still, 
they wish to take care of their multitude of poor 
people. Accordingly, the people are supplied with 
provisions and the needy are supported by the well- 
to-do, by a certain ancestral custom; and there are 
certain liturgies! that supply provisions, so that at 
the same time the poor man receives his sustenance 
and the city does not run short of useful men, and 
in particular for the manning of the fleets. As for 
the roadsteads, some of them were kept hidden and 
forbidden to the people in general; and death wa 
the penalty for any person who spied on them or 
passed inside them. And here too, as in Massalia 
and Cyzicus, everything relating to the architects, 
the manufacture of instruments of war, and the 
stores of arms and everything else are objects of ex- 
ceptional care, and even more so than anywhere else. 

6. The Rhodians, like the people of Halicarnassus 
and Cnidus and Cos, are Dorians; for of the Dorians 
who founded Megara after the death of Codrus, 
some remained there, others took part with Althae- 
menes the Argive in the colonisation of Crete, and 

to their wealth, and they personally paid all the expenses 
connected with their offices. 


δ᾽ εἰς τὴν Ῥόδον καὶ τὰς λεχθείσας ἀρτίως πόλεις 
ἐμερίσθησαν. ταῦτα δὲ νεώτερα τῶν ὑφ᾽ Ὁ μήρου 
λεγομένων ἐστί: Κνίδος μὲν γὰρ καὶ ᾿Αλικαρνασὸς 
οὐδ᾽ ἦν πω, Ῥόδος δ᾽ ἦν καὶ Κῶς, ἀλλ᾽ φκεῖτο 
ὑφ᾽ Ἡρακλειδῶν. Τληπόλεμος μὲν οὖν ἀνδρω- 
αὐτίκα πατρὸς ἑοῖο φίλον μήτρωα κατέκτα 
ἤδη γηράσκοντα, Λικύμνιον. 
αἶψα δὲ νῆας ἔπηξε, πολὺν δ᾽ ὅ γε λαὸν ἀγείρας 
βῆ φεύγων. 
εἶτά φησιν" 
εἰς Ρόδον ἷξεν ἀλώμενος, 
τριχθὰ δὲ ὠκηθεν καταφυλαδόν. 
καὶ τὰς πόλεις ὀνομάζει τὰς τότε, 
Λώνδον, Ιηλυσόν τε καὶ ἀργινόεντα Κάμειρον, 

τῆς Ῥοδίων πόλεως οὔπω συνῳκισμένης. οὐδαμοῦ 
δὴ ἐνταῦθα Δωριέας ὀνομάζει, ἀλλ᾽ εἰ 1 ἄρα 
Αἰολέας ἐμφαίνει καὶ Βοιωτούς, εἴπερ ἐκεῖ ἡ 
κατοικία τοῦ Ἡρακλέους καὶ τοῦ Λικυμνίου" εἰ 
δ᾽, ὥσπερ καὶ ἄλλοι φασίν, ἐξ [Αργους καὶ 
Τίρυνθος a ἀπῆρεν ὁ Τληπόλεμος, οὐδ᾽ οὕτω Δωρικὴ 
γίνεται ἡ ἐκεῖθεν a ἀποικία' πρὸ γὰρ τῆς “ρακλει- 
δῶν καθόδου γεγένηται. καὶ τῶν Κῴων δὲ 

Φείδιππός τε καὶ ΓΑντιφος ἡγησάσθην, 
Θεσσαλοῦ υἷε δύω ἩΗρακλείδαο ἄνακτος" 

καὶ οὗτοι τὸ Αἰολικὸν μᾶλλον ἢ τὸ Δωρικὸν γένος 

7. ᾿Εκαλεῖτο δ᾽ ἡ Ῥόδος πρότερον ᾿Οφιοῦσσα 
καὶ Σταδία, εἶτα Teryuris, ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκησάντων 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 6-7 

others were distributed to Rhodes and to the cities 
just now mentioned. But these events are later 
than those mentioned by Homer, for Cnidus and 
Halicarnassus were not yet in existence, although 
Rhodes and Cos were; but they were inhabited 
by Heracleidae. Now when Tlepolemus had grown 
to manhood, “he forthwith slew his own father’s 
dear uncle, Licymnius, who was then growing old; 
and straightway he built him ships, and when he 
had gathered together a great host he went in 
flight.”1 The poet then adds, “he came to Rhodes 
in his wanderings, where his people settled in three 
divisions by tribes”’ ; and he names the cities of that 
time, “Lindus, Ialysus, and Cameirus white with 
chalk,” ? the city of the Rhodians having not yet 
been founded. The poet, then, nowhere mentions 
Dorians by name here, but perhaps indicates Aeolians 
and Boeotians, if it be true that Heracles and 
Licymnius settled there. But if, as others say, 
Tlepolemus set forth from Argos and Tiryns, even 
so the colonisation thence could not have been 
Dorian, for it must have taken place before the 
return of the Heracleidae. And of the Coans, also, 
Homer says, “these were led by Pheidippus and 
Antiphus, the two sons of lord Thessalus, son of 
Heracles”; and these names indicate the Aeolian 
stock of people rather than the Dorian. 

7. In earlier times Rhodes was called Ophiussa 
and Stadia, and then Telchinis, after the Telchines, 

1 Iliad 2. 662. * Iliad 2. 656. 3 Iliad 2. 678. 

1 el, Corais, for ἤ. 



C 654 Τελχίνων τὴν νῆσον" ods οἱ μὲν βασκάνους φασὶ 

καὶ γόητας, θείῳ! καταρραίνοντας 53 τὸ τῆς 
Στυγὸς ὕδωρ ἕῴων τε καὶ φυτῶν ὀλέθρου χάριν" 
οἱ δὲ τέχναις διαφέροντας τοὐναντίον ὑπὸ τῶν 
ἀντιτέχνων βασκανθῆναι καὶ τῆς δυσφημίας 
τυχεῖν ταύτης" ἐλθεῖν δ᾽ ἐκ Κρήτης εἰς Κύπρον 
πρῶτον, εἶτ᾽ εἰς Ῥόδον: πρώτους δ᾽ ἐργάσασθαι 
σίδηρόν τε καὶ χαλκόν, καὶ δὴ καὶ τὴν ἅρπην 
τῷ Κρόνῳ δημιουργῆσαι. εἴρηται μὲν οὖν καὶ 
πρότερον περὶ αὐτῶν, ἀλλὰ ποιεῖ τὸ πολύμυθον 
ἀναλαμβάνειν πάλιν ἀναπληροῦντας, εἴ τι παρε- 

8. Μετὰ δὲ τοὺς Τελχῖνας of «Ηλιάδαι μυθεύον- 
ται κατασχεῖν τὴν νῆσον, ὧν ἑνὸς Κερκάφου καὶ 
Κυδέππης γενέσθαι παῖδας τοὺς τὰς πόλεις 
κτίσαντας ἐπωνύμους αὑτῶν, 

Λίνδον ᾿Ιηλυσὸν τε καὶ ἀργινόεντα Κάμειρον" 

ἔνιοι δὲ τὸν 'Ῥληπόλεμον κτίσαι φασί, θέσθαι 
\ , rn 
δὲ τὰ ὀνόματα ὁμωνύμως τῶν Δαναοῦ θυγατέρων 
«ς rf ) ρ Ν ᾿ 
9, Ἢ δὲ νῦν πόλις ἐκτίσθη κατὰ τὰ Πελο- 
ε΄ lal [4 
ποννησιακὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἀρχιτέκτονος, ὥς 
ε > ? \ e ’ὔ > / > 
φασιν, vp ov καὶ ὁ Πειραιεύς: οὐ συμμένει ὃ 
ὁ [ΠΙειραιεύς, κακωθεὶς ὑπό τε Λακεδαιμονίων 
’ lal Ἁ 
πρότερον τῶν τὰ σκέλη καθελόντων καὶ ὑπὸ 
Σύλλα τοῦ Ρωμαίων ἡγεμόνος. 
e lal \ \ lal Ν a ¢ / 
10. ᾿Ιστοροῦσι δὲ καὶ ταῦτα περὶ τῶν Ῥοδίων, 
, ἢ “ 
ὅτι οὐ μόνον ad’ οὗ χρόνου συνῴκισαν τὴν νῦν 

1 θείῳ (sulphur) is strongly suspected. Meineke conj. φθόνῳ, 
and Forbiger so translates, 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 7-10 

who took up their abode in the island. Some say 
that the Telchines are “ maligners” and “sorcerers,” 
who pour the water of the Styx mixed with sulphur? 
upon animals and plants in order to destroy them. 
But others, on the contrary, say that since the 

excelled in workmanship they were “ maligned” by 
rival workmen and thus received their bad reputa- 
tion; and that they first came from Crete to 
Cypros, and then to Rhodes; and that they were 
the first to work iron and brass, and in fact fabri- 
cated the scythe for Cronus. Now I have already 
described them before,? but the number of the 
myths about them causes me to resume their de- 
scription, filling up the gaps, if I have omitted 
anything. ; 

8. After the Telchines, the Heliadae, according 
to the mythical story, took possession of the island ; 
and to one of these, Cercaphus, and to his wife 
Cydippé, were born children who founded the cities 
that are named after them, “ Lindus, Ialysus, and 
Cameirus white with chalk.” But some say that 
Tlepolemus founded them and gave them the same 
names as those of certain daughters of Danaus. 

9. The present city was founded at the time of 
the Peloponnesian War by the same architect, as they 
say, who founded the Peiraeus. But the Peiraeus 
no longer endures, since it was badly damaged, first 
by the Lacedaemonians, who tore down the two 
walls, and later by Sulla, the Roman commander. 

10. It is also related of the Rhodians that they 
have been prosperous by sea, not merely since the 

1 See critical note. 2 10. 3, 7, 19. 

2 κατορραίνοντας moxz ; Katappéovtas other MSS. 



πόλιν εὐτύχουν κατὰ θάλατταν, ἀλλὰ Kal πρὸ 
τῆς ᾿Ολυμπικῆς θέσεως συχνοῖς ἔτεσιν ἔπλεον 
πόρρω τῆς οἰκείας ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ τῶν ἀνθρώπων' 
ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ μέχρι ᾿Ιβηρίας ἔπλευσαν, κἀκεῖ μὲν 
τὴν Ῥόδον" ἔκτισαν, ἣν ὕστερον Μασσαλιῶται 
κατέσχον, ἐν δὲ τοῖς ᾿Οπικοῖς τὴν Παρθενόπην, 
ἐν δὲ Δαυνίοις μετὰ Κῴων ᾿Ελπίας. τινὲς δὲ 
μετὰ τὴν ἐκ Τροίας ἄφοδον τὰς Γυμνησίας νήσους 
ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν κτισθῆναι λέγουσιν, ὧν τὴν μείξω φησὶ 
Τίμαιος μεγίστην εἶναι μετὰ τὰς ἑπτά, Σαρδώ, 
Σικελίαν, Κύπρον, Κρήτην, Βὔβοιαν, Κύρνον, 
Λέσβον, οὐ τἀληθῆ λέγων: πολὺ γὰρ ἄλλαι 
μείζους. φασὶ δὲ τοὺς γυμνήτας ὑπὸ Φοινίκων 
βαλεαρίδας λέγεσθαι, διότ, τὰς Γυμνησίας 
Βαλεαρίδας λεχθῆναι." τινὲς δὲ τῶν “Ῥοδίων 
καὶ περὶ Σύβαριν ὥκησαν κατὰ “τὴν Xwviav. 
ἔοικε δὲ καὶ ὁ ποιητὴς μαρτυρεῖν τὴν ἐκ παλαιοῦ 
παροῦσαν τοῖς “Ῥοδίοις εὐδαιμονίαν εὐθὺς ἀπὸ τῆς 
πρώτης κτίσεως τῶν τριῶν πόλεων" 

τριχθὰ δὲ ὥκηθεν καταφυλαδόν, ἠδ᾽ ἐφίληθεν 
ἐκ Διός, ὅ ὅστε θεοῖσι καὶ ἀνθρώποισιν a ἀνάσσει, 
καί pt θεσπέσιον πλοῦτον wig Κρονίων. 

ἱ δ᾽ εἰς μῦθον “ἀνήγαγον τὸ ἔπος καὶ χρυσὸν 
ὑσθῆναί φασιν ἐν τῇ νήσῳ κατὰ τὴν ᾿Αθηνᾶς 
γένεσιν ἐκ τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ Διός, ὡς εἴρηκε 
Πίνδαρος. ἡ δὲ νῆσος κύκλον ἔχει σταδίων 
ἐννακοσΐων εἴκοσιν. 

1 On Ῥόδον (which Meineke emends to ἱΡόδην), see Vol. II, 

p. 92, footnote 2. 
3 φασὶ δὲ. . . λεχθῆναι, Meineke ejects. 

1 Cf. 3. 4. 8. 2 «‘Light-armed foot-soldiers.” 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. το 

_ time when they founded the present city, but that 
_ even many years before the establishment of the 
_ Olympian Games they used to sail far away from 
_ their homeland to insure the safety of their people. 
_ Since that time, also, they have sailed as far as 
_ Iberia; and there they founded Rhodes,! of which the 
Massaliotes later took possession; among the Opici 
they founded Parthenopé; and among the Daunians 
they, along with the Coans, founded Elpiae. Some 
_ say that the islands called the Gymnesiae were 
_ founded by them after their departure from Troy; 
_ and the larger of these, according to Timaeus, is the 
Jargest of all islands after the seven—Sardinia, Sicily, 
Cypros, Crete, Euboea, Cyrnos, and Lesbos, but this 
is untrue, for there are others much larger. It is 
said that “gymnetes’’? are called “balearides’’ * 
by the Phoenicians, and that on this account the 
Gymnesiae were called Balearides. Some of the 
_ Rhodians took up their abode round Sybaris in 
Chonia. The poet, too, seems to bear witness to 
the prosperity enjoyed by the Rhodians from ancient 
times, forthwith from the first founding of the three 
cities: “and there his* people settled in three 
divisions by tribes, and were loved of Zeus, who is 
lord over gods and men; and upon them wondrous 
wealth was shed by the son of Cronus.”® Other 
writers refer these verses to a myth, and say that 
gold rained on the island at the time when Athena 
was born from the head of Zeus, as Pindar® states. 
The island has a circuit of nine hundred and twenty 
8. Also spelled ‘‘ baliarides ᾿ (see 3. 5. 1). 

* Referring to Heracles. 5 Iliad 2. 668. 
ὁ Olympian Odes 7. 61. 




11. Ἔστι δὲ πρώτη μὲν Λίνδος ἀπὸ τῆς 
πόλεως πλέουσιν ἐν δεξιᾷ ἔχουσι τὴν νῆσον, 
πόλις ἐπὶ ὄρους ἱδρυμένη, πολὺ πρὸς μεσημβρίαν 
ἀνατείνουσα καὶ πρὸς ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν μάλιστα" 
ἱερὸν δέ ἐστιν ᾿Αθηνᾶς Λινδίας αὐτόθι ἐπιφανές, 
τῶν Δαναΐδων ἵδρυμα. πρότερον μὲν οὖν καθ᾽ 
αὑτοὺς ἐπολιτεύοντο οἱ Λίνδιοι, καθάπερ καὶ 
Καμειρεῖς καὶ ᾿Ιαλύσιοι, μετὰ ταῦτα δὲ συνῆλθον 
ἅπαντες εἰς τὴν Ῥόδον. ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ ἐστὶν εἷς τῶν 
ἑπτὰ σοφῶν, Κλεόβουλος. 

12. Μετὰ δὲ Λίνδον ᾿Ιξία χωρίον καὶ Μνασύ- 
ριον. εἶθ᾽ ὁ ᾿Ατάβυρις, ὄρος τῶν ἐνταῦθα ὑψη- 
λότατον, ἱερὸν Διὸς ᾿Αταβυρίου" εἶτα Κάμειρος" 
εἶτ᾽ ᾿Ιαλυσὸς κώμη, καὶ ὑπὲρ αὐτὴν ἀκρόπολίς 
ἐστιν ᾿Οχύρωμα καλουμένη" εἶθ᾽ ἡ τῶν Ῥοδίων 
πόλις ἐν ὀγδοήκοντά που σταδίοις. μεταξὺ δ᾽ 
ἐστὶ τὸ Θοάντιον, ἀκτὴ τις, ἧς μάλιστα πρό- 
κεινται αἱ Σποράδες αἱ περὶ τὴν Χαλκίαν, ὧν 
ἐμνήσθημεν πρότερον. 

18. “Avdpes δ᾽ ἐγένοντο μνήμης ἄξιοι πολλοὶ 
στρατηλάται τε καὶ ἀθληταί, ὧν εἰσὶ καὶ οἱ 
Ilavaitiov τοῦ φιλοσόφου πρόγονοι" τῶν δὲ 
πολιτικῶν καὶ τῶν περὶ λόγους καὶ φιλοσοφίαν " 
ὅ τε Παναίτιος αὐτὸς καὶ Στρατοκλῆς καὶ 
᾿Ανδρόνικος ὁ ἐκ τῶν περιπάτων καὶ Λεωνίδης 
ὁ στωικός: ἔτι δὲ πρότερον ἹΠραξιφάνης καὶ 
Ἱερώνυμος καὶ Εὔδημος. ἸΠοσειδώνιος δ᾽ ἐπο- 
λιτεύσατο μὲν ἐν Ῥόδῳ καὶ ἐσοφίστευσεν, ἦν 
δ᾽ ᾿Απαμεὺς ἐκ τῆς Συρίας, καθάπερ καὶ ᾿Απολ- 

1 φιλοσοφίαν, Corais, for φιλοσοφίας ; so Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2, 11-13 

11. As one sails from the city, with the island on 
_ the right, one comes first to Lindus, a city situated on 
‘a mountain and extending far towards the south and 
approximately towards Alexandria. In Lindus there 
_ is a famous temple of Athena Lindia, founded by 

the daughters of Daniius. Now in earlier times the 

Lindians were under a separate government of their 
own, as were also the Cameirians and the Ialysians, 
but after this they all came together at Rhodes. 
Cleobulus, one of the Seven Wise Men, was a native 
of Lindus. 

12. After Lindus one comes to Ixia, a stronghold, 
and to Mnasyrium; then to Atabyris, the highest of 
the mountains there, which is sacred to Zeus 
Atabyrius; then to Cameirus; then to Ialysus, a 
village, above which there is an acropolis called 
Ochyroma; then to the city of the Rhodians, at a 
distance of about eighty stadia. Between these lies 
Thoantium, a kind of promontory; and it is off 
Thoantium, generally speaking, that Chalcia and the 
Sporades in the neighbourhood of Chalcia lie, which 
I have mentioned before.” 

13. Many men worthy of mention were native 
Rhodians, both commanders and athletes, among 
whom were the ancestors of Panaetius the philo- 
sopher; and, among statesmen and rhetoricians and 
philosophers, Panaetius himself and Stratocles and 
Andronicus, one of the Peripatetics, and Leonides 
the Stoic; and also, before their time, Praxiphanes 
and Hieronymus and Eudemus. Poseidonius engaged 
in affairs of state in Rhodes and taught there, 
although he was a native of Apameia in Syria, as 

1 According to Strabo (1. 4. 1 ff.), Rhodes and Alexandria 
lie on the same meridian. 210. 5. 14. 


C 656 


λώνιος ὁ Μαλακὸς καὶ Μόλων" ἦσαν γὰρ 
᾿Αλαβανδεῖς, Μενεκλέους μαθηταὶ τοῦ ῥήτορος. 
ἐπεδήμησε δὲ πρότερον ᾿Απολλώνιος, ὀψὲ ὃ δ᾽ 
ἧκεν ὁ Μόλων, καὶ ἔφη πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐκεῖνος" 
ὀψὲ μολών, ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐλθών: καὶ [Πείσανδρος 
δ᾽ ὁ τὴν, Ἡράκλειαν γράψας ποιητὴς Ῥόδιος, 
καὶ Σιμμίας ὁ γραμματικὸς καὶ ᾿Αριστοκλῆς ὁ 
καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς" Διονύσιος δὲ ὁ “Θρᾷξ καὶ ᾿Απολλώνιος 
ὁ τοὺς ᾿Αργοναύτας ποιήσας, ᾿Αλεξανδρεῖς μέν, 
ἐκαλοῦντο δὲ Ῥόδιοι. περὶ μὲν Ῥόδου ἀπο- 
χρώντως εἴρηται. 

14. Πάλιν δὲ τῆς Καρικῆς παραλίας τῆς 
μετὰ τὴν Ρόδον, ἀπὸ ᾿Ελεοῦντος καὶ τῶν 
Λωρύμων, καμπτήρ τις ἐπὶ τὰς ἄρκτους ἐστί, 
καὶ λοιπὸν ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας ὁ πλοῦς μέχρι τῆς 
Προποντίδος, ὡς ἂν μεσημβρινήν τινα ποιῶν 
γραμμὴν ὅσον πεντακισχιλίων σταδίων ἢ ὴ μικρὸν 
ἀπολείπουσαν. ἐνταῦθα δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἡ λοιπὴ τῆς 
Καρίας καὶ “Iwves καὶ Αἰολεῖς καὶ Τροία καὶ 
τὰ περὶ Κύζικον καὶ Βυζάντιον. μετὰ δ᾽ οὖν 
τὰ Λώρυμα τὸ Κυνὸς σῆμά ἐστὶ καὶ Σύμη 

15. Εἶτα Κνίδος, δύο λιμένας ἔχουσα, ὧν τὸν 
ἕτερον κλειστὸν τριηρικὸν καὶ ναύσταθμον ναυσὶν 
εἴκοσι. “πρόκειται δὲ! νῆσος ἑπταστάδιός πως 
τὴν περίμετρον, ὑψηλή, θεατροειδής, συναπτομένη 
χώμασι πρὸς τὴν ἤπειρον καὶ ποιοῦσα δίπολιν 

1 δέ, Corais, for δ᾽ 7 

1 He taught rhetoric at Rhodes about 120 8.0. 
2 Apollonius Molon (see 14. 2. 3), 
3 Natives of Alabanda in Caria. 


» ree m= ee ; 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 13-15 

was also the case with Apollonius Malacus! and 

Molon,? for they were Alabandians,3 pupils of 

Menecles the orator. Apollonius Malacus began his 
sojourn there earlier than Molon, and when, much 
later, Molon came, the former said to him, “ you are 
a late ‘molon,’”’ 4 instead of saying, “ late ‘ elthon.’’”’ 5 

_ And Peisander the poet, who wrote the Heracleia, 

was also a Rhodian; and so was Simmias the gram- 

_ marian, as also Aristocles of my own time. And 

Dionysius the Thracian and the Apollonius who 
wiote the Argonauts, though Alexandrians, were 
called Rhodians. As for Rhodes, I have said enough 

ἥ about it. 

14. As for the Carian coast that comes after 
Rhodes, beginning at Eleus and Loryma, it bends 
sharply back towards the north, and the voyage 
thereafter runs in a straight line as far as the 
Propontis, forming, as it were, a meridian line about 
five thousand stadia long, or slightly short of that 
distance. Along this line is situated the remainder 
of Caria, as are also the Ionians and the Aeolians and 
Troy and the parts round Cyzicus and Byzantium. 
After Loryma, then, one comes to Cynos-Sema® 
and to Symé, an island. 

15. Then to Cnidus, with two harbours, one of 
which can be closed, can receive triremes, and is a 
naval station for twenty ships. Off it lies an island 
which is approximately seven stadia in circuit, rises 
high, is theatre-like, is connected by moles with the 

4 **Molon”’ means ‘‘ comer” (note the word-play). 

5. «“Elthon” is the common word for ‘‘ comer,” whereas 
the other is poetic and comparatively rare. 

® Cape Volpo. Cf. the reference to the Cynos-Sema at the 
entrance of the Hellespont, Vol. II, p. 377, Frag. 55. 

VOL, VI. K 281 


τρόπον τινὰ τὴν Κνίδον: πολὺ γὰρ αὐτῆς μέρος 
οἰκεῖ τὴν νῆσον, σκεπάξουσαν ἀμφοτέρους τοὺς 
λιμένας. κατ᾽ αὐτὴν δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἡ Νίσυρος πελαγία. 
ἄνδρες δ᾽ ἀξιόλογοι Κνίδιοι πρῶτον μὲν Εὔδοξος 
ὁ μαθηματικός, τῶν Πλάτωνος ἑταίρων, εἶτ᾽ 
᾿Αγαθαρχίδης ὁ ἐκ τῶν περιπάτων, «ἀνὴρ συγ- 
γραφεύς, καθ' ἡμᾶς δὲ Θεόπομπος, ὁ Καίσαρος 
τοῦ Θεοῦ φίλος τῶν μεγάλα δυναμένων, καὶ 
υἱὸς ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος. ἐντεῦθεν δὲ καὶ Κτησίας ὁ 
ἰατρεύσας μὲν ᾿Αρταξέρξην, συγγράψας δὲ τὰ 
᾿Ασσυρικὰ καὶ τὰ Περσικά. εἶτα μετὰ Κνίδον 
Κέραμος καὶ Βάργασα πολίχνια ὑπὲρ θαλάττης. 

16. ΕἸΘ᾽ ᾿Αλικαρνασός, τὸ βασίλειον τῶν τῆς 
Καρίας δυναστῶν, Ζεφύρα' καλουμένη πρότερον. 
ἐνταῦθα δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὅ τε τοῦ Μαυσώλου τάφος," 
τῶν ἑπτὰ θεαμάτων, ἔργον, ὅπερ ᾿Αρτεμισία 
τῷ ἀνδρὶ κατεσκεύασε, καὶ ἡ Σαλμακὶς κρήνη, 
διαβεβχημένη, οὐκ oid ὁπόθεν, ὦ ὡς μαλακίξζουσα 
τοὺς πιόντας ἀπ᾽ αὐτῆς. ἔοικε δ᾽ ἡ τρυφὴ τῶν 
ἀνθρώπων αἰτιᾶσθαι τοὺς ἀέρας ἢ τὰ ὕδατα. 
τρυφῆς δ᾽ αἴτια οὐ ταῦτα, ἀλλὰ πλοῦτος καὶ 
ἡ περὶ τὰς διαίτας ἀκολασία. ἔχει δ᾽ ἀκρόπολιν 
ἡ ᾿Αλικαρνασός" πρόκειται, δ᾽ αὐτῆς ἡ ᾿Αρκόν- 
νῆσος. οἰκισταὶ δ᾽ αὐτῆς ἐγένοντο ἄλλοι τε καὶ 
᾿ΑΆνθης μετὰ Τροιζηνίων. ἄνδρες δὲ γεγόνασιν 
ἐξ αὐτῆς Ἡρόδοτός τε ὁ συγγραφεύς, ὃ ὃν ὕστερον 
Θούριον ἐκάλεσαν διὰ τὸ κοινωνῆσαι τῆς εἰς 

1 Stephanus (s.v. ᾿Αλικαρνασσόςξ) spells the name Ζεφυρία ; 
so Meineke reads. 

2 Before τῶν Corais and Meineke, following the Epitome, 
insert ἕν. 

3 Corais conjectures that Σεόπα has fallen out after ἔργον ; 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 15-16 

mainland, and in a way makes Cnidus a double city, 
for a large part of its people live on the island, which 
shelters both harbours. Opposite it, in the high 
sea, is Nisyrus. Notable Cnidians were: first, 
Eudoxus the mathematician, one of the comrades 
of Plato; then Agatharchides, one of the Peripa- 
tetics, a historian; and, in my own time, Theo- 
_ pompus, the friend of the deified Caesar, being a 
man of great influence with him, and his son 
Artemidorus. Thence, also, came Ctesias, who 
served Artaxerxes as physician and wrote the works 
entitled Assyrica and Persica. Then, after Cnidus, 
one comes to Ceramus and Bargasa, small towns 
situated above the sea. 

16. Then to Halicarnassus, the royal residence of 
the dynasts of Caria, which was formerly called 
Zephyra. Here is the tomb of Mausolus,! one of 
the Seven Wonders, a monument erected by Arte- 
misia in honour of her husband; and here is the 
fountain called Salmacis, which has the slanderous 
repute, for what reason I do not know, of making 
effeminate all who drink from it. It seems that 
the effeminacy of man is laid to the charge of the 
air or of the water; yet it is not these, but rather 
riches and wanton living, that are the cause of 
effeminacy. MHalicarnassus has an acropolis; and 
off the city lies Arconnesus. Its colonisers were, 
among others, Anthes and a number of-Troezenians. 
Natives of Halicarnassus have been: Herodotus the 
historian, whom they later called a Thurian, because 

1 Hence ‘‘ mausoleum.” 

Groskurd, Σκόπα καὶ τεχνιτῶν. Meineke indicates a lacuna 
before ἔργον, conjecturing θαυμαστόν. 



Θουρίους ἀποικίας, καὶ Ἡράκλειτος ὁ ποιητής, 
ὁ Καλλιμάχου ἑταῖρος, καὶ καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς Διονύσιος 
ὁ τὰς 8 he 

“Entaoe δὲ καὶ αὕτη ἡ πόλις βίᾳ ληφθεῖσα 
ὑπὸ "baedob po ‘Exatouve yap τοῦ Καρῶν βα- 
σιλέως ἦσαν υἱοὶ τρεῖς, } Μαύσωλος καὶ ‘ldpreds καὶ 
Πιξώδαρος, καὶ θυγατέρες δύο, ὦ ὧν τῇ πρεσβυτέρᾳ 
᾿Αρτεμισίᾳ Μαύσωλος συνῴκησεν, ὁ πρεσβύτατος 
τῶν ἀδελφῶν, ὁ δὲ δεύτερος Ἱδριεὺς ἴἼΑδᾳ, τῇ ᾿ 
ἑτέρᾳ ἀδελφῇ" ἐβασίλευσε δὲ Μαύσωλος" τελευ- 
τῶν δ᾽ ἄτεκνος τὴν ἀρχὴν κατέλιπε τῇ γυναικί, 
ὑφ᾽ ἧς αὐτῷ κατεσκευάσθη ὁ λεχθεὶς τάφος" 
φθίσει δ᾽ ἀποθανούσης διὰ πένθος τοῦ ἀνδρός, 
Ἱδριεὺς ἦρξε: καὶ τοῦτον ἡ γυνὴ "Aba διεδέξατο 
νόσῳ τελευτήσαντα" ἐξέβαλε δὲ ταύτην Ππξώδα- 

C! 657 pos, ὁ λοιπὸς τῶν Ἑκατόμνω παίδων. περσίσας 
μεταπέμπεται σατράπην ἐπὶ κοινωνίᾳ , τῆς 
ἀρχῆς" ἀπελθόντος δ᾽ ἐκ τοῦ ζῆν καὶ τούτου, ᾿ 
κατεῖχεν ὁ σατράπης τὴν ᾿Αλικαρνασόν" ἐπελ- 
θόντος δὲ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου, πολιορκίαν ὑπέμεινεν, 
ἔχων Αδαν γυναῖκα, ἥτις θυγάτηρ ἦν TeEwdapov 
ἐξ ᾿Αφνηίδος, Καππαδοκίσσης γυναικός. ἡ δὲ 
τοῦ ᾿Ἑκατόμνω θυγάτηρ ᾿ ‘Ada, ἣν ὁ ΠΠπξώδαρος 
ἐξέβαλεν, ἱκετεύει τὸν ᾿Αλέξανδρον καὶ πείθει 
κατάγειν αὐτὴν εἰς τὴν ἀφαιρεθεῖσαν βασιλείαν, 
ὑποσχομένη ἐπὶ τὰ ἀφεστῶτα συμπράξειν αὐτῷ' 
τοὺς γὰρ ἔχοντας. οἰκείους ὑπάρ εν αὐτῇ' 
παρεδίδου δὲ καὶ τὰ Ἄλινδα, ἐν ᾧ διέτριβεν 
αὐτή; ἐπαινέσας δὲ καὶ βασίλισσαν ἀναδείξας, 
ἁλούσης τῆς πόλεως πελὴν τῆς ἄκρας (διττὴ δ᾽ 
ἣν), ἐκείνη πολιορκεῖν ἔδωκεν. ἑάλω δὲ ὀλίγῳ 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 16-17 

he took part in the colonisation of Thurii; and 
Heracleitus the poet, the comrade of Callimachus ; 
and, in my time, Dionysius the historian. 

17. This city, too, met a reverse when it was forcibly 
seized by Alexander. For Hecatomnus, the king of 
the Carians, had three sons, Mausolus and Hidrieus 
and Pixodarus, and two daughters, Mausolus, the 
eldest of the brothers, married Artemisia, the elder of 
the daughters, and Hidrieus, the second son, married 
Ada, the other sister. Mausolus became king and 
at last, childless, he left the empire to his wife, by 
whom the above-mentioned tomb was erected. But 
she pined away and died through grief for her 
husband, and Hidrieus then became ruler. He died 
from a disease and was succeeded by his wife Ada; 
but she was banished by Pixodarus, the remaining 
son of Hecatomnos. Having espoused the side of 
the Persians, he sent for a satrap to share the 
empire with him; and when he too departed from 
life, the satrap took possession of Halicarnassus. And 
when Alexander came over, the satrap sustained a 
siege. His wife was Ada, who was the daughter of 
Pixodarus by Aphenis, a Cappadocian woman. But 
Ada, the daughter of Hecatomnos, whom Pixodarus 
had banished, entreated Alexander and persuaded 
him to restore her to the kingdom of which she had 
been deprived, having promised to co-operate with 
him against the parts of the country which were in 
revolt, for those who held these parts, she said, were 
her own relations; and she also gave over to him 
Alinda, where she herself was residing. He assented 
and appointed her queen ; and when the city, except 
the acropolis (it was a double city), had been 
captured, he assigned to her the siege of the acro- 



ὕστερον" καὶ ἡ ἄκρα, πρὸς ὀργὴν ἤδη καὶ ἀπέχ- 
θειαν τῆς πολιορκίας γενομένης. 

18. Ἑξῆς δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἄκρα Τερμέριον Μυνδίων, 
καθ᾽ ἣν ἀντίκειται τῆς Κῴας ἄκρα Σκανδαρία, 
διέχουσα τῆς ἠπείρου σταδίους τετταράκοντα" 
ἔστι δὲ καὶ χωρίον Τέρμερον ὑπὲρ τῆς Kaas. 

19. Ἢ δὲ τῶν Κῴων πόλις ἐκαλεῖτο τὸ 
παλαιὸν ᾿Αστυπάλαια, καὶ ὠκεῖτο ἐν ἄλλῳ 
τόπῳ ὁμοίως ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ: ἔπειτα διὰ στάσιν 
μετῴκησαν εἰς τὴν νῦν πόλιν περὶ τὸ Σκανδάριον,: 
καὶ μετωνόμασαν Κῶν ὁμωνύμως τῇ νήσῳ. ἡ 
μὲν οὖν πόλις οὐ μεγάλη, κάλλιστα δὲ πασῶν 
συνῳκισμένη καὶ ἰδέσθαι τοῖς καταπλέουσιν 
ἡδίστη. τῆς δὲ νήσου τὸ “μέγεθος ὅσον πεν- 
τακοσίων σταδίων καὶ πεντήκοντα" εὔκαρπος δὲ 
πᾶσα, οἴνῳ δὲ καὶ ἀρίστη, καθάπερ, Χίος καὶ 
Λέσβος: ἔχει δὲ πρὸς νότον μὲν ἄκραν τὸν 
Λακητῆρα, ἀφ᾽ οὗ ἑξήκοντα εἰς Νίσυρον (πρὸς 
δὲ τῷ Λακητῆρι χωρίον ὃ ᾿Αλίσαρνα), ἀπὸ 
δύσεως δὲ τὸ Apéxavov καὶ κώμην καλουμένην 
Στομαλίμνην' τοῦτο μὲν οὖν ὅσον διακοσίους 
τῆς πόλεως διέχει σταδίους" ὁ δὲ Λακητὴρ 
προσλαμβάνει πέντε καὶ τριάκοντα τῷ μήκει 
τοῦ πλοῦ. ἐν δὲ τῷ προαστείῳ τὸ ᾿Ασκληπιεῖον 
ἐστι, σφόδρα ἔνδοξον καὶ πολλῶν ἀναθημάτων 
μεστὸν ἱερόν, ἐν οἷς ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ᾿Απελλοῦ 
᾿Αντίγονος. ἦν δὲ καὶ ἡ ἀναδυομένη ᾿Αφροδίτη, 

1 The MSS. read ὀλίγῳ δ᾽ ὕστερον. 

2 Σκανδάριον, Tzschucke, for Σκάνδαλον Εἰ, Σκανδύλιον other 
MSS ; so the later editors. 

8. Λακητῆρι χωρίον, Corais, for Λακτητηρίῳ χωρίῳ; so the 
later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 17-19 

δὶ» This too was captured a little later, the siege 
aving now become a matter of anger and personal 

18. Next one comes to a promontory, Termerium, 
belonging to the Myndians, opposite which lies 
Seandaria, a promontory of Cos, forty stadia distant 
from the mainland. And there is a place called 
Termerum above the promontory of Cos. 

19. The city of the Coans was in ancient times 
ealled Astypalaea ; and its people lived on another 
site, which was likewise on the sea. And then, on 
account of a sedition, they changed their abode to 
the present city, near Scandarium, and changed the 
name to Cos, the same as that of the island. Now 
the city is not large, but it is the most beautifully 
settled of all, and is most pleasing to behold as one 
sails from the high sea to its shore. The size! of 
the island is about five hundred and fifty stadia. It 
is everywhere well supplied with fruits, but like 
Chios and Lesbos it is best in respect to its wine. 
Towards the south it has a promontory, Laceter, 
whence the distance to Nisyros is sixty stadia (but 
near Laceter there is a place called Halisarna), and 
on the west it has Drecanum and a village called 
Stomalimné. Now Drecanum is about two hundred 
stadia distant from the city, but Laceter adds thirty- 
five stadia to the length of the voyage. In the 
suburb is the Asclepieium, a temple exceedingly 
famous and full of numerous votive offerings, among 
which is the Antigonus of Apelles. And Aphrodite 

1 i.e. the circuit. 

* ἱερόν is perhaps rightly omitted by F and Meineke. 

C 658 


ἣ viv ἀνάκειται τῷ θεῷ Καίσαρι ἐν Ῥώμῃ, 
τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ ἀναθέντος τῷ πατρὶ τὴν ἀρχηγέτιν 
τοῦ γένους αὐτοῦ" φασὶ δὲ τοῖς Κῴοις ἀντὶ τῆς 
γραφῆς ἑκατὸν ταλάντων ἄφεσιν γενέσθαι τοῦ 
προσταχθέντος φόρου. φασὶ 8 Ἱπποκράτην 
μάλιστα ἐκ τῶν ἐνταῦθα ἀνακειμένων θεραπειῶν 
γυμνάσασθαι τὰ περὶ τὰς διαίτας: οὗτός τε δή 
ἐστι τῶν ἐνδόξων Kaos ἀνὴρ καὶ Σῖμος ὁ ἰατρός, 
Φιλητᾶς τε ποιητὴς ἅμα καὶ κριτικός, καὶ καθ᾽ 
ἡμᾶς Νικίας ὁ καὶ τυραννήσας Κῴων, καὶ 
᾿Αρίστων ὁ ἀκροασάμενος τοῦ περιπατητικοῦ 
καὶ κληρονομήσας ἐκεῖνον" ἣν δὲ καὶ Θεόμνηστος 

ὁ ψάλτης ἐν ὀνόματι, ὃς καὶ ἀντεπολιτεύσατο 

τῷ Νικίᾳ. 

20. Ἔν δὲ τῇ παραλίᾳ τῆς ἠπείρου κατὰ τὴν 
Μυνδίαν ᾿Αστυπάλαιά 3 ἐστιν ἄκρα καὶ Ζεφύριον' 
εἶτ᾽ εὐθὺς ἡ Μύνδος, λιμένα ἔχουσα, καὶ μετὰ 
ταύτην Βαργύλια, καὶ αὕτη πόλις" ἐν δὲ τῷ 
μεταξὺ Καρύανδα λιμὴν καὶ νῆσος ὁμώνυμος,3 
ἣν ὠκουν Καρυανδεῖς. ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ ἦν καὶ Σκύλαξ 
ὁ παλαιὸς συγγραφεύς. πλησίον δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῶν 
Βαργυλίων τὸ τῆς ᾿Αρτέμιδος ἱερὸν τῆς Κινδυάδος, 
ὃ πεπιστεύκασι περιύεσθαι' ἣν δέ ποτε καὶ 
χωρίον Κινδύη. ἐκ δὲ τῶν Βαργυλίων ἀνὴρ 
ἐλλόγιμος ἦν ὁ ᾿Επικούρειος Ilpwtapyos ὁ 
Δημητρίου καθηγησάμενος τοῦ Λάκωνος προσα- 

1 ῬΑστυπάλαια, the editors, for ᾿Αστυπαλεία Εἰ, ᾿Αστυπαλία 
other MSS. 

2 ταύτῃ, after ὁμώνυμος, is omitted by F and by Stephanus 
(s.v. Καρύανδα). 

1 Emerging from the sea. 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 19-20 

Anadyomené+ used to be there,? but it is now 
dedicated to the deified Caesar in Rome, Augustus 
thus having dedicated to his father the female 
founder of his family. It is said that the Coans got 
a remission of one hundred talents of the appointed 
tribute in return for the painting. And it is said 
that the dietetics practised by Hippocrates were 
derived mostly from the cures recorded on the 
yotive tablets there. He, then, is one of the famous 
men from Cos; and so is Simus the physician ; as also 
Philetas, at the same time poet and critic; and, in 
my time, Nicias, who also reigned as tyrant over the 
Coans ; and Ariston, the pupil and heir of the Peri- 
patetic;* and Theomnestus, a renowned harper, 
who was a political opponent of Nicias, was a native 
of the island. 

20. On the coast of the mainland near the 
Myndian territory lies Astypalaea, a promontory ; 
and also Zephyrium. Then forthwith one comes to 
Myndus, which has a harbour; and after Myndus to 

Bargylia, which is also a city; between the two is 

Caryanda, a harbour, and also an island bearing the 
same name, where the Caryandians lived. Here 
was born Scylax, the ancient historian. Near 
Bargylia is the temple of Artemis Cindyas, round 
which the rain is believed to fall without striking it. 
And there was once a place called Cindyé. From 
Bargylia there was a man of note, tlie Epicurean 
Protarchus, who was the teacher of Demetrius 
ealled Lacon.* 

3 This, too, was a painting by Apelles. 
% Ariston the Peripatetic (fl. third century B.c.), of Iulis in 
Ceos (see 10. 5. 6). See Pauly-Wissowa. 
4 i.e. the Laconian, 


21. Bir’ ᾿Ιασὸς ἐπὶ νήσῳ κεῖται προσκειμένη 
τῇ ἠπείρῳ, ἔχει δὲ λιμένα, καὶ τὸ πλεῖστον τοῦ 
βίου τοῖς ἐνθάδε ἐκ θαλάττης: εὐοψεῖ yap 
χώραν τ᾽ ἔχει παράλυπρον. καὶ δὴ καὶ διηγή- 
ματα τοιαῦτα πλάττουσιν εἰς αὐτήν" κιθαρῳδοῦ 
γὰρ ἐπιδεικνυμένου, τέως μὲν ἀκροᾶσθαι πάντας, 
ὡς δ᾽ ὁ κώδων ὁ κατὰ τὴν ὀψοπωλίαν ἐψόφησε, 
καταλιπόντας ἀπελθεῖν ἐπὶ τὸ ὄψον, πλὴν ἑνὸς 
δυσκώφου" τὸν οὖν κιθαρῳδὸν προσιόντα, εἰπεῖν, 
ὅτι, Ὦ ἄνθρωπε, πολλήν σοι χάριν οἶδα τῆς 
πρός με τιμῆς καὶ φιλομουσίας" οἱ μὲν γὰρ 
ἄλλοι ἅμα τῷ κώδωνος ἀκοῦσαι ἀπιόντες οἴχον- 
ται. ὁ δέ, Τί λέγεις ; ἔφη, ἤδη γὰρ ὁ κώδων 
ἐψόφηκεν ; εἰπόντος δέ, Εὖ σοι εἴη, ἔφη καὶ 
ἀναστὰς ἀπῆλθε καὶ αὐτός. ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ ἦν ὁ 
διαλεκτικὸς Διόδωρος ὁ Κρόνος προσαγορευθείς, 
κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς μὲν ψευδῶς" ᾿Απολλώνιος γὰρ ἐκα- 
λεῖτο ὁ Κρόνος, ὁ ἐπιστατήσας ἐκείνου" μετή- 
νεγκαν δ᾽ ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν διὰ τὴν ἀδοξίαν τοῦ κατ᾽ 
ἀλήθειαν Κρόνου. 

22. Μετὰ δ᾽ ᾿Ιασὸν τὸ τῶν Μιλησίων. Ποσεί- 
διόν ἐστιν. ἐν δὲ τῇ μεσογαίᾳ τρεῖς εἰσὶ πόλεις 
ἀξιόλογοι, Μύλασα, Στρατονίκεια, ᾿Αλάβανδα' 
αἱ δὲ ἄλλαι περιπόλιοι τούτων ἢ τῶν παραλίων, 
ὧν εἰσιν ᾿Αμυζών, Ἡράκλεια, Εὔρωμος, Χαλκή- 
twp) τούτων μὲν οὖν ἐλάττων λόγος. 

1 Χαλκήτωρ is emended by Meineke to Χαλκήτορες (cp. 
14. 1. 8). 

1 One who played the cithara and sang to its accompani- 
2 “Cronus”? was a nickname for ‘‘ Old Timer,” ‘‘ Old 




GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 21-22 

21. Then one comes to Iasus, which lies on an 
island close to the mainland. It has a harbour; and 
the people gain most of their livelihood from the 
sea, for the sea here is well supplied with fish, but 
the soil of the country is rather poor. Indeed, 
people fabricate stories of this kind in regard to 
lasus: When a citharoede! was giving a recital, the 
people all listened for a time, but when the bell that 
announced the sale of fish rang, they all left him and 
went away to the fish-market, except one man who 
was hard of hearing. The citharoede, therefore, 
went up to him and said: “ Sir, I am grateful to you 
for the honour you have done me and for your love 
of music, for all the others except you went away 
the moment they heard the sound of the bell.” 
And the man said, “ What’s that you say? Has the 
bell already rung?”’ And when the citharoede said 
“ Yes,’ the man said, “ Fare thee well,’ and himself 
arose and went away. Here was born the dialec- 
tician Diodorus, nicknamed Cronus, falsely so at 
the outset, for it was Apollonius his master who was 
called Cronus, but the nickname was transferred 
to him because of the true Cronus’ lack of repute.” 

22. Atter Iasus one comes to the Poseidium of the 
Milesians. In the interior are three noteworthy 
cities: Mylasa, Stratoniceia, and Alabanda. The 
others are dependencies of these or else of the 
cities on the coast, among which are Amyzon, 
Heracleia, Euromus, and Chalcetor. As for these, 
there is less to be said. 

Dotard.” Diodorus is said to have been given the nickname 
by Ptolemy Soter because he was unable immediately to 
solve some dialectic problem put forth by Stilpo. He 
became the head of the Megarian school of philosophy. 


C 659 


23. Ta δὲ Μύλασα ἵδρυται ἐν πεδίῳ σφόδρα 
εὐδαίμονι: ὑπέρκειται δὲ κατὰ κορυφὴν ὄρος 
αὐτοῦ, λατόμιον λευκοῦ λίθου κάλλιστον ἔχον" 
τοῦτο μὲν οὖν ὄφελός ἐστιν οὐ μικρόν, τὴν λιθίαν 
πρὸς τὰς οἰκοδομίας ἄφθονον καὶ ἐγγύθεν ἔχον, 
καὶ μάλιστα πρὸς τὰς τῶν ἱερῶν καὶ τῶν ἄλλων 
δημοσίων ἔργων κατασκευάς" τοιγάρτοι στοαῖς 
τε καὶ ναοῖς, εἴ τις ἄλλη, κεκόσμηται παγκάλως. 
θαυμάζειν δ' ἔστι τῶν ὑποβαλόντων οὕτως 
ἀλόγως τὸ κτίσμα ὀρθίῳ καὶ ὑπερδεξίῳ κρημνῷ" 
καὶ δὴ τῶν ἡγεμόνων τις εἰπεῖν λέγεται, θαυμάσας 
τὸ πρᾶγμα' Ταύτην γάρ, ἔφη, τὴν πόλιν ὁ 
κτίσας, εἰ μὴ ἐφοβεῖτο, ap οὐδ᾽ ἡἠσχύνετο ; 
ἔχουσι δ᾽ οἱ Μυλασεῖς ἱερὰ δύο τοῦ Διός, τοῦ 
te ᾿Οσογῶ καλουμένου, καὶ Λαβρανδηνοῦ" τὸ 

\ >? a , Δ / ΄ > \ 
μὲν ἐν τῇ πόλει, TA δὲ AdBpavda κώμη ἐστὶν 
ἐν τῷ ὄρει κατὰ τὴν ὑπέρθεσιν τὴν ἐξ ᾿Αλαβάν- 
δων εἰς τὰ Μύλασα, ἄπωθεν τῆς πόλεως" ἐνταῦθα 
νεώς ἐστιν ἀρχαῖος καὶ ξόανον Διὸς Στρατίου" 
τιμᾶται δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν κύκλῳ καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν 
Μυλασέων, ὁδός τε ἔστρωται σχεδόν τι καὶ 
ἑξήκοντα σταδίων μέχρι τῆς πόλεως, ἱερὰ κα- 
λουμένη, δι’ ἧς πομποστολεῖται τὰ ἱερά" ἱερῶν- 
ται δ᾽ οἱ ἐπιφανέστατοι τῶν πολιτῶν ἀεὶ διὰ 
βίου. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἴδια 5 τῆς πόλεως, τρίτον 
δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἱερὸν τοῦ Καρίου Διὸς κοινὸν ἅπάντων 
Καρῶν, οὗ μέτεστι καὶ Λυδοῖς καὶ Μυσοῖς ὡς 
ἀδελφοῖς. ἱστορεῖται δὲ κώμη ὑπάρξαι τὸ 

1 For αὐτοῦ Ο. Miiller (Ind. Var. Lect. p. 1030) cleverly 
conj. αἰπύ. 
2 ἰδία, Casaubon, for διό ; so the later editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 23 

23. But as for Mylasa: it is situated in an exceed- 
ingly fertile plain; and above the plain, towering 
into a peak, rises a mountain, which has a most 
excellent quarry of white marble. Now this quarry 
is of no small advantage, since it has stone in 
abundance and close at hand, for building purposes 
and in particular for the building of temples and other 
public works ;+ accordingly this city, as much as any 
other, is in every way beautifully adorned with 
porticoes and temples. But one may well be amazed 
at those who so absurdly founded the city at the foot 
of asteep and commanding crag. Accordingly, one 
of the commanders, amazed at the fact, is said to 
have said, “If the man who founded this city, 
was not afraid, was he not even ashamed?” The 
Mylasians have two temples of Zeus, Zeus Osogo, as 
he is called, and Zeus Labrandenus. The former is 
in the city, whereas Labranda is a village far from 
the city, being situated on the mountain near the 
pass that leads over from Alabanda to Mylasa. At 
Labranda there is an ancient shrine and statue of 
Zeus Stratius. It is honoured by the people all 
about and by the Mylasians; and there is a paved 
road of almost sixty stadia from the shrine to 
Mylasa, called the Sacred Way, on which their 
sacred processions are conducted. The priestly 
offices are held by the most distinguished of the 
citizens, always for life. Now these temples belong 
peculiarly to the city; but there is a third temple, 
that of the Carian Zeus, which is a common 
possession of all Carians, and in which, as brothers, 
both Lydians and Mysians have a share. It is 

1 i.e. “works” of art (see Vol. II, p. 349 and footnote 5, 
and p. 407 and footnote 4). 



παλαιόν, πατρὶς δὲ καὶ βασίλειον τῶν Καρῶν 
τῶν περὶ τὸν ᾿Εκατόμνω" πλησιάξει δὲ μάλιστα 
τῇ κατὰ Φύσκον θαλάττῃ ἡ πόλις, καὶ τοῦτ᾽ 
ἐστὶν αὐτοῖς ἐπίνειον. 
24͵ ᾿Αξιολόγους δ᾽ ἔσχεν ἄνδρας καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς τὰ 
Μύλασα, ῥήτοράς τε ἅμα καὶ δημαγωγοὺς τῆς 
πόλεως, Εὐθύδημόν τε καὶ “TBpéav. ὁ μὲν οὖν 
Εὐθύδημος ἐκ προγόνων παραλαβὼν οὐσίαν τε 
μεγάλην καὶ δόξαν, προσθεὶς καὶ τὴν δεινότητα, 
οὐκ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι μόνον μέγας ἦν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν 
τῇ ᾿Ασίᾳ τῆς πρώτης ἠξιοῦτο τιμῆς. Ὑβρέᾳ δ᾽ 
ὁ πατήρ, ὡς αὐτὸς διηγεῖτο ἐν τῇ σχολῇ καὶ 
παρὰ τῶν πολιτῶν ὡμολόγητο, ἡ ἡμίονον κατέλιπε 
ξυλοφοροῦντα καὶ ,ἡμιονηγόν" διοικούμενος δ᾽ ὑπὸ 
τοὕτων ὀλίγον χρόνον Διοτρέφους τοῦ ᾿Αντιοχέως 
ἀκροασάμενος ἐπανῆλθε καὶ τῷ ἀγορανομίῳ 
παρέδωκεν αὑτόν" ἐνταῦθα δὲ κυλινδηθεὶς καὶ 
χρηματισάμενος μικρὰ ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὸ πολι- 
τεύεσθαι καὶ τοῖς ἀγοραίοις συνακολουθεῖν. ταχὺ 
δὲ αὔξησιν ἔσχε καὶ ἐθαυμάσθη" ἔτι μὲν καὶ 
Εὐθυδήμου ζῶντος, ἀλλὰ τελευτήσαντος μάλιστα, 
κύριος “γενόμενος τῆς πόλεως. ζῶν δ᾽ ἐπεκράτει 
πολὺ ἐκεῖνος, δυνατὸς ὧν ἅμα καὶ χρήσιμος τῇ 
πόλει, ὥστ᾽, εἰ καί τι τυραννικὸν προσῆν, τοῦτ᾽ 
ἀπελύετο τῷ παρακολουθεῖν τὸ χρήσιμον. ἐπαι- 
νοῦσι γοῦν τοῦτο τοῦ Ὑβρέου, ὅπερ δημηγορῶν 
ἐπὶ τελευτῆς εἶπεν: Εὐθύδημε, κακὸν εἶ τῆς 
πόλεως ἀναγκαῖον οὔτε γὰρ μετὰ σοῦ δυνάμεθα 
C 660 ζῆν οὔτ᾽ ἄνευ σοῦ. αὐξηθεὶς οὖν ἐπὶ πολὺ καὶ δό- 

1 μάλιστα, after ἐθαυμάσθη, is ejected by Meineke. 


yp Αν, 7 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 23-24 

_ related that Mylasa was a mere village in ancient 
times, but that it was the native land and royal 

residence of the Carians of the house of Hecatomnos. 
The city is nearest to the sea at Physcus; and this 
is their seaport. 

24. Mylasa has had two notable men in my time, 
who were at once orators and leaders of the city, 
Euthydemus and Hybreas. Now Euthydemus, 
having inherited from his ancestors great wealth and 
high repute, and having added to these his own 
cleverness, was not only a great man in his native 
land, but was also thought worthy of the foremost 
honour in Asia. As for Hybreas, as he himself used 
to tell the story in his school and as confirmed by 
his fellow-citizens, his father left him a mule-driver 
and a wood-carrying mule. And, being supported 
by these, he became a pupil of Diotrephes of Antio- 
cheia for a short time, and then came back and 
“ surrendered himself to the office of market-clerk.” 
But when he had been “tossed about” in this office 
and had made but little money, he began to apply 
himself to the affairs of state and to follow closely 
the speakers of the forum, He quickly grew in 
power, and was already an object of amazement in 
the lifetime of Euthydemus, but in particular after 
his death, having become master of the city. So 
long as Euthydemus lived he strongly prevailed, 
being at once powerful and useful to the city, so that 
even if there was something tyrannical about him, it 
was atoned for by the fact that it was attended by 
what was good for the city. At any rate, people 
applaud the following statement of Hybreas, made 
by him towards the end of a public speech: “ Euthy- 
demus: you are an evil necessary to the city, for we 



Eas καὶ πολίτης ἀγαθὸς εἶναι καὶ ῥήτωρ ἔπταισεν 
ἐν τῇ πρὸς Λαβιῆνον ἀντιπολιτείᾳ. οἱ μὲν γὰρ 
ἄλλοι μεθ᾽ ὅπλων ἐπιόντε καὶ Ἰϊαρθικῆς συμ- 
μαχίας, ἤδη τῶν ἸΤαρθυαίων τὴν ᾿Ασίαν ἐχόντων, 
εἶξαν, ἅτε ἄοπλοι καὶ εἰρηνικοί Ζήνων δ᾽ ὁ 
Aaobixeds καὶ “TBpéas οὐκ εἶξαν, ἀμφότεροι 
ῥήτορες, ἀλλὰ ἀπέστησαν τὰς ἑαυτῶν πόλεις" 
ὁ δ᾽ Ὑβρέας καὶ προσπαρώξυνε φωνῇ τινὶ 
μειράκιον εὐερέθιστον. καὶ ἀνοίας πλῆρες. ἐκεί- 
νου γὰρ ἀνειπόντος ἑαυτὸν Ἰ]αρθικὸν αὐτοκρά- 
τορα, Οὐκοῦν, ἔφη, κἀγὼ λέγω ἐμαυτὸν Καρικὸν 
αὐτοκράτορα. ἐκ τούτου δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν 
ὥρμησε, τάγματα ἔχων ἤδη συντεταγμένα 
Ῥωμαίων τῶν ἐν τῇ ᾿Ασίᾳ' αὐτὸν μὲν οὖν οὐ 
κατέλαβε, παραχωρήσαντα εἰς Ῥόδον, τὴν δ᾽ 
οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ διελυμήνατο, πολυτελεῖς ἐχουσαν 
κατασκευάς, καὶ διήρπασεν: ὡς δ᾽ αὕτως καὶ 
τὴν πόλιν ὅλην ἐκάκωσεν. ἐκλιπόντος δ᾽ ἐκείνου 
τὴν ᾿Ασίαν, ἐπανῆλθε καὶ ἀνέλαβεν ἑαυτόν τε 
καὶ τὴν πόλιν. περὶ μὲν οὖν Μυλάσων ταῦτα. 

25. Στρατονίκεια δ᾽ ἐστὶ κατοικία Μακεδόνων" 
ἐκοσμήθη δὲ καὶ αὕτη κατασκευαῖς πολυτελέσιν 
ὑπὸ τῶν βασιλέων. ἔστι δ᾽ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῶν 
Στρατονικέων δύο ἱερά, ἐν μὲν Λαγίνοις τὸ τῆς 
“Ἑκάτης ἐπιφανέστατον, πανηγύρεις μεγάλας συν- 
ἄγον κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτόν: ἐγγὺς δὲ τῆς πόλεως τὸ τοῦ 
Χρυσαορέως Διὸς κοινὸν ἁπάντων Καρῶν, εἰς ὃ 
συνίασι θύσοντές τε καὶ βουλευσόμενοι περὶ τῶν 

1. The Greek word might mean ‘‘legions” rather than 
3 Of the golden sword. 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 24-25 

ean live neither with you nor without you.” How- 
eyer, although he had grown very strong and had 
the repute of being both a good citizen and orator, 

he stumbled in his political opposition to Labienus ; 

for while the others, since they were without arms 
and inclined to peace, yielded to Labienus when he 

was coming against them with an army and an 

allied Parthian force, the Parthians by that time 
being in possession of Asia, yet Zeno of Laodiceia 
and Hybreas, both orators, refused to yield and 
caused their own cities to revolt. Hybreas also 

voked Labienus, a lad who was irritable and full 
of folly, by a certain pronouncement; for when 
Labienus proclaimed himself Parthian Emperor, 
Hybreas said, “Then I too call myself Carian 
Emperor.” Consequently Labienus set out against 
the city with cohorts! of Roman soldiers in Asia 
that were already organised. Labienus did not seize 
Hybreas, however, since he had withdrawn to 
Rhodes, but he shamefully maltreated his home, 
with its costly furnishings, and plundered it. And 
he likewise damaged the whole of the city. But 
though Hybreas abandoned Asia, he came back 
and rehabilitated both himself and the city. So 
much, then, for Mylasa. 

25. Stratoniceia is a settlement of Macedonians. 
And this too was adorned with costly improvements 
by the kings. There are two temples in the country 
of the Stratoniceians, of which the most famous, that 
of Hecaté,is at Lagina; and it draws great festal 
assemblies every year. And near the city is the 
temple of Zeus Chrysaoreus,” the common possession 
of all Carians, whither they gather both to offer 
sacrifice and to deliberate on their common interests. 


C 661 


κοινῶν: καλεῖται δὲ τὸ σύστημα αὐτῷν Xpv- 
σαορέων, συνεστηκὸς ἐκ κωμῶν" οἱ δὲ πλείστας 
παρεχόμενοι κώμας προέχουσι τῇ ψήφῳ, καθάπερ 
Κεραμιῆται" καὶ Στρατονικεῖς δὲ τοῦ συστήματος 
μετέχουσιν, οὐκ ὄντες τοῦ Καρικοῦ γένους, ἀλλ᾽ 
ὅτι κώμας ἔχουσι τοῦ Χρυσαορικοῦ συστήματος. 
κἀνταῦθα δ᾽ ἀνὴρ ἀξιόλογος γεγένηται ῥήτωρ 
Μένιππος κατὰ τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν, Κατόκας 
ἐπικαλούμενος, ὃν μάλιστα ἐπαινεῖ τῶν κατὰ τὴν 
᾿Ασίαν ῥητόρων, ὧν ἠκροάσατο, ͵ Κικέρων, ὥς 
φησιν ἔν τινι γραφῇ αὐτός, συγκρίνων Ξενοκλεῖ 
καὶ τοῖς κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον ἀκμάξουσιν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ 
ἄλλη Στρατονίκεια, ἡ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Tavp@ καλουμένη, 
πολίχνιον προσκείμενον τῷ ὄρει. 

26. ᾿Αλάβανδα δὲ καὶ αὐτὴ μὲν ὑπόκειται 
λόφοις δυσὶ συγκειμένοις οὕτως, ὥστ᾽ ὄψιν παρέ- 
χεσθαι κανθηλίου κατεστρωμένου. καὶ δὴ κα 
ὁ Μαλακὸς ᾿Απολλώνιος σκώπτων τὴν πόλιν εἴς 
τε ταῦτα καὶ εἰς τὸ τῶν σκορπίων πλῆθος, ἔφη 
αὐτὴν εἶναι σκορπίων “κανθήλιον κατεστρωμένον" 
μεστὴ δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ αὕτη καὶ ἡ τῶν Μυλασέων 
πόλις τῶν θηρίων τούτων καὶ ἡ μεταξὺ πᾶσα 
ὀρεινή. τρυφητῶν δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀνθρώπων καὶ καπυ- 
ριστῶν, ἔχουσα ψαλτρίας πολλάς. ἄνδρες δ᾽ 
ἐγένοντο λόγου ἄξιοι δύο ῥήτορες ἀδελφοὶ ᾿Αλα- 
βανδεῖς, Μενεκλῆς τε, οὗ ἐμνήσθημεν μικρὸν 
ἐπάνω, καὶ “Ἱεροκλῆς καὶ οἱ μετοικήσαντες εἰς 
τὴν Ῥόδον ὅ τε ᾿Απολλώνιος καὶ ὁ Μόλων. 

1 κατεστρωμένον, Casaubon, for κατεστραμμένον ; so the 
editors in general. 

1 Cf. the votes of the Lycian cities, 14. 3. 3. 

ΝΞ a, 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 25-26 

_ Their League, which consists of villages, is called 

) _ “Chrysaorian.” And those who present the most 

_ villages have a preference in the vote,! like, for 
_ example, the people of Ceramus. The Stratoniceians 

also have a share in the League, although they are 

not of the Carian stock, but because they have 

villages belonging to the Chrysaorian League. 
Here, too, in the time of our fathers, was born a 
noteworthy man, Menippus, surnamed Catocas, whom 
Cicero, as he says in one of his writings,? applauded 

above all the Asiatic orators he had heard, comparing 

him with Xenocles and with the other orators’ who 
flourished in the latter’s time. But there is also 
another Stratoniceia, “ Stratoniceia near the Taurus,” 
as itis called; it is a small town situated near the 

26. Alabanda is also situated at the foot of hills, 
two hills that are joined together in such a way that 
they present the appearance of an ass laden with 

niers. And indeed Apollonius Malacus, in ridi- 
culing the city both in regard to this and in regard 
to the large number of scorpions there, said that 
it was an “ass laden with panniers of scorpions.”’ 
Both this city and Mylasa are full of these creatures, 
and so is the whole of the mountainous country 
between them. Alabanda is a city of people who 
live in luxury and debauchery, containing many girls 
who play the harp. Alabandians worthy.of mention 
are two orators, brothers, I mean Menecles, whom 
I mentioned a little above,? and Hierocles, and also 
Apollonius and Molon,* who changed their abode to 

2 Brutus 91 (315). 3 § 13. 4 See § 13. 


27. Πολλῶν δὲ λόγων εἰρημένων περὶ Καρῶν, 
ὁ μάλισθ᾽ ὁμολογούμενός ἐστιν οὗτος, ὅτι οἱ 
Κᾶρες ὑ ὑπὸ Μίνω ἐτάττοντο, τότε Λέλεγες καλού- 
μενοι, καὶ τὰς νήσους ὥκουν" εἶτ᾽ “ἠπειρῶται γενό- 
μενοι, πολλὴν τῆς παραλίας καὶ τῆς μεσογαίας 
κατέσχον, τοὺς “προκατέχοντας ἀφελόμενοι" καὶ 
οὗτοι δ᾽ ἦσαν οἱ πλείους Λέλεγες καὶ Πελασγοί: 
πάλιν δὲ τούτους ἀφείλοντο μέρος οἱ “Ελληνες, 
“loves τε καὶ ,Δωρεεῖς. τοῦ δὲ περὶ τὰ στρατιω- 
τικὰ ξήλου τά τε ὄχανα ποιοῦνται τεκμήρια καὶ 
τὰ ἐπίσημα καὶ τοὺς λόφους" ἅπαντα γὰρ λέγεται 
Καρικά: ᾿Ανακρέων μέν γε φησίν" 
δία δηὗτε Kapixeupyéos 
ὀχάνοιο χεῖρα τιθέμεναι. 
ὁ δ᾽ ᾿Αλκαῖος, 
λόφον τε σείων Καρικόν. 
28, Τοῦ ποιητοῦ δ᾽ εἰρηκότος οὑτωσί» 
Μάσθλης ' αὖ Kapav ἡγήσατο βαρβαροφώνων, 
οὐκ ἔχει λόγον, πῶς τοσαῦτα εἰδὼς ἔθνη βάρβαρα 
μόνους εἴρηκε βαρβαροφώνους τοὺς Κᾶρας, βαρ- 
βάρ ous δ᾽ οὐδένας. οὔτ᾽ οὖν Θουκυδίδης ὀρθῶς" 
οὐδὲ γὰρ λέγεσθαί φησι βαρβάρους διὰ τὸ μηδὲ 
“Ελληνάς πῶ ἀντίπαλον εἰς ἕν ὄνομα ἀποκεκρίσ- 
θαι" τό τε γὰρ μηδὲ “Ελληνάς πω Ψεῦδος αὐτὸς 
ὁ ποιητὴς ἀπελέγχει" 

ἀνδρός, τοῦ κλέος εὐρὺ καθ᾽ “Ἑλλάδα καὶ μέσον 

1 Μάσθλης, Corais emends to Νάστης. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 27-28 

. 27. Of the numerous accounts of the Carians, the 
that is generally agreed upon is this, that the 
Carians were subject to the rule of Minos, being 
. “called Leleges at that time, and lived in the islands ; : 
then, having migrated to the mainland, they took 
ἧ. sion of much of the coast and of the interior, 
taking it away from its previous possessors, who 
_ for the most part were Leleges and Pelasgians. In 
turn these were deprived of a part of their country 
_by the Greeks, I mean Ionians and Dorians, As 
evidences of their zeal for military affairs, writers 
_adduce shield-holders, shield-emblems, and crests, 
for all these are called “Carian.” At least Anacreon 
says, “Come, put thine arm through the shield- 
holder, work of the Carians.’ And Alcaeus! says, 
“shaking the Carian crest.”’ 
_ 28. When the poet says, “ Masthles? in turn led 
the Carians, of barbarian speech,’? we have no 
reason to inquire how it is that, although he knew 
so many barbarian tribes, he speaks of the Carians 
alone as “of barbarian speech,’ but nowhere speaks 
of “barbarians.” Thucydides,* therefore, is not 
correct, for he says that Homer “did not use the 
term ‘ Ravbarians’ either, because the Hellenes on 
their part had not yet been distinguished under 
one name as opposed to them”’; for the poet him- 
self refutes the statement that the Hellenes had 
not yet been so distinguished when he~says, “ My 
husband, whose fame is wide through Hellas and 


1 Frag. 22 \ Bergk). 

3 An error, apparently, for ‘‘ Nastes.” 

3 Iliad 2. 867 (note ““ Mesthles” in line 864). 
ae Sam 



Kal πάλιν" 

εἴτ᾽ ἐθέλεις τραφθῆναι1 av “Ἑλλάδα καὶ μέσον 

μὴ λεγομένων τε βαρβάρων, πῶς , ἔμελλεν. εὖ 
λεχθήσεσθαι τὸ βαρβαροφώνων ; οὔτε δὴ οὗτος 
εὖ, οὔτ᾽ ᾿Απολλόδωρος ὁ γραμματικός, ὅτι τῷ 
κοινῷ ὀνόματι. ἰδίως καὶ λοιδόρως ἐχρῶντο οἱ 
“Ἕλληνες κατὰ τῶν Καρῶν, καὶ μάλιστα οἱ 
Ἴωνες, μισοῦντες αὐτοὺς διὰ τὴν ἔχθραν καὶ τὰς 
συνεχεῖς στρατείας" ἐχρῆν γὰρ οὕτως βαρβάρους 
ὀνομάζειν. ἡμεῖς δὲ ζητοῦμεν, διὰ τί βαρβαρο- 
φώνους καλεῖ, βαρβάρους δ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἅπαξ. ὅτι, 
Bh vl τὸ “πληθυντικὸν εἰς τὸ μέτρον οὐκ ἐμπίπτει, 
ιὰ τοῦτ᾽ οὐκ εἴρηκε βαρβάρους. ἀλλ᾽ αὕτη μὲν 
ἡ πτῶσις οὐκ ἐμπίπτει, ἡ δ᾽ ὀρθὴ οὐ διαφέρει τῆς 

C 662 Δάρδανοι" 

Τρῶες καὶ Λύκιοι καὶ Δάρδανοι. 
τοιοῦτον δὲ καὶ τὸ 

οἷοι Τρώιοι ἵπποι. 
οὐδέ γε ὅτι τραχυτάτη ἡ γλῶττα τῶν Καρῶν' οὐ 
γάρ ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ πλεῖστα “Ἑλληνικὰ ὀνόματα 
ἔχει καταμεμιγμένα, ὥς φησι Φίλιππος ὁ τὰ 
Καρικὰ γράψας. οἶμαι δέ, τὸ βάρβαρον κατ᾽ 
ἀρχὰς ἐκπεφωνῆσθαι οὕτως κατ᾽ ὀνοματοποιίαν 
ἐπὶ τῶν δυσεκφόρως καὶ σκληρῶς καὶ τραχέως 
λαλούντων, ὡς τὸ βατταρίζειν καὶ τραυλίζειν καὶ 
ψελλίζειν: εὐφυέστατοι γάρ ἐσμεν τὰς φωνὰς 

1 πραφθῆναι, Corais, for ταρφϑῆναι ΟΠ his, τερφθῆναι other 

1 2,6. throughout the whole of Greece. 

νυν γον ee απιαλδΝ αν 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 28 

Saw ari 

Ε΄ mid-Argos.’ ’1 And again, “ And if thou dost wish 
to journey through Hellas and mid-Argos.” 
_ Further, if they were not called “barbarians,” how 

could they properly be called a people “of bar- 

_barian speech”? So neither Thucydides is correct, 
ee Riallodorus the grammarian, who says that 
the general term was used by the Hellenes in a 
uliar and abusive sense against the Carians, and 
particular by the lonians, who hated them be- 
cause of their enmity and the continuous military 
campaigns; for it was right to name them barbarians 
inthis sense. But I raise the question, Why does he 
_ eall them people “ of barbarian speech,” but not even 
once calls them barbarians? “ Because,” Apollodorus 
replies, “the plural does not fall in with the metre ; 
this is why he does not call them barbarians.” But 
though this case” does not fall in with metre, the 
nominative case * does not differ metrically from that 

of “Dardanians”:* “Trojans and Lycians and 
Dardanians.”> So, also, the word “Trojan,” in 
“of what kind the Trojan horses are.”® Neither 
is he correct when he says that the language of 
the Carians is very harsh, for it is not, but even has 
very many Greek words mixed up with it, according 
_ tothe Philip who wrote The Carica.? I suppose that 
the word “ barbarian ” was at first uttered onomato- 
poetically in reference to people who enunciated 
words only with difficulty and talked -harshly and 
raucously, like our words “ battarizein,” “ trau- 
lizein,” and “psellizein” ;® for we are by nature 

® The genitive (βαρβάρων). 3 βάρβαροι. 4 Δάρδανοι. 
5 Iliad 11 286. § Iliad 5, 222. ? The History of Caria. 
ϑ Meaning respectively, ἡ εις» **lisp,” and ““βρϑδὶ 



ταῖς ὁμοίαις φωναῖς κατονομάζειν διὰ τὸ ὁμογενές" 
δὴ} καὶ πλεονάζουσι3 ἐνταῦθα αἱ ὀνοματο- 
ποιίαι, οἷον τὸ κελαρύξειν καὶ κλαγγὴ δὲ καὶ 
ψόφος καὶ βοὴ καὶ κρότος, ὧν τὰ πλεῖστα ἤδη 
καὶ κυρίως ἐκφέρεται: πάντων δὴ τῶν παχυστο- 
μούντων οὕτως βαρβάρων λεγομένων, ἐφάνη τὰ 
τῶν ἀλλοεθνῶν στόματα τοιαῦτα, λέγω δὲ τὰ 
τῶν μὴ ᾿Ελλήνων. ἐκείνους οὖν ἰδίως ἐκάλεσαν 8 
βαρβάρους, ἐν ἀρχαῖς μὲν κατὰ τὸ λοίδορον, ὡς 
ἂν παχυστόμους ἢ τραχυστόμους, εἶτα κατεχρη- 
σάμεθα ὡς ἐθνικῷ κοινῷ ὀνόματι, ἀντιδιαιροῦντες 
πρὸς τοὺς “Ἕλληνας. καὶ γὰρ δὴ τῇ πολλῇ 
συνηθείᾳ καὶ ἐπιπλοκῇ * τῶν βαρβάρων οὐκέτι 
ἐφαίνετο κατὰ παχυστομίαν καὶ ἀφυΐαν τινὰ τῶν 
φωνητηρίων ὁ ὀργάνων τοῦτο συμβαῖνον, ἀλλὰ κατὰ 
τὰς τῶν διαλέκτων ἰδιότητας. ἄλλη δέ τις ἐν τῇ 
ἡμετέρᾳ διαλέκτῳ “ἀνεφάνη κακοστομία καὶ οἷον 
βαρβαροστομία, εἴ τις ἑλληνίξων μὴ κατορθοίη, 
ἀλλ᾽ οὕτω λέγοι τὰ ὀνόματα, ὡς οἱ βάρβαροι οἱ 
εἰσαγόμενοι εἰς τὸν ἑλληνισμόν, οὐκ ἰσχύοντες 
ἀρτιστομεῖν, ὡς οὐδ᾽ ἡμεῖς ἐν ταῖς ἐκείνων διαλέκ- 
τοις. τοῦτο δὲ “μάλιστα συνέβη τρῖς Καρσί: 
τῶν γὰρ ἄλλων οὔτ᾽ ἐπιπλεκομένων πωϑ σφόδρα 
τοῖς Ἕλλησιν, οὐδ᾽ ἐπιχειρούντων Ἑλληνικῶς ζῆν 
ἢ μανθάνειν τὴν ἡμετέραν διάλεκτον, πλὴν εἴ τινες 

1a δή, Corais, for ἤδη ; so the later editors. 

2 μέν, after πλεονάζουσι, Corais and Meineke omit. 

5 ἐκάλεσαν, Xylander, for ἐκάλεσε ; so the later editors. 

4 τῇ πολλῇ συνηθείᾳ καὶ ἐπιπλοκῇ Ἐ . ἢ πολλὴ συνηθεία καὶ 
ἐπιπλοκή other MSS. ; so the editors. 

5 πῳ (omitted by ΕἾ, Corais and Meineke, for πως. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 28 

much inclined to denote sounds by words that 
d like them, on account of their homogeneity. 

fore onomatopoetic words abound in our 

_ language, as, for example, “celaryzein,’ and also 
'*clangé,” “psophos,’ “ boé,” and “ crotos,’? most 
of which are by now used in their proper sense. 
_ Accordingly, when all who pronounced words thickly 
"were being called barbarians onomatopoetically, it 

peared that the pronunciations of all alien races 

"were likewise thick, I mean of those that were 
-notGreek. Those, therefore, they called barbarians 
in the special sense of the term, at first derisively, 

meaning that they pronounced words thickly or 
harshly; and then we misused the word as a 
general ethnic term, thus making a logical dis- 
tinction between the Greeks and all other races. 
The fact is, however, that through our long acquain- 
tance and intercourse with the barbarians this effect 
was at last seen to be the result, not of a thick pro- 
nunciation or any natural defect in the vocal organs, 
but of the peculiarities of their several languages. 
And there appeared another faulty and barbarian-like 
pronunciation in our language, whenever any person 
speaking Greek did not pronounce it correctly, but 
SHER the words like barbarians who are only 

ginning to learn Greek and are unable to speak it 
accurately, as is also the case with us in speaking 
their languages. This was particularly the case with 
the Carians, for, although the other peoples were not 
yet having very much intercourse with the Greeks 
nor even trying to live in Greek fashion or to learn 
our language—with the exception, perhaps, of rare 

* Meaning respectively, ‘‘gurgle,” “clang,” ‘empty 
sound,” ‘‘outery,” and ‘‘rattling noise.’ 


C 663 


σπάνιοι Kal κατὰ τύχην ἐπεμίχθησαν καὶ κατ᾽ 
ἄνδρα ὀλίγοις τῶν ᾿Ελλήνων. τισίν, οὗτοι δὲ 
καθ᾽ ὅλην ἐπλανήθησαν τὴν “Ἑλλάδα, μισθοῦ 
στρατεύοντες. ἤδη οὖν τὸ βαρβαρόφωνον ἐπ᾽ 
ἐκείνων πυκνὸν ἦν, ἀπὸ τῆς εἰς τὴν ᾿Ελλάδα 
αὐτῶν στρατείας" καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἐπεπόλασε 
πολὺ μᾶλλον, ad’ οὗ τάς τε νήσους μετὰ τῶν 
Ἑλλήνων ὥκησαν, κἀκεῖθεν εἰς τὴν ᾿Ασίαν ἐκπε- 
σόντες, οὐδ᾽ ἐνταῦθα χωρὶς Ἑλλήνων. οἰκεῖν ἠδύ- 
νᾶντο, ἐπιδιαβάντων τῶν Ἰώνων καὶ τῶν Δωριέων. 
ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς αὐτῆς αἰτίας καὶ τὸ βαρβαρίξειν 
λέγεται" καὶ γὰρ τοῦτο ἐπὶ τῶν κακῶς ἑλληνιξζόν- 
των εἰώθαμεν λέγειν, οὐκ ἐπὶ τῶν καριστὶ λα- 
λούντων. οὕτως οὖν καὶ τὸ βαρ βαροφωνεῖν καὶ 
τοὺς βαρβαροφώνους δεκτέον τοὺς “κακῶς ἑλλη- 
νίξζοντας" ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ καρίξειν καὶ τὸ βαρβαρίξειν 
μετήνεγκαν εἰς τὰς περὶ ἑλληνισμοῦ τέχνας καὶ 
τὸ ,σολοικίξειν, εἴτ᾽ ἀπὸ Σόλων, εἴτ᾽ ἄλλως τοῦ 
ὀνόματος τούτου πεπλασμένου. 

29. Φησὶ δὲ ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος. ἀπὸ Φύσκου τῆς 
Ῥοδίων περαίας ἰοῦσιν εἰς [Ἔφεσον μέχρι μὲν 
Λαγίνων ὀκτακοσίους εἶναι καὶ πεντήκοντα στα- 
δίους, ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ εἰς ᾿Αλάβανδα πεντήκοντα 
ἄλλους καὶ διακοσίους, εἰς δὲ Τράλλεις ἑκατὸν 
ἑξήκοντα" ἀλλ᾽ ἡ εἰς Τράλλεις ἐ ἐστὶ διαβάντι τὸν 
Μαίανδρον. κατὰ μέσην που τὴν ὁδόν, ὅ ὅπου τῆς 
Καρίας οἱ ὅροι: γίνονται δ᾽ οἱ πάντες ἀπὸ Φύσκου 

1 ὀλίγοις, Kramer, for ὀλίγοι ; so Meineke. 

1 The city in Cilicia, if not that in Cypros. 
2 Strabo means that grammarians used the word in its 
original, or unrestricted sense, 7.6. as applying to speech 


»“φλώ a, 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 28-29 

persons who by chance, and singly, mingled with 
a few of the Greeks—yet the Carians roamed 
‘throughout the whole of Greece, serving on 
expeditions for pay. Already, therefore, the bar- 
_barous element in their Greek was strong, as a 
result of their expeditions in Greece; and after this 
‘it spread much more, from the time they took up 
their abode with the Greeks in the islands; and 
when they were driven thence into Asia, even here 
‘they were unable to live apart from the Greeks, I 
mean when the lonians and Dorians later crossed 
over to Asia. The term “barbarise,” also, has the 
Same origin; for we are wont to use this too in 
reference to those who speak Greek badly, not to 
those who talk Carian. So, therefore, we must 
interpret the terms “speak barbarously” and 
“barbarously-speaking”’ as applying to those who 
speak Greek badly. And it was from the term 
“Carise” that the term “ barbarise” was used ina 
different sense in works on the art of speaking 
Greek; and so was the term “soloecise,’” whether 
derived from Soli,1 or made up in some other way.’ 
29. Artemidorus says that, as one goes from 
Physceus, in the Peraea of the Rhodians, to Ephesus, 
the distance to Lagina is eight hundred and fifty 
stadia ; and thence to Alabanda, two hundred and 
fifty more ; and to Tralleis, one hundred and sixty. 
But one comes to the road that leads into Tralleis 
after crossing the Maeander River, at about the 
middle of the journey, where are the boundaries 
of Caria. The distance all told from Physcus to 

only. In the meantime it had been used in a broad sense, 
“to hehave like, or imitate, barbarians.” 
* Between Alabanda and Tralleis. 



ἐπὶ τὸν Μαίανδρον κατὰ τὴν εἰς Ἔφεσον ὁδὸν 
χίλιοι ἑκατὸν ὀγδοήκοντα. πάλιν a ἀπὸ τοῦ Μαιάν- 
δρου τῆς Ἰωνίας ἐφεξῆς “μῆκος ἐπιόντι κατὰ τὴν 
αὐτὴν ὁδὸν ἀπὸ μὲν τοῦ ποταμοῦ εἰς Τράλλεις, 
ὀγδοήκοντα, εἶτ᾽ εἰς Μαγνησίαν ἑ ἑκατὸν τετταρά- 
κοντα, εἰς Ἔφεσον δ᾽ ἑκατὸν εἴκοσιν, els δὲ Σμύρναν 
τριακόσιοι εἴκοσιν, εἰς δὲ Φώκαιαν καὶ τοὺς ὅρους 
τῆς ᾿Ιωνίας ἐλάττους τῶν διακοσίων: ὥστε τὸ ἐπ᾽ 
εὐθείας μῆκος τῆς Ἰωνίας εἴη ἂν κατ᾽ αὐτὸν] 
μικρῷ πλέον τῶν ὀκτακοσίων. ἐπεὶ δὲ κοινή 
τις ὁδὸς τέτριπται ἅπασι τοῖς ἐπὶ τὰς ἀνατολὰς 
ὁδοιποροῦσιν ἐξ ᾿Ιφέσου, καὶ ταύτην ἔπεισιν. 
ἐπὶ μὲν τὰ Κάρουρα τῆς Καρίας ὅριον πρὸς τὴν 
Φρυγίαν διὰ Μαγνησίας καὶ Τραλλέων, Νύσης, 
᾿Αντιοχείας ὁδὸς ἑπτακοσίων καὶ τετταράκοντα 
σταδίων" ἐντεῦθεν δὲ ἡ Φρυγία διὰ Λαοδικείας 
καὶ ᾿Απαμείας καὶ Μητροπόλεως καὶ Χελιδονίων" 
ἐπὶ μὲν οὖν τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς Παρωρείου, τοὺς 
Ὅλμους, στάδιοι περὶ ἐννακοσίους καὶ εἴκοσιν 
ἐκ τῶν Καρούρων' ἐπὶ δὲ τὸ πρὸς τῇ Λυκαονίᾳ 
πέρας τῆς ᾿Παρωρείου τὸ Τυριαῖον διὰ Φιλομη- 
λίου μικρῷ πλείους τῶν πεντακοσίων. εἶθ᾽ ἡ 
Λυκαονία μέχρι Κοροπασσοῦ διὰ Λαοδικείας τῆς 
κατακεκαυμένης ὀκτακύσιοι τετταράκοντα" ἐκ δὲ 
Κοροπασσοῦ τῆς Λυκαονίας εἰς T'apodoupa, στο- 
λίχνιον τῆς Καππαδοκίας, ἐπὶ τῶν ὅρων αὐτῆς 
ἱδρυμένον, ἑ ἑκατὸν εἴκοσιν: ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ εἰς Μάξακα 
τὴν μητρόπολιν τῶν Καππαδόκων διὰ Σοάνδου 

1 κατ᾽ αὐτόν, Corais, for κατὰ ταὐτὸ ἤ mxz, κατ᾽ αὐτὸ ἤ other 
MSS. ; so the later editors, 

2 ταύτην ἔπεισιν, Corais, for ταύτῃ μὲν ἔπεστιν ; 80 the later 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 29 

the Maeander along the road to Ephesus amounts 

» one thousand one hundred and eighty stadia. 
, from the Maeander, traversing next in order 

the length of Ioniaalong the same road, the distance 

from the river to Tralleis is eighty stadia ; then to 
Magnesia, one hundred and forty; to Ephesus, one 

hundred and twenty; to Smyrna, three hundred 
and twenty; and to Phocaea and the boundaries of 

Ionia, less than two hundred; so that the length 
of Ionia in a straight line would be, according to 
Artemidorus, slightly more than eight hundred 
stadia. Since there is a kind of common road 
constantly used by all who travel from Ephesus 
towards the east, Artemidorus traverses this too: 
from Ephesus to Carura, a boundary of Caria to- 
wards Phrygia, through Magnesia, Tralleis, Nysa, 
and Antiocheia, is a journey of seven hundred 
and forty stadia ; and, from Carura, the journey in 
Phrygia, through Laodiceia, Apameia, Metropolis 
and Chelidonia.t Now near the beginning of 
Paroreius,? one comes to Holmi, about nine hundred 
and twenty stadia from Carura, and, near the end 
of Paroreius near Lycaonia, through Philomelium, 
to Tyriaeum, slightly more than five hundred. 
Then Lycaonia, through Laodiceia Catacecaumené,3 
as far as Coropassus, eight hundred and forty stadia; ; 
from Coropassus in Lycaonia to Garsaura, a small 
town in Cappadocia, situated on its borders, one 
hundred and twenty; thence to Mazaca, the 
metropolis of the Cappadocians, through Soandum 

1 “*Chelidonia” is thought to be corrupt (see C. Maller, 
Ind. Var, Lect., p. 1030). 

# 6, Phrygia ‘alongside the mountain.” 

= * Burnt,’ 



καὶ Σαδακόρων ἑξακόσιοι ὀγδοήκοντα" ἐντεῦθεν 
δ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸν Εὐφράτην μέχρι Τομίσων: χωρίου τῆς 
Σωφηνῆς διὰ Ηρφῶν πολίχνης χίλιοι τετρακόσιοι 
τετταράκοντα. τὰ δ᾽ ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας τούτοις μέχρι 
τῆς ᾿Ινδικῆς τὰ αὐτὰ κεῖται καὶ παρὰ τῷ ᾿Αρτε- 
μιδώρῳ, ἅπερ καὶ παρὰ τῷ ᾿Ερατοσθένει. λέγει 
δὲ καὶ Πολύβιος, περὶ τῶν ἐκεῖ μάλιστα δεῖν 
Ο 064 πεστεύειν ἐκείνῳ. ἄρχεται δὲ ἀπὸ Σαμοσάτων 
τῆς Κομμαγηνῆς, ἣ πρὸς τῇ διαβάσει καὶ τῷ 
Ζεύγματι κεῖται: εἰς δὲ Σαμόσατα ἀπὸ τῶν ὅρων 
τῆς Καππαδοκίας τῶν περὶ Τόμισα ὑπερθέντι 
τὸν Ταῦρον σταδίους εἴρηκε τετρακοσίους καὶ 



1. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν Ῥοδίων περαίαν, ἧς ὅριον τὰ 
Δαίδαλα, ἐφεξῆς πλέουσι πρὸς ἀνίσχοντα ἥλιον 
ες / a / / θ᾽ ς Π 
ἡ Λυκία κεῖται μέχρι Παμφυλίας, εἶθ᾽ ἡ Lape - 

a > 
φυλία μέχρι Κιλίκων τῶν τραχέων, εἶθ᾽ ἡ τούτων 
μέχρι τῶν ἄλλων Κιλίκων τῶν περὶ τὸν ᾿Ισσικὸν 
κόλπον: ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐστὶ μέρη μὲν τῆς χερρονήσου, 
“ ε 
ἧς τὸν ἰσθμὸν ἔφαμεν τὴν ἀπὸ ᾿Ισσοῦ ὁδὸν μέχρι 
᾿Αμισοῦ, ἢ Σινώπης, ὥς τινες, ἐκτὸς δὲ τοῦ Ταύρου 
ἐν στενῇ παραλίᾳ τῇ ἀπὸ Λυκίας μέχρι τῶν περὶ 
Σόλους τόπων, τὴν νῦν Πομπηιόπολιεν" 5 ἔπειτα 
ἤδη εἰς πεδία ἀναπέπταται ἡ κατὰ τὸν ᾿Ισσικὸν 

/, ’ὔ > \ / \ -“ » 
κόλπον παραλία ἀπὸ Σόλων καὶ Ταρσοῦ ἀρξα- 

a € nm n 
μένη. ταύτην οὖν ἐπελθοῦσιν ὁ πᾶς περὶ τῆς 

1 τομίσων, the editors, for τὸ μισοῦ CD, Τελμισοῦ 2, Τομισοῦ 
other MSS. 

2 τὴν viv Ποιιπηιόπολιν, Corais, for τῇ νῦν Πομπηιουπόλει; 80 
the later editors. : 


ἢ GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 29-3. 1 
and Sadacora, six hundred and eighty; and thence 
to the Euphrates River, as far as Tomisa, a place 
in Sophené, through Herphae, a small town, one 
- thousand four hundred and forty. The places on 
a straight line with these as far as India are the 
οὐρᾷ in Artemidorus as they are in Eratosthenes. 
But Polybius says that we should rely most on 
rtemidorus in regard to the places here. He 
yegins with Samosata in Commagené, which lies 
at the river-crossing and at Zeugma, and states that 
the distance to Samosata, across the Taurus, from 
the boundaries of Cappadocia round Tomisa is four 
hundred and fifty stadia. 


_ 1.2 Arrer the Peraea of the Rhodians, of which 
Daedala isa boundary, sailing next in order towards 
the rising sun, one comes to Lycia, which extends 
as far as Pamphylia; then to Pamphylia, extending 
as far as the Tracheian Cilicians;2 and then to 
the country of these, extending as far as the other 
Cilicians living round the Gulf of Issus. These 
are parts of the peninsula, the isthmus of which, 
as | was saying, is the road from Issus to Amisus, 
: or, according to some, Sinopé, but they lie outside 
_ ἔπε Taurus on the narrow coast which extends 
from Lycia as far as the region of Soli, the present 
Pompeiopolis. Then forthwith the coast that lies 
on the Issic Gulf, beginning at Soli and Tarsus, 
spreads out into plains. So then, when I have 
traversed this coast, my account of the whole 

1 See map of Asia Minor at end of Vol. V. 
3 Referring to ‘‘ Cilicia Tracheia ” (‘‘ Rugged Cilicia ”). 



χερρονήσου λόγος ἔ ἔσται περιωδευμένος" εἶτα μετα- 
βησόμεθα ἐπὶ τὰ ἄλλα μέρη τῆς ᾿Ασίας τὰ ἐ ἐκτὸς 
τοῦ Ταύρου. τελευταῖα 5 ἐκθήσομεν τὰ περὶ 
τὴν Λιβύην. 

2. Μετὰ τοίνυν Δαίδαλα τὰ τῶν Ῥοδίων 6 ὄρος 
ἐστὶ τῆς Λυκίας ὁμώνυμον αὐτοῖς Δαίδαλα, ἀφ᾽ 
οὗ λαμβάνει τὴν ἀρχὴν ὁ παράπλους ἅπας ὁ 
Λυκιακός, σταδίων μὲν ὧν χιλίων ἑπτακοσίων 
εἴκοσι, τραχὺς δὲ καὶ χαλεπός, ἀλλ᾽ εὐλίμενος 
σφόδρα καὶ ὑπὸ ἀνθρώπων συνοικούμενος σω- 
φρόνων' ἐπεὶ ἥ γε τῆς χώρας φύσις παραπλησία 
καὶ τοῖς Παμφύλοις ἐστὶ καὶ τοῖς Τραχειώταις 
Κίλιξιν' ἀλλ᾽ ἐκεῖνοι μὲν ὁρμητηρίοις ἐχρήσαντο 
τοῖς τόποις πρὸς τὰ λῃστήρια, αὐτοὶ “πειρατεύον- 
τες ἢ τοῖς πειραταῖς λαφυροπώλια καὶ ναύσταθμα 
παρέχοντες" ἐν Σίδῃ γοῦν πόλει τῆς Παμφυλίας 
τὰ ναυπήγια. συνίστατο τοῖς Κίλιξιν, ὑπὸ κήρυκά 
τε ἐπώλουν ἐκεῖ τοὺς ἁλόντας ἐλευθέρους ὁμολο- 
γοῦντες" Λύκιοι δ᾽ οὕτω πολιτικῶς καὶ σωφρόνως 
ζῶντες διετέλεσαν, ὥστ᾽, ἐκείνων διὰ τὰς εὐτυχίας 
θαλαττοκρατησάντων μέχρι τῆς Ἰταλίας, ὅμως 
ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἐξήρθησαν αἰσχροῦ κέρδους, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἔμειναν ἐν τῇ πατρίῳ διοικήσει τοῦ Λυκιακοῦ 

3. Εἰσὶ δὲ τρεῖς καὶ εἴκοσι πόλεις αἱ τῆς 
ψήφου μετέχουσαι" συνέρχονται δὲ ἐξ ἑκάστης 
πόλεως εἰς κοινὸν συνέδριον, ἣν ἂν δοκιμάσωσι 
πόλιν ἑλόμενοι" τῶν δὲ πόλεων αἱ μέγισται μὲν 
τριῶν ψήφων ἐστὶν ἑκάστη κυρία, αἱ δὲ μέσαι 

C 665 δυεῖν, αἱ δ᾽ ἄλλαι μιᾶς" ἀνὰ “λόγον δὲ καὶ τὰς 
εἰσφορὰς εἰσφέρουσι καὶ τὰς ἄλλας λειτουργίας. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 1-3 

_ peninsula will have been completed. Then 1 shall 
_ pass to the other parts of Asia that are outside the 
- Taurus. And lastly I shall set forth my account 
¥ bof Libya. 
_ 2. After Daedala of the Rhodians, then, one 
Breines to a mountain in Lycia which bears the 
‘same name as the city, Daedala, whence the whole 
as along the Lycian coast takes its beginning ; 
. coast extends one thousand seven hundred and 
enty stadia, and is rugged and hard to travel, 
Dict is exceedingly well supplied with harbours and 
_ inhabited by decent people. Indeed, the nature of 
the country, at least, is similar to both that of 
the Pamphylians and the Tracheian Cilicians, but 
the former used their places as bases of operation 
for the business of piracy, when they engaged in 
‘piracy themselves or offered them to pirates as 
markets for the sale of booty and as naval stations. 
In Sidé, at any rate, a city in Pamphylia, the 
γ: dockyards stood open to the Cilicians, who would 
ll their captives at auction there, though admittin 
| that these were freemen. But the Lycians ss ei 
living in such a civilised and decent way that, 
_ although the Pamphylians through their successes 
gained the mastery of the sea as far as Italy, still 
_ they themselves were stirred by no desire for 
_ shameful gain, but remained within the ancestral 
domain of the Lycian League. 
3. There are twenty- three cities that share in 
the vote. They come together from each city to 
_ a general congress, after choosing whatever city 
_ they approve of. The largest of the cities control 
three votes each, the medium-sized two, and the 
rest one. In the same proportion, also, they make 

VOL. V1, L 313 


ἐξ δὲ τὰς μεγίστας ἔφη ὁ ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος, Ἐξάνθον, 
Πάταρα, Πίναρα, “Odvprov, Μύρα, λῶν, κατὰ 
τὴν ὑπέρθεσιν 1 τὴν εἰς Κίβυραν κειμένην. ἐν δὲ 
τῷ συνεδρίῳ πρῶτον μὲν Λυκιάρχης αἱρεῖται, εἶτ᾽ 
ἄλλαι ἀρχαὶ αἱ τοῦ συστήματος: δικαστήριά τε 
ἀποδείκνυται κοινῇ" καὶ περὶ πολέμου δὲ καὶ 
εἰρήνης καὶ συμμαχίας ἐβουλεύοντο πρότερον, 
νῦν δ᾽ οὐκ εἰκός, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις ταῦτ᾽ 
ἀνάγκη κεῖσθαι, πλὴν εἰ ἐκείνων ἐπιτρεψάντων, 
ἢ ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν εἴη χρήσιμον" ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ 
δικασταὶ καὶ ἄρχοντες ἀνὰ λόγον ταῖς ψήφοις ἐξ 
ἑκάστης προχειρίζονται πόλεως. οὕτω δ᾽ εὐνο- 
μουμένοις αὐτοῖς συνέβη παρὰ “Ρωμαίοις ἐλευ- 

θέροις διατελέσαι, τὰ πάτρια νέμουσι, τοὺς δὲ 
λῃστὰς ἐπιδεῖν ἄρδην ἠφανισμένους, πρότερον 
μὲν ὑπὸ Σερουιλίου τοῦ ᾿Ισαυρικοῦ, καθ᾽ ὃν 
χρόνον καὶ τὰ “loavpa ἐκεῖνος καθεῖλεν, ὕστερον 

δὲ Πομπηίου τοῦ Μάγνου, πλείω τῶν χιλίων καὶ 
τριακοσίων σκαφῶν ἐμπρήσαντος, τὰς δὲ κατοι- 
κίας ἐκκόψαντος, τῶν δὲ περιγενομένων ἀνθρώπων 
ἐν ταῖς μάχαις τοὺς μὲν καταγαγόντος εἰς Σόλους, 
ἣν ἐκεῖνος Πομπηιόπολιν 5 ὠνόμασε, τοὺς δ᾽ εἰς 
Avpnv® λειπανδρήσασαν, ἣν νυνὶ Ρωμαίων 
ἀποικία νέμεται. οἱ ποιηταὶ δέ, μάλιστα οἱ 
τραγικοί, συγχέοντες τὰ ἔθνη, καθάπερ τοὺς 
Τρῶας καὶ τοὺς Μυσοὺς καὶ τοὺς Λυδοὺς Φρύγας 
προσαγορεύουσιν, οὕτω καὶ τοὺς Λυκίους Κᾶρας. 

4. Μετὰ δ᾽ οὖν τὰ Δαίδαλα, τὸ τῶν Λυκίων 

1 ὑπέρθεσιν, Corais, for θέσιν ; so the later editors, 

2 Πιμπηιοὐπολιν moxz. 

ἘΞ Δύμην, Casaubon, for Δυμήνην ODFhw, Δυσμένην i, Διδυ- 
μήνην mosxz; so the later editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 3-4 

Ἐ ontributions and discharge other liturgies... Arte- 
_ midorus said that the six largest were Xanthus, 
_ Patara, Pinara, Olympus, Myra, and Tlos, the last- 
_ named being situated near the pass that leads over 
into Cibyra. At the congress they first choose a 
_ *Lyciarch,’’ and then other officials of the League; 
and general courts of justice are designated. In 
earlier times they would deliberate about war and 
_ peace and alliances, but now they naturally do not 
© so, since these matters necessarily lie in the 
power of the Romans, except, perhaps. when the 
~ Romans should give them permission or it should 
be for their benefit. Likewise, judges and magis- 
trates are elected from the several cities in the 
same proportion. And since they lived under such 
a good government, they remained ever free under 
the Romans, thus retaining their ancestral usages ; 
_ and they saw the pirates utterly wiped out, first by 
_Servilius Isauricus, at the time that he demolished 
Isaura, and later by Pompey the Great, when he 
‘set fire to more than thirteen hundred boats and 
laid waste their settlements. Of the pirates who 
_ survived the fights,” he brought some down to Soli, 
which he named Pompeiopolis, and the others to 
_ Dymé, where there was a dearth of population; it is 
_ now occupied by a colony of Romans. ‘The poets, 
however, and especially the tragic poets, confuse 
_ the tribes, as, for example, the Trojans and the 
Mysians and the Lydians, whom they call Phrygians ; 
and likewise the Lycians, whom they call Carians. 
4. After Daedala, then, I mean the mountain in 

1 i.e. public services performed at private expense. 
* See 8. 7. 5. 


C 666 


ὄρος, πλησίον ἐστὶ Τελμησσός, πολίχνη Λυκίων, 
καὶ Τελμησσὶς ἄκρα, λιμένα ἔχουσα. ἔλαβε δὲ 
τὸ χωρίον τοῦτο παρὰ Ῥωμαίων Εὐμένης ἐν τῷ 
᾿Αντιοχικῷ πολέμῳ, καταλυθείσης δὲ τῆς βασι- | 
λείας ἀπέλαβον πάλιν οἱ Λύκιοι. 


ὅ. ΕἾθ᾽ ἑξῆς ὁ ᾿Αντίκραγος, ὄρθιον ὄρος, ἐφ᾽ 
Καρμυλησσός, χωρίον ἐν φάραγγι ὠκημένον,1 καὶ 

μετὰ τοῦτον ὁ Kpayos, ἔχων ἄκρας ὃ ὀκτὼ 8 καὶ 
πόλιν ὁμώνυμον. περὶ ταῦτα μυθεύεται τὰ ὄρη 
τὰ περὶ τῆς Χιμαίρας" ἔστι δ᾽ οὐκ ἄπωθεν καὶ 
ἡ Χίμαιρα, φάραγξ τις ἀπὸ τοῦ αἰγιαλοῦ ἀνα- 
τείνουσα. ὑπόκειται δὲ τῷ  Κράγῳ Πίναρα ἐν 
μεσογαίᾳ, τῶν μεγίστων οὖσα πόλεων ἐν τῇ 
Λυκίᾳ. ἐνταῦθα δὲ Πάνδαρος τιμᾶται, τυχὸν 
ἴσως ὁμώνυμος τῷ Τρωικῷ" ὡς καὶ 

Πανδαρέου κούρη χλωρηὶς ἀηδών" 4 

καὶ γὰρ τοῦτον ἐκ Λυκίας φασίν. 

6. Rig’ ὁ Ξάνθος ποταμός, ὃν ,Σίρβιν ἐκάλουν 
οἱ πρότερον" 5 ἀναπλεύσαντι δ᾽ ὑπηρετικοῖς δέκα 
σταδίους τὸ Λητῷόν ἐστιν" ὑπὲρ δὲ τοῦ ἱεροῦ 
προελθόντι ἑξήκοντα ἡ πόλις ἡ TOV Ξανθίων 
ἐστί, μεγίστη τῶν ἐν Λυκίᾳ. μετὰ δὲ τὸν Ξάνθον 
Πάταρα, καὶ αὕτη μεγάλη πόλις, λιμένα ἔχουσα 
καὶ ἱερὸν ᾿Απόλλωνος," κτίσμα. Πατάρου. Πτο- 
λεμαῖος δ᾽ ὁ Φιλάδελφος ἐπισκευάσας ᾿Αρσινόην 
ἐκάλεσε τὴν ἐν Λυκίᾳ, ἐπεκράτησε δὲ τὸ ἐξ ἀρχῆς 

1 ἐν φάραγγι φκημένον E, ἐν φαραγγεῖον κείμενον F, ey 
φαραγγίῳ κείμενον other MSS. 

ἡ ἄκρας, the editors (following Eustathius on Πίαά 6. 181), 

for κράγας. 
8 For ὀκτώ Eustathius (/.c.) reads δύο. 





GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 4-6 

Lycia, one comes to a Lycian town near it, Telmessus, 

and to Telmessis, a promontory with a harbour. 

Eumenes? received this place from the Romans in 
the Antiochian War, but when his kingdom was 
dissolved the Lycians got it back again. 

5. Then, next, one comes to Anticragus, a steep 
mountain, where is Carmylessus, an inhabited place 
situated in a ravine; and, after this, to Cragus, 
which has eight promontories and a city of the 
same name. The scene of the myth of Chimaera 
is laid in the neighbourhood of these mountains. 
Chimaera, a ravine extending up from the shore, 
is not far from them. At the foot of Cragus, in 
the interior, lies Pinara, one of the largest cities 
in Lycia. Here Pandarus is held in honour, who 

may, perhaps, be identical with the Trojan hero, as 

when the poet says, “the daughter of Pandareus, 

the nightingale of the greenwood,’ for Pandareus 

is said to have been from Lycia. 
6. Then one comes to the Xanthus River, which 

the people of earlier times called the Sirbis. Sailing 

up this river by rowboat for ten stadia one comes to 
the Letoiim; and proceeding sixty stadia beyond the 
temple one comes to the city of the Xanthians, 

the largest city in Lycia. After Xanthus, to Patara, 

which is also a large city, has a harbour, has a 
temple of Apollo, and was founded by Patarus. 

When Ptolemy Philadelphus repaired it, he called 

it Lycian Arsinoé, but the original name prevailed, 

1 King of Pergamum 197-159 B.c. 

4 ὡς καὶ. . ἀηδών, Meineke ejects. 
δ᾽ Instead of οἱ πρότερον, F and Meineke read τὸ πρότερον. 
δ ἱερὸν ᾿Απόλλωνος, the editors, for ἱερὰ πολλά. 



7. Εἶτα Μύρα ἐν εἴκοσι σταδίοις ὑπὲρ τῆς 
θαλάττης ἐπὶ μετεώρου λόφου. εἶθ᾽ ἡ ἐκβολὴ 
τοῦ Διμύρου 1 ποταμοῦ καὶ ἀνιόντι πεζῇ σταδίους 
εἴκοσι τὰ Λίμυρα πολίχνη. μεταξὺ δ᾽ ἐν τῷ 
λεχθέντι παράπλῳ νησία πολλὰ καὶ λιμένες, ὧν 
καὶ Μεγίστη νῆσος καὶ πόλις ὁμώνυμος, καὶ 3, ἡ 
Κισθήνη. ἐν δὲ τῇ μεσογαίᾳ χωρία Φελλὸς καὶ 
᾿Αντίφελλος καὶ ἡ “Χίμαιρα, ἧς ἐμνήσθημεν ἐπάνω. 

8. Ei?’ Ἱερὰ ἄκρα καὶ αἱ Χελιδόνιαι, τρεῖς 
νῆσοι τραχεῖαι, πάρισοι τὸ μέγεθος, ὅσον πέντε 
σταδίοις ἀλλήλων διέχουσαι" τῆς δὲ γῆς ἀφεστᾶσιν 
ἑξαστάδιον: μία δ᾽ αὐτῶν καὶ πρόσορμον ἔχει. 
ἐντεῦθεν νομίξουσιν οἱ πολλοὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν λαμ- 
βάνειν τὸν Ταῦρον, διά τε τὴν ἄκραν ὑψηλὴν 
οὖσαν καὶ καθήκουσαν ἀπὸ τῶν Πισιδικῶν ὁ ὀρῶν 
τῶν ὑπερκειμένων τῆς Παμφυλίας καὶ διὰ τὰς 
προκειμένας νήσους, ἐχούσας ἐπιφανές TL σημεῖον 
ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ κρασπέδου δίκην. τὸ δ᾽ ἀληθὲς 
ἀπὸ τῆς Ῥοδίων περαίας ἐπὶ τὰ πρὸς Πισιδίαν 
μέρη συνεχής ἐστιν ἡ ὀρεινή, καλεῖται δὲ καὶ αὕτη 
Ταῦρος. δοκοῦσι δὲ καὶ αἱ Χελιδόνιαι κατὰ Kavo- 
βὸν πως πίπτειν" τὸ δὲ δίαρμα λέγεται τέτρακισ- 

ἱλίων σταδίων. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς Ἱερᾶς ἄ ἄκρας ἐπὶ τὴν 
Ολβίαν λείπονται στάδιοι τριακόσιοι ἑξήκοντα 
ἑπτά" ἐν τούτοις δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἥ τε ,Κράμβουσα καὶ 
Ὄλυμπος, πόλις μεγάλη καὶ ὄρος ὁμώνυμον, ὃ 
καὶ Φοινικοῦς καλεῖται" εἶτα Κώρυκος αὐγιαλός. 

1 Λιμύρου EF, Λιρύμου other MSS. 
2 καί, before ἡ, Groskurd inserts. 

1 j,e. approximately on the same meridian as Canobus in 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 7-8 

_ 7. Then one comes to Myra, at a distance of 
_ twenty stadia above the sea, on a lofty hill. Then 
to the outlet of the Limyrus River, and then, going 
_ twenty stadia inland on foot, to Limyra, a small 
town. In the intervening distance on the coasting 
voyage there are numerous isles and _ harbours, 
among which are the island Megisté, with a city 
of the same name, and Cisthené. And in the 
interior are places called Phellus and Antiphellus 
and Chimaera, which last I have mentioned above. 

8. Then one comes to the promontory Hiera ; and 
to the Chelidoniae, three rugged islands, which are 
about equal in size and are about five stadia distant 
from one another. They lie about six stadia off the 
shore, and one of them has a landing-place for vessels. 
Here it is, according to the majority of writers, that 
the Taurus takes its beginning, not only because 
of the loftiness of the promontory and because it 
extends down from the Pisidian mountains that lie 
above Pamphylia, but also because of the islands 
that lie off it, presenting, as they do, a sort of con- 
spicuous sign in the sea, like outskirts of a mountain. 
But in truth the mountainous tract is continuous 
from the Peraea of the Rhodians to the parts near 
Pisidia ; and this tract too is called the Taurus. The 
Chelidoniae are likewise thought to lie approximately 
opposite to Canobus;! and the passage thence to 
Canobus is said to be four thousand stadia. From 
the promontory Hiera to Olbia there remain three 
hundred and sixty-seven stadia; and on this stretch 
lie, not only Crambusa, but also Olympus, a large 
city and a mountain of the same name, which latter 
is also called Phoenicus, Then one comes to Corycus, 
a tract of sea-coast. 


C 667 


9. Εἶτα Φασηλίς,1 τρεῖς ἔχουσα λιμένας, πόλις 
ἀξιόλογος καὶ λίμνη." ὑπέρκειται δ᾽ αὐτῆς τὰ 
Σόλυμα ὅ ὄρος καὶ Τερμησσός, Πισιδικὴ πόλις ἐπι- 
κειμένη τοῖς στενοῖς, δι᾽ ὧν ὑπέρβασίς ἐστιν εἰς 
τὴν Μιλυάδα. καὶ ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος διὰ τοῦτο 
ἐξεῖλεν αὐτήν, ἀνοῖξαι βουλόμενος τὰ στενά. 
περὶ Φασηλίδα 3 δ᾽ ἐστὶ κατὰ θάλατταν στενά, ov’ 
ὧν ᾿Αλέξανδρος παρήγαγε τὴν στρατιάν. ἔστι δ᾽ 
ὄρος Κλίμαξ καλούμενον, ἐπίκειται δὲ τῷ Παμ- 
φυλίῳ πελάγει, στενὴν ἀπολεῖπον πάροδον ἐπὶ 
τῷ αἰγιαλῷ, ταῖς μὲν νηνεμίαις γυμνουμένην, 
ὥστε εἶναι βάσιμον τοῖς ὁδεύουσι, πλημμύροντος 
δὲ τοῦ πελάγους ὑπὸ τῶν κυμάτων καλυπτομένην 
ἐπὶ πολύ: ἡ μὲν οὖν διὰ τοῦ ὄρους ὑπέρβασις 
περίοδον ἔ ἔχει. καὶ προσάντης ἐστί, τῷ δ᾽ αἰγιαλῷ 
χρῶνται κατὰ τὰς εὐδίας. ὁ δὲ ᾿Αλέξανδρος εἰς 
χειμέριον ἐμπεσὼν και ρὸν καὶ τὸ πλέον ἐ ἐπιτρέπων 
τῇ τύχῃ, πρὶν ἀνεῖναι τὸ κῦμα ὥρμησε, καὶ ὅλην 
τὴν ἡμέραν ἐ ἐν ὕδατι γενέσθαι τὴν πορείαν συνέβη, 
μέχρι ὀμφαλοῦ βαπτιξομένων. ἔστι μὲν οὖν καὶ 
αὕτη ἡ πόλις Λυκιακή, ἐπὶ τῶν ὅρων 4 ἱδρυμένη 
τῶν πρὸς Παμφυλίαν, τοῦ δὲ own τῶν Λυκίων 
οὐ μετέχει, καθ᾽ αὑτὴν δὲ συνέστηκεν. 

10. Ὁ μὲν οὖν ποιητὴς ἑτέρους τῶν Λυκίων 
ποιεῖ τοὺς Σολύμους" ὑπὸ γὰρ τοῦ τῶν Λυκίων 
βασιλέως πεμφθεὶς ὁ Βελλεροφόντης ἐπὶ δεύτερον 
τοῦτον ἄθλον 

Σολύμοισι μαχέσσατο κυδαλίμοισιν. 
οἱ δὲ τοὺς Λυκίους πρότερον καλεῖσθαι Σολύμους 
1 Φασηλίς, the editors (following Eustathius on Dionye. 


" ΕΣ, 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 9-10 

9. Then one comes to Phaselis, with three harbours, 
acity of note, and toalake. Above it lies Solyma, a 
mountain, and also Termessus, a Pisidian city situated 
near the defiles, through which there is a pass over 
the mountain to Milyas. Alexander destroyed 

Milyas for the reason that he wished to open 

the Paebiles. Near Phaselis, by the sea, there are 

defiles, through which Alexander led his army. 
_ And here there is a mountain called Climax, which 

lies near the Pamphylian Sea and leaves a narrow 
pass on the shore; and in calm weather this pass 
is free from water, so that it is passable for travellers, 
but when the sea is at flood-tide it is to a consider- 
able extent hidden by the waves. Now the pass 
that leads over through the mountain is circuitous 
and steep, but in fair weather people use the pass 
along the shore. Alexander,meeting with a stormy 
season, and being a man who in general trusted to 
luck, set out before the waves had receded; and 
the result was that all day long his soldiers marched 
in water submerged to their navels. Now this city 
too is Lycian, being situated on the borders towards 
Pamphylia, but it has no part in the common 
League and is a separate organisation to itself. 
10. Now the poet makes the Solymi different 
from the Lycians, for when Bellerophon was sent 
by the king of the Lycians to the second struggle, 
“he fought with the glorious Solymi.” + But others, 
who assert that the Lycians were in earlier times 

1 Iliad 6. 184. 

2 Instead of λίμνη, F and Eustathius (/.c.) have λίμνην. 
8 CDhos spell the word Φασίλιδα, F Φιλίδα. 
* ὅρων, Kramer, for ὀρῶν. 


φάσκοντες, ὕστερον δὲ Τερμίλας, ἀπὸ τῶν ἐκ 
Κρήτης συγκατελθόντων τῷ Σαρπηδόνι, μετὰ δὲ 
ταῦτα Λυκίους ἀπὸ Λύκου τοῦ Πανδίονος, ὃν 
ἐκπεσόντα τῆς οἰκείας ἐδέξατο Σαρπηδὼν ἐπὶ 
μέρει τῆς ἀρχῆς, οὐχ ὁμολογούμενα λέγουσιν 
Ὁμήρῳ" βελτίους δ᾽ οἱ φάσκοντες λέγεσθαι 
Σολύμους ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ τοὺς νῦν Μιλύας 
προσαγορευομένους, περὶ ὧν εἰρήκαμεν. 


1, Μετὰ Φασηλίδα δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἡ Ὀλβία, τῆς 
Παμφυλίας ἀρχή, μέγα ἔρυμα, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην ὁ 
Καταράκτης λεγόμενος, ἀφ’ ὑψηλῆς πέτρας 
καταράττων ποταμὸς πολὺς καὶ χειμαρρώδης, 
ὥστε πόρρωθεν ἀκούεσθαι τὸν ψόφον. εἶτα 
πόλις ᾿Αττάλεια, ἐπώνυμος τοῦ κτίσαντος Φιλα- 

᾿-» ν»υυ» 

δέχφου, καὶ οἰκίσαντος εἰς Κώρυκον, πολίχνιον 
ὅμορον," ἄλλην κατοικίαν καὶ μείζω ὃ περίβολον 

περιθέντος. φασὶ δ᾽ ἐν τῷ μεταξὺ Φασηλέδος * 
καὶ ᾿Ατταλείας δείκνυσθαι Θήβην τε καὶ Λυρνησ- 
σόν, ἐκπεσόντων ἐκ τοῦ Θήβης πεδίου τῶν 
Τρωικῶν Κιλίκων εἰς τὴν Παμφυλίαν ἐκ μέρους, 
ὡς εἴρηκε Καλλισθένης. 

2. Ei@’ ὁ Κέστρος ποταμός, ὃν ἀναπλεύσαντι 
σταδίους ἑξήκοντα Llépyn πόλις, καὶ πλησίον ἐπὶ 

μετεώρου τόπου τὸ τῆς Llepyaias ᾿Αρτέμιδος 

1 Φασηλίδα E, Φασιλίδα other MSS. 
2 ὅμορον, Kramer and later editors transfer as above from 
a position after κατοικίαν. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 10-4. 2 

called Solymi, but in later times were called 
_ Termilae* from the Termilae who came there from 


_ Crete with Sarpedon, and after this were called 
_ Lycians, from Lycius the son of Pandion, who, after 
having been banished from his homeland, was 

g admitted by Sarpedon as a partner in his empire, 

are not in agreement with Homer. Better is the 
- opinion of those who assert that by “Solymi” the 

a means the people who are now called the 

ilyae, of whom I have already spoken,’ ? 


1. After Phaselis one comes to Olbia, the begin- 
ning of Pamphylia, a large fortress; and after this to 
the Cataractes River, so called, which dashes down? 

_ from a lofty rock in such volume and so impetuously 

that the noise can be heard from afar. Then to 
a city, Attaleia, so named after its founder Attalus 
Philadelphus, who also sent a colony to Corycus, a 
small neighbouring town, and surrounded it with 
a greater circuit-wall. It is said that both Thebé 
and Lyrnessus are to be seen between Phaselis and 
Attaleia, a part of the Trojan Cilicians having been 

_ driven out of the plain of Thebé into Pamphylia, as 
τς Callisthenes states. 

2. Then one comes to the Cestrus River ; and, sail- 
ing sixty stadia up this river, one comes to Pergé, a 
city ; and near Pergé, on a lofty site, to the temple of 

1 See 12. 8. 5. 2 12. 8. 5 and 12. 3. 27. 
8 The Greek verb is ‘‘ cataracts.” 

3 μείζω μικρόν Cw, merely μικρόν other MSS., except Εἰ, 
which has merely μείζω. 
* Φασηλίδος Εἰ, Φασιλίδος other MSS. 



ἱερόν, ἐν ᾧ πανήγυρις κατ᾽ ἔτος συντελεῖται. 
εἶθ᾽ ὑπὲρ τῆς θαλάττης ὅσον τετταράκοντα 
σταδίοις Σύλλιον ἴ πόλις ἐστὶν ὑψηλὴ τοῖς ἐκ 
Πέργης ἔ ἔποπτος" εἶτα λίμνη εὐμεγέθης Καπρία, 
καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ὁ Εὐρυμέδων ποταμός, ὃν ἀνα- 
πλεύσαντι ἑξήκοντα σταδίους ᾿Ασπενδος πόλις, 
εὐανδροῦσα i ἱκανῶς, ᾿Αργείων κτίσμα" ὑπέρκειται 
δὲ ταύτης Πετνηλιεσσός' εἶτ᾽ ἄλλος ποταμός, καὶ 
νησία προκείμενα πολλά' εἶτα Σίδη, Κυμαίων 
ἄποικος" ἔχει δ᾽ ᾿Αθηνᾶς i ἱερόν. πλησίον δ᾽ ἐστὶ 
καὶ ἡ Κιβυρατῶν παραλία τῶν μικρῶν" εἶθ᾽ ὁ 
Μέλας ποταμὸς καὶ ὕφορμος" εἶτα Πτολεμαὶς 
πόλις" καὶ μετὰ ταῦθ' οἱ ὅροι τῆς Παμφυλίας καὶ 
τὸ Κορακήσιον, ἀρχὴ τῆς τραχείας Κιλικίας. ὁ 
δὲ παράπλους ἅπας ὁ Παμφύλιος στάδιοί εἶσιν 
ἑξακόσιοι τεσσαράκοντα. 

C6683. Φησὶ δ᾽ Ἡρόδοτος τοὺς Παμφύλους τῶν 

μετὰ ᾽Α μφιλόχου καὶ Κάλχαντος εἶναι λαῶν, 
μιγάδων τινῶν ἐκ Τροίας συνακολουθησάντων' 
τοὺς μὲν δὴ πολλοὺς ἐνθάδε καταμεῖναι, τινὰς δὲ 
σκεδασθῆναι πολλαχοῦ τῆς γῆς. Καλλῖνος δὲ 
τὸν μὲν Κάλχαντα ἐν Κλάρῳ τελευτῆσαι τὸν 
βίον φησί, τοὺς δὲ λαοὺς μετὰ Μόψου τὸν Ταῦρον 
ὑπερθέντας, τοὺς μὲν ἐν Παμφυλίᾳ μεῖναι, τοὺς 
δ᾽ ἐν Κιλικίᾳ μερισθῆναι καὶ Συρίᾳ μέχρι καὶ 

+ Σύλλιον, Jones inserts, following Tzschucke, who first 

noted that this was the city meant. Meineke emends 
σταδίοις to Σύλλιον. 




GEOGRAPHY, 14. 4. 2-3 

Artemis Pergaea, where a general festival is cele- 

brated every year. Then, about forty stadia above 

_ the sea, one comes to Syllium, a lofty city that is 

visible from Pergé. Then one comes to a very 

large lake, Capria; and after this, to the Eurymedon 
_ River; and, sailing sixty stadia up this river, to 
_ Aspendus, a city with a flourishing population and 

founded by the Argives. Above Aspendus lies 

Petnelissus. Then comes another river; and also 

numerous isles that lie off it. Then Sidé, a colony 

of the Cymaeans, which has a temple of Athena; 
and near by is the coast of the Lesser Cibyratae. 
Then the Melas River and a mooring-place. Then 
Ptolemais, a city. And after this come the boundaries 
of Pamphylia, and also Coracesium, the beginning of 
Cilicia Tracheia. ‘The whole of the voyage along 
the coast of Pamphylia is six hundred and forty 

3. Herodotus! says that the Pamphylians are the 
descendants of the peoples led by Amphilochus and 
Calchas, a miscellaneous throng who accompanied 
them from Troy; and that most of them remained 
here, but that some of them were scattered to 
numerous places on earth. Callinus says that Calchas 
died in Clarus, but that the peoples led by Mopsus 
passed over the Taurus, and that, though some re- 
mained in Pamphylia, the others were dispersed in 
Cilicia, and also in Syria as far even as Phoenicia. 

a7. OL 




1. Τῆς Κιλικίας δὲ τῆς ἔξω τοῦ Ταύρου ἡ μὲν 
λέγεται τραχεῖα, ἡ δὲ πεδιάς": τραχεῖα μέν, ἧς ἡ 
παραλία στενή ἐστι, καὶ οὐδὲν ἢ ἢ σπανίως ἔχει τι 
χωρίον ἐπίπεδον, καὶ ἔτι ἧς ὑπέρκειται ὁ Ταῦρος, 
οἰκούμενος κακῶς, μέχρι καὶ τῶν προσ- 
βόρων πλευρῶν τῶν περὶ Ἴσαυρα καὶ τοὺς 
Ὁμοναδέας μέχρι τῆς ΠΠσιδίας" καλεῖται δ᾽ ἡ 
αὐτὴ καὶ Τραχειῶτις καὶ οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες Tpa- 
χειῶται: πεδιὰς δ᾽ ἢ ἀπὸ Σόλων καὶ Ταρσοῦ 
μέχρι Ἰσσοῦ, καὶ ἔτι ὧν ὑπέρκεινται κατὰ τὸ 
πρόσβορον τοῦ Ταύρου πλευρὸν Καππάδοκες" 
αὕτη γὰρ ἡ χώρα τὸ πλέον πεδίων εὐπορεῖ καὶ 
χώρας ἀγαθῆς. ἐπεὶ δὲ τούτων τὰ μέν ἐστιν 
ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύρου, τὰ δ᾽ ἐκτός, περὺ μὲν τῶν ἐντὸς 
εἴρηται, περὶ δὲ τῶν ἐκτὸς λέγωμεν, ἀπὸ τῶν 
Τραχειωτῶν ἀρξάμενοι. 

2. Πρῶτον τοίνυν ἐστὶ τῶν Κιλίκων φρούριον 
τὸ Κορακήσιον, ἱδρυμένον ἐ ἐπὶ πέτρας ἀπορρῶγος, 
ὡ ἐχρήσατο Διόδοτος ὁ “Τρύφων προσαγορευθεὶς 
ὁρμητηρίῳ, καθ᾽ ὃν καιρὸν ἀπέστησε τὴν Συρίαν 
τῶν βασιλέων καὶ διεπολέμει πρὸς ἐκείνους, τοτὲ 
μὲν κατορθῶν τοτὲ δὲ πταίων. τοῦτον μὲν οὖν 
᾿Αντίοχος ὁ Δημητρίου κατακλείσας εἴς τι χωρίον 
ἠνάγκασε διεργάσασθαι τὸ σῶμα. τοῖς δὲ Κίλε- 
Ew ἀρχὴν 1 τοῦ τὰ πειρατικὰ συνίστασθαι Τρύφων 
αἴτιος κατέστη, καὶ ἡ τῶν βασιλέων οὐδένεια τῶν 
τότε ἐκ διαδοχῆς ἐπιστατούντων τῆς Συρίας ἅ ἅμα 
καὶ τῆς Κιλικίας" τῷ γὰρ ἐκείνου νεωτερισμῷ 

1 ἀρχήν, Groskurd, for ἀρχή ; so the later editors. 

: ἡ 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 1-2 


1. As for Cilicia outside the Taurus, one part of 

_ it is called Tracheia! and the other Pedias.2 As for 

Tracheia, its coast is narrow and has no level ground, 
or scarcely any ; and, besides that, it lies at the foot 
of the Taurus, which affords a poor livelihood as far 
as its northern side in the region of Isaura and οἵ 
the Homonadeis as far as Pisidia; and the same 
country is also called Tracheiotis, and its inhabitants 
Tracheiotae. But Cilicia Pedias extends from Soli 
and Tarsus as far as Issus, and also to those parts 
beyond which, on the northern side of the Taurus, 
Cappadocians are situated; for this country consists 
for the most part of plains and fertile land. Since 
some parts of this country are inside the Taurus and 
others outside it, and since I have already spoken of 
those inside it, let me now speak of those outside it, 
beginning with the Tracheiotae. 

2. The first place in Cilicia, then, to which one 
comes, is a stronghold, Coracesium, situated on an 
abrupt rock, which was used by Diodotus, called 
Tryphon, as a base of operations at the time when 
he caused Syria to revolt from the kings and was 
fighting it out with them, being successful at one 
time and failing at another. Now Tryphon was 
hemmed up in a certain place by Antiochus, son of 
Demetrius, and forced to kill himself; and it was 
Tryphon, together with the worthlessness of the 
kings who by succession were then reigning over 
Syria and at the same time over Cilicia, who caused 
the Cilicians to organise their gangs of pirates; for 
on account of his revolutionary attempts others made 

® Rugged Cilicia. 3. Level Cilicia. 

C 669 


TUVEVEMTEPLT AY Kal ἄλλοι, διχοστατοῦντές τε 
ἀδελφοὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὑπο εἰριον ἐποίουν τὴν 
χώραν τοῖς ἐπιτιθεμένοις. eS τῶν ἀνδραπόδων 
ἐξαγωγὴ προὐκαλεῖτο μάλιστα εἰς τὰς κακουργίας, 
ἐπικερδεστάτη γενομένη: καὶ γὰρ ἡλίσκοντο 
ῥᾳδίως, καὶ τὸ ἐμπόριον οὐ παντελῶς ἄπωθεν ἣν 
μέγα καὶ πολυχρήματον, ἡ Δῆλος, δυναμένη 
μυριάδας ἀνδραπόδων αὐθημερὸν καὶ δέξασθαι 
καὶ ἀποπέμψαι, ὥστε καὶ παροιμίαν γενέσθαι διὰ 
τοῦτο' ἔμπορε, κατάπλευσον, ἐξελοῦ, πάντα 
πέπραται. αἴτιον δ᾽, ὅτι πλούσιοι γενόμενοι 
Ῥωμαῖοι μετὰ τὴν Καρχηδόνος καὶ Κορίνθου 
κατασκαφὴν οἰκετείαις ἐχρῶντο πολλαῖς" ὁρῶντες 
δὲ τὴν εὐπέτειαν οἱ λῃσταὶ ταύτην ἐξήνθησαν 
ἀθρόως, αὐτοὶ καὶ ληιξόμενοι καὶ σωματεμπο- 
ροῦντες. συνήργουν δ᾽ εἰς ταῦτα καὶ οἱ τῆς 
Κύπρου καὶ οἱ τῆς Αὐγύπτου βασιλεῖς, ἐχθροὶ 
τοῖς Σύροις ὄντες" οὐδ᾽ οἱ “Ῥόδιοι δὲ Big ἢ ἦσαν 
αὐτοῖς, ὥστ ᾿ οὐδὲν ἐβοήθουν" a ἅμα δὲ καὶ οἱ λῃσταὶ 
προσποιούμενοι σωματεμπορεῖν, ἄλυτον τὴν 
κακουργίαν εἶχον. ἀλλ’ οὐδὲ Ῥωμαῖοί πω τοσοῦ- 
τον ἐφρόντιζον τῶν ἔξω τοῦ 0 Ταύρου, ἀλλ᾽ ἔπεμψαν 
μὲν καὶ Σκιπίωνα τὸν Αἰμιλιανὄν, ἐπισκεψόμενον 
τὰ ἔθνη καὶ τὰς πόλεις, καὶ πάλιν ἄλλους τινάς" 
ἔγνωσαν δὲ κακίᾳ τῶν ἀρχόντων συμβαῖνον τοῦτο, 
εἰ καὶ τὴν!" κατὰ γένος διαδοχὴν τὴν ἀπὸ Σελεύ- 
κου τοῦ Νικάτορος, αὐτοὶ κεκυρωκότες, ἠδοῦντο 
ἀφαιρεῖσθαι. τοῦτο δὲ συμβὰν τῆς μὲν χώρας 
ἐποίησε κυρίους Παρθυαίους, of τὰ πέραν τοῦ 

1 εἰ καὶ τήν z (by correction), εἰ τήν x, els τήν other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 2 

_ like attempts at the same time, and thus the dissen 
sions of brethren with one another put the country 
at the mercy of any who might attack it. The 
_ exportation of slaves induced them most of all to 
_ engage in their evil business, since it proved most 
profitable ; for not only were they easily captured, 
Βαϊ the market, which was large and rich in property, 
was not extremely far away, I mean Delos, which 
_eould both admit and send away ten thousand slaves 
on the same day; whence arose the proverb, 
_ “Merchant, sail in, unload your ship, everything 
has been sold.” The cause of this was the fact 
that the Romans, having become rich after the 

_ destruction of Carthage and Corinth, used many 
slaves; and the pirates, seeing the easy profit 
therein, bloomed forth in great numbers, themselves 
not only going in quest of booty but also trafficking 
in slaves. The kings both of Cyprus and of Egypt 
co-operated with them in this, being enemies to 
the Syrians. Neither were the Rhodians friendly 
to the Syrians, and they therefore afforded them 
no assistance. And at the same time the pirates, 
pretending to be slave-dealers, carried on their 
evil business unchecked. Neither were the Romans 
‘concerning themselves as yet so much about the 
peoples outside the Taurus; but they sent Scipio 
Aemilianus, and again certain others, to inspect the 
tribes and the cities; and they decided that the 
above-mentioned piracy was due to the incompetence 
of the rulers, although they were ashamed, since 
they themselves had ratified the hereditary succession 
from Seleucus Nicator, to deprive them of it. And 
this is what made the Parthians masters of the 
country, who got possession of the region on the far 



Εὐφράτου κατέσχον" τὸ τελευταῖον δὲ καὶ ᾿᾽Αρ- 
μενίους, οἱ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς τοῦ Ταύρου προσέλαβον 
μέχρι καὶ Φοινίκης, καὶ τοὺς βασιλέας κατέλυσαν 
εἰς δύναμιν καὶ τὸ γένος αὐτῶν σύμπαν, τὴν δὲ 
θάλατταν τοῖς Κίλιξε παρέδωκαν. εἶτ᾽ αὐξη- 
θέντας ἠναγκάσθησαν καταλύειν Ῥωμαῖοι πολέμῳ 
καὶ μετὰ στρατιᾶς, ods αὐξομένους οὐκ ἐκώλυσαν. 
ὀλιγωρίαν μὲν οὖν αὐτῶν χαλεπὸν καταγνῶναι" 
πρὸς ἑτέροις δὲ ὄντες τοῖς ἐγγυτέρω καὶ κατὰ 
χεῖρα μᾶλλον οὐχ οἷοί τε ἦσαν τὰ ἀπωτέρω 
σκοπεῖν. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἔδοξεν ἡμῖν ἐν παρεκ- 
βάσει διὰ βραχέων εἰπεῖν. 

8. Μετὰ δὲ τὸ Κορακήσιον ᾿Αρσινόη 1 πόλις, 
εἶθ᾽ ᾿Αμαξία, ἐπὶ βουνοῦ κατοικία τις ὕφορμον 
ἔχουσα, ὅπου κατάγεται ἡ ναυπηγήσιμος ὕλη. 
κέδρος δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἡ πλείστη, καὶ δοκεῖ ταῦτα τ 
μέρη πλεονεκτεῖν τῇ τοιαύτῃ ξυλείᾳ: καὶ διὰ 
τοῦτ᾽ ᾿Αντώνιος Κλεοπάτρᾳ τὰ χωρία ταῦτα 
προσένειμεν, ἐπιτήδεια ὄ ὄντα πρὸς τὰς τῶν στόλων 
κατασκευάς. εἶτα Λαέρτης, φρούριον ἐπὶ λόφου 
μαστοειδοῦς ,ὕφορμον ἔχον" εἶτα Σελινοῦς πόλις 
καὶ " ποταμός: εἶτα Κράγος, πέτρα περίκρημνος 
πρὸς θαλάττῃ: εἶτα Χαραδροῦς, ἔρυμα καὶ αὐτὸ 
ὕφορμον ἔχον (ὑπέρκειται δ᾽ ὄρος "Ανδρικλος) καὶ 
παράπλους τραχύς, Πλατανιστῆς 8 καλούμενος" 
εἶτ᾽ ᾿Ανεμούριον ἄκρα, καθ᾽ ἣν ἡ ἤπειρος ἐγγυ- 

1 ῬΑρσινόη appears to be corrupt. Hopper conj. Συδρή, 
Tzschucke Σύεδρα, C. Miller Αὔνησις. 

2 πόλις καί, Jones inserts, from conj. of C. Miller (/nd. 
Var. Lect. p. 1031). Meineke, following Groskurd, emends 
ποταμός to πόλις. 

8 Πλατανιστῆς, Meineke, for Πλατανιστής E, Πλατανιστός 
other MSS. 


GEOGRAPRY, 14. ς. 2-3 

side of the Euphrates; and at last made also the 
_ Armenians masters, who not only seized the country 
_ outside the ‘Taurus even as far as Phoenicia, but also, 
_ so far as they could, overthrew the kings and the 
whole royal stock ; the sea, however, they gave over 
to the Cilicians. Then, after these people had grown 
in power, the Romans were forced to destroy them 
by war and with an army, although they had not 
hindered their growing power. Now it is hard to 
condemn the Romans of negligence, since, being 
- engaged with matters that were nearer and more 
urgent, they were unable to watch those that were 
farther away. So much I have decided to say by 
way of a brief digression from my geographical 
3. After Coracesium, one comes to Arsinoé,! a 
city; then to Hamaxia, a settlement on a hill, with 
a harbour, where ship-building timber is brought 
down. Most of this timber is cedar; and it appears 
that this region beyond others abounds in cedar-wood 
for ships; and it was on this account that Antony 
assigned this region to Cleopatra, since it was suited 
_ to the building of her fleets. Then one comes to 
Laertes, a stronghold on a breast-shaped hill, with a 
mooring-place. Then to Selinus, a city and river, 
Then to Cragus, a rock which is precipitous all 
round and near the sea. Then to Charadrus, a 
fortress, which also has a mooring-place (above it 
lies Mt. Andriclus) ; and the coast alongside it, called 
Platanistes, is rugged. Then to Anemurium, a 
promontory, where the mainland approaches closest 
to Cyprus, in the direction of the promontory of 

᾿ “Arsinoé” i is thought to be an error for ‘‘Sydrié,” or 
* Syedra ” or ‘‘ Aunesis” (see critical note). 



τάτω τῆς Κυπρίας ἐστὶν ἐπὶ Κρομμύου ἄκραν, 
ἐν διάρματι σταδίων τριακοσίων πεντήκοντα. εἰς 
μὲν οὖν τὸ ᾿Ανεμούριον ἀπὸ τῶν ὅρων τῆς Παμφυ- 
λίας ὁ Κιλίκιος παράπλους σταδίων ἐστὶν ὁ ὀκτα- 
κοσίων εἴκοσι, λοιπὸς δ᾽ ἐστὶ μέχρι Σόλων ὅσον 

C0 610 πεντακοσίων παράπλους σταδίων. τούτου δ᾽ 
ἐστὶ Νάγιδος ° πρώτη μετὰ τὸ ᾿Ανεμούριον 
πόλις" εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αρσινόη πρόσορμον ἔχουσα' εἶτα 
τόπος Μελανία καὶ Κελένδερις, πόλις λιμένα 
ἔχουσα. τινὲς δὲ ταύτην ἀρχὴν τίθενται τῆς 
Κιλικίας, οὐ τὸ Κορακήσιον, & ὧν ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ᾽Αρτε- 
μίδωρος" καί φησιν ἀπὸ μὲν τοῦ Πηλουσιακοῦ 
στόματος εἶναι τρισχιλίους ἐννακοσίους * στα- 
δίους εἰς ᾿Ορθωσίαν, ἐπὶ δὲ τὸν ‘Opovrny ποταμὸν 
χίλια ἑκατὸν “τριάκοντα, ἐπὶ δὲ τὰς πύλας ἑξῆς 
πεντακόσια εἰκοσιπέντε, ἐπὶ δὲ τοὺς ὅρους τῶν 
Κιλίκων χίλια διακόσια ὃ ἑξήκοντα. 

4. Ei?’ “Ὅλμοι, ὅπου πρότερον ὥκουν οἱ νῦν 
Σελευκεῖς" κτισθείσης δ᾽ ἐπὶ τῷ Καλυκάδνῳ τῆς 
Σελευκείας, ἐκεῖ μετῳκίσθησαν' εὐθὺς γάρ ἐστιν 
ἡ τοῦ Καλυκάδνου ἐκβολὴ κάμψαντι ἠιόνα, 

1 χούτου, Meineke, for τοῦτο ; others, following Casaubon, 
read ἐν τούτῳ. 

2 ἐστὶ Νάγιδος, Tzschucke, for ἐστὶν ἄτιδος Di, ἐστὶν ἄγιδος 
other MSS. 

8 πρώτη, Groskurd, for πρῶτοι ; so the later editors. 

4 ἐννακυσίους, Meineke (following Casaubon and Groskurd) 
emends to ἑξακοσίους. 

5 διακόσια, Meineke (following Casaubon and Groskurd) 
emends to ἐνακόσια. 

1 Cp. 14. 6. 3. 
3 "᾿ αβκβ οὶ (16. 2. 33) referred to as ‘‘Melaenae or 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 3-4 

Crommyus,! the passage across being three hundred 
and fifty stadia. Now the coasting-voyage along 
Cilicia from the borders of Pamphylia to Anemurium 
is eight hundred and twenty stadia, whereas the 
rest, as far as Soli, is about five hundred stadia. 
On ‘this latter one comes to Nagidus, the first city 
after Anemurium; then to Arsinoé, which has a 
landing-place ; then to a place called Melania,? and 
to Celenderis, a city with a harbour. Some writers, 
among whom is Artemidorus, make Celenderis, not 
Coracesium, the beginning of Cilicia. And he says 
that the distance from the Pelusian mouth? to 
Orthosia is three thousand nine hundred stadia; 
to the Orontes River, one thousand one hundred 
and thirty; to the Gates* next thereafter, five 
hundred and twenty-five; and to the borders® of 
the Cilicians, one thousand two hundred and sixty.® 
4, Then one comes to Holmi, where the present 
Seleuceians formerly lived; but when Seleuceia on 
the Calycadnus was founded, they migrated there ; 
for immediately on doubling the shore, which forms 

a promontory called Sarpedon, one comes to the 

3. The mouth of the Nile at Pelusium. 

4 Elsewhere (14. 5. 19), ‘‘ Pylae” (‘‘Gates”’) is called ‘‘a 
boundary between the Cilicians and the Syrians.” 

5 2,6. the western borders (Celenderis, according to Artemi- 

® Elsewhere (16. 2. 33) the MSS. give the figures of 
Artemidorus as follows: ‘‘ From Orthosia to Pelusium, 

3650 stadia, including the sinuosities of the gulfs; from 
Melaenae, or Melaniae, in Cilicia near Celenderis, to the 
common boundaries of Cilicia and Syria, 1900; thence to 
the Orontes, 520; and then to Orthosia, 1130.” Groskurd, 
Forbiger, and Meineke (see critical note) accept these figures 
and emend the present passage correspondingly, 



ποιοῦσαν ἄκραν, ἣ καλεῖται Σαρπηδών. πλησίον 
δ᾽ ἐστὶ τοῦ “Καλυκάδνου καὶ τὸ “Ζεφύριον, καὶ 
αὕτη ἄκρα" ἔχει δὲ ὁ ποταμὸς ἀνάπλουν εἰς τὴν 
Σελεύκειαν, πόλιν εὖ συνοικουμένην καὶ πολὺ 
ἀφεστῶσαν τοῦ Κιλικίου καὶ Παμφυλίου τρόπου. 
ἐνταῦθα ἐ ἐγένοντο καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἄνδρες ἀξιόλογοι τῶν 
ἐκ τοῦ περιπάτου φιλοσόφων᾽ ᾿Αθήναιός τε καὶ 

Ξέν ἄρχος, ὧν ὁ μὲν ᾿Αθήναιος καὶ ἐπολιτεύσατο | 

καὶ ἐδημαγώγησε χρόνον τινὰ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι" εἶτ᾽ 
ἐμπεσὼν εἰς τὴν Μουρήνα φιλίαν ἐκείνῳ συνεάλω 
φεύγων, φωραθείσης τῆς κατὰ Καίσαρος τοῦ 
Σεβαστοῦ συσταθείσης ἐπιβουλῆς" ἀναίτιος δὲ 
φανεὶς ἀφείθη ὑπὸ Καίσαρος. ὡς 8 ἐπανιόντα 
εἰς “Ῥώμην " ἠσπάζοντο καὶ ἐπυνθάνοντο οἱ 
πρῶτοι ἐντυγχάνοντες, τὸ τοῦ Ἐὐριπίδου ἔφη" 

Ψ τι -“" \ / A 
ἥκω, νεκρῶν κευθμῶνα Kal σκότου πύλας 

ὀλίγον δ᾽ ἐπιβιοὺς χρόνον ἐν συμπτώσει τῆς 
οἰκίας, ἐν ἡ ᾧκει, διεφθάρη, νύκτωρ γενομένῃ. 
Ξέναρχος δέ, οὗ ἠκροασάμεθα ἡμεῖς, ἐν οἴκῳ μὲν 
οὐ πολὺ διέτριψεν, ἐν ᾿Αλεξανδρείᾳ δὲ καὶ 
᾿Αθήνησι καὶ τὸ τελευταῖον ἐν Ρώμῃ, τὸν παιδευ- 
τικὸν βίον ἑλόμενος" χρησάμενος δὲ καὶ τῇ 
᾿Αρείου 3 φιλίᾳ καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα τῇ Καίσαρος τοῦ 
Σεβαστοῦ διετέλεσε μέχρι γήρως ἐν τιμῇ ἀγό- 
μενος" μικρὸν δὲ πρὸ τῆς τελευτῆς πηρωθεὶς τὴν 
ὄψιν κατέστρεψε νόσῳ τὸν βίον. 

5. Μετὰ δὲ τὸν Καλύκαδνον ἡ Ποικίλη λεγο- 

1 εἰς ρώμην appears to bean error for ἐκ Ρώμης, as Casaubon 
and Kramer suggest. 




GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 4-5 

outlet of the Calyeadnus. Near the Calycadnus is 

_ also Zephyrium, likewise a promontory. The river 

affords a voyage inland to Seleuceia, a city which 

_ is well-peopled and stands far aloof from the 
_ Cilician and Pamphylian usages. Here were born 

in my time noteworthy men of the Peripatetic sect 
of philosophers, Athenaeus and Xenarchus. Of 
these, Athenaeus engaged also in affairs of state 
and was for a time leader of the people in his 
native land ; and then, having fallen into a friendship 
with Murena, he was captured along with Murena 
when in flight with him, after the plot against 
Augustus Caesar had been detected, but, being 
clearly proven guiltless, he was released by Caesar, 
And when, on his return to! Rome, the first men 
who met him were greeting him and questioning 
him, he repeated the following from Euripides: ? 
*T am come, having left the vaults of the dead3 
and the gates of darkness.” But he survived his 
return only a short time, having been killed in the 
collapse, which took place in the night, of the house 
in which he lived. Xenarchus, however, of whom 
I was a pupil, did not tarry long at home, but 
resided at Alexandria and at Athens and finally at 
Rome, having chosen the life of a teacher; and 
having enjoyed the friendship both of Areius and 
later of Caesar Augustus, he continued to be held 
in honour down to old age; but shortly before the 
end he lost his sight, and then died of a disease. 

5. After the Calycadnus one comes to the rock 

1 «*T'o” is apparently an error for ‘‘ from.” 
3 Hecuba 1. 3 2,6. Hades. 

3 *Apelov, Tzschucke, for ᾿Αρίου ; so the later editors. 


C 671 


μένη πέτρα, κλίμακα ἔχουσα λατομητὴν ἐπὶ 
Σελεύκειαν ἄγουσαν. εἶτ᾽ ᾿Ανεμούριον ἄκρα, 
ὁμώνυμος τῇ προτέρᾳ, καὶ Κράμβουσα νῆσος καὶ 
Κώρυκος ἄκρα, ὑπὲρ ἧς ἐν εἴκοσι σταδίοις ἐστὶ 
τὸ Κωρύκιον ἄντρον, ἐν ᾧ ἡ ἀρίστη κρόκος 
φύεται. ἔστι δὲ κοιλὰς μεγάλη κυκλοτερής, 
ἔχουσα περικειμένην ὀφρὺν πετρώδη, πανταχόθεν 
ἱκανῶς ὑψηλήν: καταβάντι δ᾽ εἰς αὐτὴν ἀνώ- 
μαλόν ἐστιν ἔδαφος καὶ τὸ πολὺ πετρῶδες, μεστὸν 
δὲ τῆς θαμνώδους ὕλης ἀειθαλοῦς τε καὶ ἡμέρου" 
παρέσπαρται δὲ καὶ τὰ ἐδάφη τὰ φέροντα τὴν 
κρόκον. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄντρον αὐτόθι, ἔχον πηγὴν 
μεγάλην, ποταμὸν ἐξιεῖσαν καθαροῦ τε καὶ δια- 
φανοῦς ὕδατος, εὐθὺς καταπίπτοντα ὑπὸ γῆς" 
ἐνεχθεὶς δ᾽ ἀφανὴς ἔξεισιν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν' 
καλοῦσι δὲ Πικρὸν ὕδωρ. 

6. Ei? ἡ ἘἘλαιοῦσσα! νῆσος μετὰ τὴν 
Κώρυκον, προσκειμένη τῇ ἠπείρῳ, ἣν συνῴκισεν 
᾿Αρχέλαος καὶ κατεσκευάσατο βασίλειον, λαβὼν 
τὴν Τραχειῶτιν Κιλικίαν ὅλην πλὴν Σελευκείας, 

» ἃ , Ril? 4 , \ 
καθ᾽ ὃν τρόπον καὶ ᾿Αμύντας πρότερον εἶχε Kai 

ἔτι πρότερον Κλεοπάτρα. εὐφυοῦς γὰρ ὄντος 
τοῦ τόπου πρὸς τὰ λῃστήρια καὶ κατὰ γῆν καὶ 
κατὰ θάλατταν (κατὰ γῆν μὲν διὰ τὸ μέγεθος τῶν 
ὀρῶν καὶ τῶν ὑπερκειμένων ἐθνῶν, πεδία καὶ 
γεώργια ἐχόντων μεγάλα καὶ εὐκατατρόχαστα, 
κατὰ θάλατταν δὲ διὰ τὴν εὐπορίαν τῆς τε 

1 ᾿Ἐλαιοῦσσα, the editors, for ᾿Ελεοῦσσα (and ᾿Ελεοῦσα). 

1 ἃ 6. the Pictured Rock. 2 § 3 above, 
3 Crocus sativus, which yields saffron. 
4 Bitter Water, οἵ 5 See 12, 2. 7. 



| GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 5-6 
 Poecilé,! as it is called, which has steps hewn in it 
that lead to Seleuceia; then to Anemurium, a 
_ promontory, bearing the same name as the former,” 
and to Crambusa, an island, and to Corycus, a 
promontory, above which, at a distance of twenty 
stadia, is the Corycian cave, in which the best 
crocus® grows. It is a great circular hollow, with 
_ a rocky brow situated all round it that is everywhere 
quite high. Going down into it, one comes to a 
floor that is uneven and mostly rocky, but full of 
trees of the shrub kind, both the evergreen and 
those that are cultivated. And among these trees 
are dispersed also the plots of ground which produce 
the crocus. There is also a cave here, with a great 
spring, which sends forth a river of pure and trans- 
parent water; the river forthwith empties beneath 
the earth, and then, after running invisible under- 
ground, issues forth into the sea, It is called 
_ Picrum. Hydor.* 

6. Then, after Corycus, one comes to Elaeussa, an 
island lying close to the mainland, which Archelaiis 
settled, making it a royal residence,® after he had 
received® the whole of Cilicia Tracheia except 
Seleuceia—the same way in which it was obtained 
formerly by Amyntas’ and still earlier by Cleo- 
patra;® for since the region was naturally well 
adapted to the business of piracy both by land and 
by sea—by land, because of the height of the moun- 
tains and the large tribes that live beyond them, 
tribes which have plains and farm-lands that are large 
and very easily overrun, and by sea, because of the good 

δ 4.¢, from the Romans (see 12. 1. 4). 
7 See 12. 5. 1. 8 See § 3 above. 



ναυπηγησίμου ὕλης καὶ τῶν λιμένων καὶ ἐρυ- 
μάτων καὶ ὑποδυτηρίων), ἐδόκει πρὸς ἅπαν τὸ 
τοιοῦτο βασιλεύεσθαι μᾶλλον τοὺς τόπους, ἢ 
ὑπὸ τοῖς Ρωμαίοις ἡγεμόσιν εἶναι, τοῖς ἐπὶ τὰς 
κρίσεις πεμπομένοις, οἱ μήτ᾽ ἀεὶ παρεῖναι ἔμελλον, 
’, »ι [2 \ , / 
μήτε μεθ᾽ ὅπλων. οὕτω μὲν ᾿Αρχέλαος ἔλαβε 
πρὸς τῇ Καππαδοκίᾳ τὴν τραχεῖαν Κιλικίαν. 
εἰσὶ δ᾽ ὅροι ταύτης μεταξὺ Σόλων τε καὶ 
> ’ ς / 1 Ν ὶ , 
EXatovaons ὁ Aduos! ποταμὸς καὶ κώμη 
, a 
7. Kata δὲ τὰς ἀκρωρείας tod Ταύρου τὸ 
Ζηνικέτου πειρατήριόν ἐστιν ὁ "Ὄλυμπος, ὄρος 
e ’ 
τε καὶ φρούριον ὁμώνυμον, ἀφ᾽ οὗ κατοπτεύεται 
πᾶσα Λυκία καὶ Παμφυλία καὶ Πισιδία καὶ 
lal Φ 
Μιλυάς: ἁλόντος δὲ τοῦ ὄρους ὑπὸ 3 τοῦ Ἴσαυ- 
ρικοῦ, ἐνέπρησεν ἑαυτὸν πανοίκιον. τούτου δ᾽ 
ἣν καὶ ὁ Κώρυκος καὶ ἡ Φασηλὶς 8 καὶ πολλὰ 
a / ’ / ᾽ © 19 
τῶν Παμφύλων χωρία" πάντα δ᾽ εἷλεν ὁ Ἴσαυ- 

8. Μετὰ δὲ Λάμον Σόλοι πόλις ἀξιόλογος, 
fol ¥ ’ > \ n \ 5. ’ ΄ 
τῆς ἄλλης Κιλικίας ἀρχὴ τῆς περὶ τὸν Ἶσσόν, 
᾿Αχαιῶν καὶ Ῥοδίων κτίσμα τῶν ἐκ Λίνδου" εἰς 
ταύτην λειπανδρήσασαν Πομπήιος Μάγνος κατῴ- 
κισε τοὺς περιγενομένους τῶν πειρατῶν, ods 
μαλιστα ἔγνω σωτηρίας καὶ προνοίας τινὸς ἀξίους, 


καὶ μετωνόμασε ἸΠομπηιόπολιν. γεγόνασι ὃ 

fal lal , e 

ἄνδρες ἐνθένδε τῶν ὀνομαστῶν Χρύσιππός τε ὁ 
Ν Ν x / > vad 

στωικὸς φιλόσοφος, πατρὸς ὧν αρσέως ἐκεῖθεν 

1 Aduos, Tzschucke, for Λάγμος C, Λάτμος other MSS. ; so 
the later editors. 

2 ὑπό, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 

3 Φασηλίς, the editors, for Φασιλίς. 


ἀπ»... a 


ἐν eon oe 

Re ee ee 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 6-8 

supply, not only of shipbuilding timber, but also of 
harbours and fortresses and secret recesses—with 
all this in view, I say, the Romans thought that it 
_ was better for the region to be ruled by kings than 
_ to be under the Roman prefects sent to administe1 
_ justice, who were not likely always to be present 
_ or to have armed forces with them. Thus Archelaiis 
᾿ς received,in addition to Cappadocia, Cilicia Tracheia ; 

_and the boundary! of the latter, the river Lamus 

and the village of the same name, lies between Soli 

and Elaeussa. 

7. Near the mountain ridges of the Taurus? 
lies the piratical stronghold of Zenicetus—I mean 
Olympus, both mountain and fortress, whence are 
visible all Lycia and Pamphylia and Pisidia and 
Milyas; but when the mountain was captured by 
Isauricus,? Zenicetus burnt himself up with his 
whole house. To him belonged also Corycus and 
Phaselis and many places in Pamphylia; but all 
were taken by Isauricus. 

8. After Lamus one comes to Soli, a noteworthy 
city, the beginning of the other Cilicia, that which 
is round Issus; it was founded by Achaeans and 
Rhodians from Lindus. Since this city was of scant 
population, Pompey the Great settled in it those 
survivors of the pirates whom he judged most 
worthy of being saved and provided for;* and he 
changed its name to Pompéiopolis. Among the 
famous natives of Soli were: Chrysippus the Stoic 
philosopher, whose father had moved there from 

1 6. on the east. 24 
3 Servilius Isauricus. 4 

4 E has Πομπηιούπολιν, 

C 672 


μετοικήσαντος, Kal Φιλήμων, ὁ κωμικὸς ποιητής, 
καὶ “Apatos, ὁ τὰ φαινόμενα συγγράψας ἐν 

9. Εἶτα Ζεφύριον ὁμώνυμον τῷ πρὸς Καλυ- 
κάδνῳ"" eit’ ᾿Αγχιάλη μικρὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς θαλάττης, 
κτίσμα Σαρδαναπάλλου, φησὶν ᾿Αριστόβουλος: 
ἐνταῦθα δ᾽ εἶναι μνῆμα τοῦ Σαρδαναπάλλου καὶ 
τύπον λίθινον, συμβάλλοντα τοὺς τῆς δεξιᾶς 
χειρὸς δακτύλους, ὡς ἂν ἀποκροτοῦντα,Ξ3 καὶ 
ἐπιγραφὴν εἶναι ᾿Ασσυρίοις γράμμασι τοιάνδε: 
Σαρδανάπαλλος ὁ ᾿Ανακυνδαράξεω παῖς, ᾿Αγχιά- 
Anv καὶ Ταρσὸν ἔδειμεν ἡμέρῃ μιῇ" ἔσθιε, πῖνε, 
παῖζε, ὡς τἄλλα ὃ τούτου οὐκ ἄξια, τοῦ ἀποκρο- 
τήματος. μέμνηται δὲ καὶ Χοιρίλος τούτων" καὶ 
δὴ καὶ περιφέρεται τὰ ἔπη ταυτί: 

ταῦτ᾽ ἔχω, ὅσσ᾽ ἔφαγον καὶ ἀφύβρισα καὶ μετ᾽ 

τέρπν᾽ ἔπαθον, τὰ δὲ πολλὰ καὶ ὄλβια κεῖνα 

10. Ὑπέρκειται δὲ τὰ Κύινδα τῆς ᾿Αγχιάλης 
ἔρυμα, ᾧ ἐχρήσαντό ποτε οἱ Μακεδόνες γαζοφυ- 

1 Καλυκάδνῳ Emowz, Καλύδνῳ other MSS. 

2 Before καί, all MSS except E read ἔνιοι δέ. 

8 After τἄλλα, Ald. adds ἀνθρώπινα, apparently from 
Arrian 2. 5. 

4 After ἀποκροτήματος, the following verses (obviously an 
interpolation), inserted by all editors from Casaubon to 
Corais, are in DFhi found only in the margin and in Cgsr 
preceded by the words τὸ ὅλον ἐπίγραμμα: 

εὖ εἰδώς, ὅτι θνητὸς ἔφυς, σὸν θυμὸν ἄεξε, 
τερπόμενος θαλίῃσι: θανόντι τοι οὔ τις ὄνησι5. 
καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ σποδός εἶμι, Νίνου μεγάλης βασιλεύσας" 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 8-10 

Tarsus; Philemon, the comic poet; and Aratus, 
who wrote the work entitled Zhe Phaenomena, in 
_ verse. 
9. Then to Zephyrium, which bears the same 
name as the place near Calycadnus.1' Then, a little 
_above the sea, to Anchialé, which, according to 
_ Aristobulus, was founded by Sardanapallus. Here, 
_ he says, is the tomb of Sardanapallus, and a stone 
figure which represents the fingers of the right 
_ hand as snapping together, and the following in- 
_ seription in Assyrian letters: “ Sardanapallus, the 
son of Anacyndaraxes, built Anchialé and Tarsus 
in one day. Eat, drink, be merry, because all 
things else are not worth this,” meaning the 
_ snapping of the fingers. Choerilus also mentions 
ΐ this inscription; and indeed the following verses 
are everywhere known: “ Mine are all that I have 
eaten, and my loose indulgences and the delights of 
love that I have enjoyed; but those numerous 
blessings have been left behind.” ? 
10. Above Anchialé lies Cyinda, a fortress, which 
Η at one time was used as a treasury by the Mace- 

1 14. 5. 4. 

3 The whole of the epigram, as found in some of the MSS. 
(see critical note), is as follows: ‘‘ Well aware that thou art 
by nature mortal, magnify the desires of thy heart, delighting 
thyself in merriments ; there is no enjoyment for thee after 
death. For I too am dust, though I have reigned over great 
Ninus. Mine are all the food that I have eaten, and my 
loose indulgences, and the delights of love that I have 
enjoyed; but those numerous blessings have been left 
behind. This to mortal men is wise advice on how to live.” 

ἢ ταῦτ᾽ ἔχω, boo ἔφαγον καὶ ἐφύβρισα καὶ μετ᾽ ἔρωτος 
τς χέρπν᾽ ἔπαθον, τὰ δὲ πολλὰ καὶ ὄλβια κεῖνα λέλειπται. 

ἥδε σοφὴ βιότοιο παραίνεσις ἀνθρώποισιν. 


λακίῳ' ἦρε δὲ τὰ χρήματα Εὐμένης, ἀποστὰς 
᾿Αντεγόνον. ἔτι δ᾽ ὕπερθεν τούτου τε καὶ τῶν 
Σόλων ὀρεινή ἐστιν, ἐν 7 Ὄλβη πόλις, Διὸς i ἱερὸν 
ἔχουσα, Αἴαντος ἵδρυμα τοῦ Τεύκρου" καὶ ὁ 
ἱερεὺς δυνάστης ἐγίνετο τῆς Τραγχειώτιδος" εἶτ᾽ 
ἐπέθεντο τῇ χώρᾳ τύραννοι πολλοί, καὶ συνέστη 
τὰ λῃστήρια. μετὰ δὲ τὴν τούτων κατάλυσιν 
ἐφ᾽ ἡμῶν ἤδη τὴν τοῦ Τεύκρου δυναστείαν ταύτην 
ἐκάλουν, τὴν δ᾽ αὐτὴν καὶ ἱερωσύνην: καὶ οἱ 
πλεῖστοί γε τῶν ἱερασαμένων ὠνομάζοντο Τεῦκροι 
ἢ Αἴαντες. εἰσιοῦσα δ᾽ ἼΑβα κατ᾽ ἐπιγαμίαν εἰς 
τὸν οἶκον τοῦτον, ἡ Ζηνοφάνους θυγάτηρ, ἑνὸς 
τῶν τυράννων, αὐτὴ κατέσχε τὴν ἀρχήν, προ- 
λαβόντος τοῦ πατρὸς ἐν ἐπιτρόπου σχήματι: 
ὕστερον δὲ καὶ ᾿Αντώνιος καὶ Κλεοπάτρα κατε- 
αρίσαντο ἐκείνη, θεραπείαις ἐκλυπαρηθέντες" 
ἔπειθ᾽ ἡ μὲν κατελύθη, τοῖς δ᾽ ἀπὸ τοῦ γένους 
διέμεινεν ἡ ἀρχή. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ᾿Αγχιάλην. αἱ τοῦ 
Κύδνου ἐκβολαὶ κατὰ τὸ Ῥῆγμα καλούμενον. 
ἔστι δὲ λιμνάξων τόπος, ἔχων καὶ παλαιὰ νεώρια, 
εἰς ὃν ἐκπίπτει ὁ Κύδνος ὁ διαρρέων μέσην τὴν 
Ταρσόν, τὰς ἀρχὰς ἔχων ἀπὸ τοῦ ὑπερκειμένου 
τῆς πόλεως Ταύρου" καὶ ἔστιν ἐπίνειον ἡ λίμνη 
τῆς Ταρσοῦ. 
σρ15 1}: Μέχρι μὲν δὴ δεῦρο ἡ παραλία πᾶσα, ἀπὸ 
τῆς Ῥοδίων περαίας ἀρξαμένη, πρὸς ἰσημερινὰς 
Ἀν α ΘΑ ἀπὸ τῶν ὁμωνύμων ἐκτείνεται δύσεων' 
εἶτ᾽ ἐπὶ τὴν χειμερινὴν ἀνατολὴν ἐπιστρέφει 
μέχρι ᾿Ισσοῦ, κἀντεῦθεν ἤδη καμπὴν λαμβάνει 
πρὸς νότον μέχρι Φοινίκης, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν πρὸς 

1 4,6. straight east and west. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. ro—11 

_donians. But the treasures were taken away by 

_ Enumenes, when he revolted from Antigonus. And 

_ still above this and Soli is a mountainous country, 
in which is a city Olbé, with a temple of Zeus, 

_ founded by Ajax the son of Teucer. The priest 
of this temple became dynast of Cilicia Tracheia ; 
and then the country was beset by numerous 
_ tyrants, and the gangs of pirates were organised. 
_ And after the overthrow of these they called this 

_ country the domain of Teucer, and called the same 

_ also the priesthood of Teucer; and most of the 
_ priests were named Teucer or Ajax. But Aba, 
_ the daughter of Xenophanes, one of the tyrants, 
eame into this family by marriage and herself took 
possession of the empire, her father having pre- 

a viously received it in the guise of guardian. But 

~ later both Antony and Cleopatra conferred it upon 
her as a favour, being moved by her courteous 
entreaties. And then she was overthrown, but the 

_ empire remained with her descendants. After 

Anchialé one comes to the outlets of the Cydnus, 
near the Rhegma, as it is called. It is a place that 
forms into a lake, having also ancient arsenals; and 
into it empties the Cydnus River, which flows through 
the middle of Tarsus and has its sources in the city 
Taurus, which lies above Tarsus. The lake is also 
_ the naval station of Tarsus. 

| 11. Now thus far the seaboard as a whole, begin- 
ning at the Peraea of the Rhodians, extends towards 
the equinoctial east from the equinoctial west,’ and 
then bends in the direction of winter sunrise? as 
far as Issus, and then forthwith takes a bend 
towards the south as far as Phoenicia; and the 

3 South-east (see Vol. I, p. 105, note 2). 


δύσιν μέχρι στηλῶν τελευτᾷ. τὸ μὲν οὖν ἀληθὲς 
ὁ ἰσθμὸς τῆς περιωδευμένης χερρονήσου οὗτός 
ἐστιν ὁ ἀπὸ Ταρσοῦ καὶ τῆς ἐκβολῆς τοῦ Κύδνου 
μέχρι ᾿Αμισοῦ' τὸ γὰρ ἐλάχιστον ἐξ ᾿Αμισοῦ 
διάστημα ἐπὶ ποὺς Κιλίκων ὅρους τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν' 
ἐντεῦθεν δὲ ἑκατὸν εἴκοσίν εἰσιν εἰς Ταρσὸν 
στάδιοι, κἀκεῖθεν οὐ πλείους 1 ἐπὶ τὴν ἐκβολὴν 
τοῦ Κύδνου. καὶ μὴν ἐπί γε ᾿Ισσὸν καὶ τὴν κατ᾽ 
αὐτὴν θάλατταν οὔτ᾽ ἄλλη ὁδὸς συντομωτέρα 
ἐστὶν é& Ἀμισοῦ τῆς διὰ Ῥαρσοῦ, οὔτ᾽ ἐκ Ταρσοῦ 
ἐπὶ ᾿Ισσὸν ἐγγυτέρω ἐστὶν ἢ ἐπὶ Κύδνον, ὥστε 
δῆλον, ὅτι ταῖς μὲν ἀληθείαις οὗτος ἂν εἴη ὁ 
ἰσθμός, λέγεται δ᾽ ὅμως ὁ μέχρι τοῦ ᾿Ισσικοῦ 
κόλπου, παρακλεπτόντων διὰ τὸ σημειῶδες. διὰ 
δὲ τοῦτ᾽ αὐτὸ καὶ τὴν ἐκ τῆς ‘Podias γραμμήν, ἣν 
μέχρι τοῦ Κύδνου κατηγάγομεν, τὴν αὐτὴν ἀπο- 
φαίνομεν " τῇ μέ Ἰσσοῦ, οὐδὲν παρὰ τοῦτο 
ποιούμενοι, καὶ τὸν Ταῦρόν φαμεν διήκειν ἐπ᾽ 
εὐθείας τῇδε τῇ γραμμῇ μέχρι τῆς Ἰνδικῆς. 

12. A δὲ Ταρσὸς κεῖται μὲν ἐν πεδίῳ, κτίσμα 
δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῶν μετὰ Τριπτολέμου πλανηθέντων 
᾿Αργείων κατὰ ζήτησιν ᾿Ιοῦς’ διαρρεῖ δ᾽ αὐτὴν 
μέσην ὁ Κύδνος παρ᾽ αὐτὸ τὸ γυμνάσιον τῶν 
νέων" ἅτε δὴ τῆς πηγῆς οὐ πολὺ ἄπωθεν οὔσης, 
καὶ τοῦ ῥείθρου διὰ φάραγγος βαθείας t ἰόντος, εἶτ᾽ 
εὐθὺς εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἐκπίπτοντος, ψυχρόν τε καὶ 

1 πέντε, after πλείους, all MSS, except F. The translator 
believes, with C. Miiller, that Strabo wrote ἑβδομήκοντα (i.e. 
o’ and not e’). 

2 ἀποφαίνομεν, Groskurd and the later editors, inatend of 

1 2,6. the Pillars of Heracles at Gibraltar. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 11--12 

remainder extends towards the west as far as 
the Pillars! and there ends. Now the truth is 
_ that the actual isthmus of the peninsula which 1 
he ve described is that which extends from Tarsus 
-and the outlet of the Cydnus to Amisus, for this 
is the shortest distance from Amisus to the 
_ boundaries of Cilicia; and the distance thence to 
_ Tarsus is one hundred and twenty stadia, and the 
_ distance from there to the outlet of the Cydnus is 
ΟΠ nomore than that. And in fact to Issus, and the 
_ sea near it, there is no other road from Amisus 
_ which is shorter than that through Tarsus, and 
_ Tarsus is not nearer to Issus than to the Cydnus ;? 
and therefore it is clear that in reality this would 
_be the isthmus; but still people call that which 
_ extends as far as the Gulf of Issus the true isthmus, 
thus betraying the facts because of the significance 
οὔ the gulf, And it is because of this very thing that 
I, without making any accurate distinctions, repre- 
_ sent the line from Rhodes, which I have prolonged 
to the Cydnus, to be the same as the line extending 
as far as Issus, and also assert that the Taurus 
_ extends in a straight line with that line as far as 
12. As for Tarsus, it lies in a plain; and it was 
_ founded by the Argives who wandered with Tripto- 
_ Jemus in quest of lo; and it is intersected in the 
_ middle by the Cydnus River, which ftows past the 
very gymnasium of the young men. Now inasmuch 
_ as the source of the river is not very far away and 
its stream passes through a deep ravine and then 
_ empties immediately into the city, its discharge is 
_ both cold and swift; and hence it is helpful both 

2 i.e, the outlet of the Cydnus, at Rhegma. 
VOL, VI. m 345 

C 674 


ταχὺ TO ῥεῦμά ἐστιν, ὅθεν καὶ τοῖς παχυνευροῦσι 
ῥοϊζομένοις καὶ κτήνεσι καὶ ἀνθρώποις ἐπικουρεῖ. 
18. Τοσαύτη δὲ τοῖς ἐνθάδε ἀνθρώποις σπουδὴ 
πρός τε φιλοσοφίαν καὶ τὴν ἄλλην παιδείαν 
ΡΝ ty ἅπασαν γέγονεν, ὥσθ᾽ ὑπερβέβληνται 
αἱ ᾿Αθήνας καὶ ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν καὶ εἴ τινα ἄλλον 
τόπον δυνατὸν εἰπεῖν, ἐν ᾧ σχολαὶ καὶ διατριβαὶ 
φιλοσόφων γεγόνασι. διαφέρει. δὲ τοσοῦτον, ὅτι 
ἐνταῦθα μὲν οἱ φιλομαθοῦντες ἐπιχώριοι πάντες 
εἰσί, ξένοι δ᾽ οὐκ ἐπιδημοῦσι ῥᾳδίως" οὐδ᾽ αὐτοὶ 
οὗτοι μένουσιν αὐτόθι, ἀλλὰ καὶ τελειοῦνται 
ἐκδημήσαντες, καὶ τελειωθέντες ἕενιτεύουσιν 
ἡδέ έ δ᾽ ὀλί is δ᾽ ἄλλα 
ἡδέως, κατέρχονται ὀλίγοι. ταῖς δ᾽ ἄλλαις 
πόλεσιν, ἃς ἀρτίως εἶπον, πλὴν ᾿Αλεξανδρείας, 
συμβαίνει τἀναντία: φοιτῶσι γὰρ εἰς αὐτὰς 
πολλοὶ καὶ διατρίβουσιν αὐτόθι ἄσμενοι, τῶν δ᾽ 
ἐπιχωρίων οὐ πολλοὺς οὔτ᾽ ἂν ἔξω φοιτῶντας 
ἴδοις κατὰ φιλομάθειαν, οὔτ᾽ αὐτόθι περὶ τοῦτο 
σπουδάζοντας" ᾿Αλεξανδρεῦσι δ᾽ ἀμφότερα συμ- 
βαίνει" καὶ γὰρ δέχονται πολλοὺς τῶν ξένων 
καὶ ἐκπέμπουσι τῶν ἰδίων οὐκ ὀλίγους. καί εἰσι 
σχολαὶ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς παντοδαπαὶ τῶν περὶ λόγους 
τεχνῶν, καὶ τἄλλά τ’ εὐανδρεῖ καὶ πλεῖστον 
δύναται, τὸν τῆς μητροπόλεως ἐπέχουσα λόγον. 
14. “Avdpes δ᾽ ἐξ, αὐτῆς γεγόνασι τῶν μὲν 
στωικῶν ᾿Αντίπατρός τε καὶ ᾿Αρχέδημος καὶ 
Νέστωρ' ἔτι δ᾽ ᾿Αθηνόδωροι δύο, ὧν ὁ μέν, 
Κορδυλίων καλούμενος, συνεβίωσε Μάρκῳ 

1 ὦ 4. to their schools. 


aT © 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 12-14 

to men and to cattle that are suffering from swollen 
sinews, if they immerse themselves in its waters. 

13. The people at Tarsus have devoted themselves 
so eagerly, not only to philosophy, but also to the 
' whole round of education in general, that they have 
_ surpassed Athens, Alexandria, or any other place 
_ that can be named where there have been schools 
_ and lectures of philosophers. But it is so different 
from other cities that there the men who are fond 
of learning are all natives, and foreigners are not 
inclined to sojourn there; neither do these natives 
stay there, but they complete their education 
abroad; and when they have completed it they 
are pleased to live abroad, and but few go back 
home. But the opposite is the case with the 
other cities which I have just mentioned except 
Alexandria ; for many resort to them and pass time 
there with pleasure, but you would not see many of 
the natives either resorting to places outside their 
country through love of learning or eager about pur- 
suing learning at home. With the Alexandrians, 
however, both things take place, for they admit? 
many foreigners and also send not a few of their 
own citizens abroad. Further, the city of Tarsus 
has all kinds of schools of rhetoric; and in general 
it not only has a flourishing population but also is 
most powerful, thus keeping up the reputation of 
the mother-city.” 

14. The following men were natives of Tarsus: 
- among the Stoics, Antipater and Archedemus and 
Nestor; and also the two Athenodoruses, one of 
whom, called Cordylion, lived with Marcus Cato 

2 2.6. in spite of the fact that so many able men leave the 
city and never return. 



Κάτωνι, καὶ ἐτελεύτα! παρ᾽ ἐκείνῳ, ὁ δὲ τοῦ 
Σάνδωνος, ὃν καὶ Κανανίτην φασὶν ἀπὸ κώμης 
τινός, Καίσαρος καθηγήσατο καὶ τιμῆς ἔτυχε 
μεγάλης" κατιών τε εἰς τὴν πατρίδα ἤδη γηραιὸς. 
κατέλυσε τὴν καθεστῶσαν πολιτείαν, κακῶς 
φερομένην ὑπό τε ἄλλων καὶ ἘΒοηθοῦ, κακοῦ 
μὲν ποιητοῦ, κακοῦ δὲ πολίτου, δημοκοπίαις 
ἰσχύσαντος τὸ πλέον. ἐπῆρε δ᾽ αὐτὸν καὶ 
᾿Αντώνιος, Kat ἀρχὰς ἀποδεξάμενος τὸ γραφὲν 
εἰς τὴν ἐν Φιλίπποις νίκην ἔπος, καὶ ἔτε μᾶλλον 
ἡ εὐχέρεια ἡ ἐπιπολάξουσα παρὰ τοῖς Ταρσεῦσιν, 
ὥστ᾽ ἀπαύστως σχεδιάζειν παρὰ χρῆμα πρὸς 
τὴν δεδομένην ὑπόθεσιν" καὶ δὴ καὶ γυμνασιαρ- 
χίαν ὑποσχόμενος Ταρσεῦσι τοῦτον ἀντὶ γυμνα- 
σιάρχου 3 κατέστησε, καὶ τὰ ἀναλώματα ἐπίσ- 
τευσεν αὐτῷ. ἐφωράθη δὲ νοσφισάμενος τά τε 
ἄλλα καὶ τοὔλαιον' ἐλεγχόμενος δ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν 
κατηγόρων ἐπὶ τοῦ ᾿Αντωνίου, παρῃτεῖτο τὴν 
ὀργήν, σὺν ἄλλοις καὶ ταῦτα λέγων, ὅτι, “Ὥσπερ 
“O ἐξύμνησεν ᾿Αχιλλέα καὶ ᾿Αγαμέμνονα 
μηρος ἐξύμνη χ γαμέμ 
καὶ ᾽Οδυσσέα, οὕτως ἐγὼ σέ' οὐ δίκαιος οὖν 
εἰμὶ εἰς τοιαύτας ἄγεσθαι διαβολὰς ἐπὶ σοῦ. 
παραλαβὼν οὖν ὁ κατήγορος τὸν λόγον, ᾿Αλλ᾽ 
“Ὅμηρος μέν, ἔφη, ἔλαιον 3 ᾿Αγαμέμνονος οὐκ 
ἔκλεψεν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ ᾿Αχιλλέως, σὺ δέ: ὥστε 
δώσεις δίκην. διακρουσάμενος δ᾽ οὖν θεραπείαις 
τισὶ τὴν ὀργήν, οὐδὲν ἧττον διετέλεσεν ἄγων 
καὶ φέρων τὴν πόλιν μέχρι τῆς καταστροφῆς 
τοῦ ᾿Αντωνίου. τοιαύτην δὲ τὴν πόλιν κατα- 

1 ἐτελεύτα, Corais, for τελεύτα. 
2 ἀντὶ γυμνασιάρχου sw, ἀντιγυμνασίαρχον other MSS. 
3 μέν, after ἔλαιον, omitted by mowzz. 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 14 

and died at his house; and the other, the son of 
Sandon, called Cananites after some village, was 
Caesar's teacher and was greatly honoured by him ; 
and when he returned to his native land, now an 

οἷά man, he broke up the government there estab- 
lished, which was being badly conducted by Boethus, 

among others, who was a bad poet and a bad citizen, 
having prevailed there by currying the favour of 
the people. He had been raised to prominence by 
Antony, who at the outset received favourably the 
poem which he had written upon the victory at 
Philippi, but still more by that facility prevalent 
among the Tarsians whereby he could instantly 
speak offhand and unceasingly on any given subject. 
Furthermore, Antony promised the Tarsians an office 
of gymnasiarch, but appointed Boethus instead of a 
gymnasiarch, and entrusted to him the expenditures. 
But Boethus was caught secreting, among other 
things, the olive-oil; and when he was being proven 
guilty by his accusers in the presence of Antony he 
deprecated Antony’s wrath, saying, among other 
things, that “Just as Homer had hymned the 
praises of Achilles and Agamemnon and Odysseus, 
so I have hymned thine. It is not right, therefore, 
that I should be brought before you on such 
slanderous charges.”” When, however, the accuser 
caught the statement, he said, “Yes, but Homer 
did not steal Agamemnon’s oil, nor yet that of 
Achilles, but you did; and therefore you shall be 
punished.” However, he broke the wrath of 
Antony by courteous attentions, and no less than 
before kept on plundering the city until the over- 
throw of Antony. Finding the city in this plight, 



λαβὼν ὁ ᾿Αθηνόδωρος, τέως μὲν ἐπεχείρει λόγῳ 
μετάγειν κἀκεῖνον καὶ τοὺς συστασιώτας" ὡς 
οὐκ ἀπείχοντο ὕβρεως οὐδεμιᾶς, ἐχρήσατο τῇ 
δοθείσῃ ὑ ὑπὸ τοῦ Καίσαρος ἐξουσίᾳ καὶ ἐξέβαλεν 
αὐτούς, καταγνοὺς φυγήν. οἱ δὲ πρῶτον μὲν 
κατετοιχογράφησαν αὐτοῦ τοιαῦτα" 

C675 ἔργα νέων, βουλαὶ δὲ μέσων, πορδαὶ δὲ γερόν- 

ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἐκεῖνος ἐν παιδιᾶς μέρει δεξάμενος 
ἐκέλευσε παρεπιγράψαι “ --- βρονταὶ δὲ γερόν- 
TOV, καταφρονήσας δέ τις τοῦ ἐπιεικοῦς, 
εὔλυτον τὸ κοιλίδιον ἔχων, προσέρρανε πολὺ 
τῇ "θύρᾳ καὶ τῷ τοίχῳ, νύκτωρ παριὼν τὴν 
οἰκίαν. ὁ δὲ τῆς στάσεως κατηγορῶν ἐν ἐκ- 
κλησίᾳ, τὴν νόσον τῆς πόλεως, ἔφη, καὶ τὴν 
καχεξίαν πολλαχόθεν σκοπεῖν ἔξεστι, καὶ δὴ 
καὶ ἐκ τῶν διαχωρημάτων. οὗτοι μὲν στωικοὴ 
ἄνδρες" ἀκαδημαϊκὸς δὲ Νέστωρ ὁ καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς, ὁ 
Μαρκέλλου καθηγησάμενος, τοῦ ᾿Οκταουίας 
παιδός, τῆς Καίσαρος ἀδελφῆς. καὶ οὗτος δὲ 
προέστη τῆς πολιτείας, διαδεξάμενος τὸν ᾿Αθη- 
νόδωρον, καὶ διετέλεσε τιμώμενος παρά τε τοῖς 
ἡγεμόσι καὶ ἐν τῇ πόλει. 
15. Τῶν δ᾽ ἄλλων φιλοσόφων, 
οὕς κεν ἐὺ γνοίην καὶ τοὔνομα μυθησαίμην, 

Πλουτιάδης τε ἐγένετο καὶ Διογένης τῶν περι- 
πολιζόντων καὶ σχολὰς διατιθεμένων εὐφυῶς" 
ὁ δὲ Διογένης καὶ ποιήματα ὥσπερ ἀπεφοίβαζε, 
τεθείσης ὑποθέσεως, τραγικὰ ὡς ἐπὶ πολύ' γραμ- 
ματικοὶ δέ, ὧν καὶ συγγράμματά ἐστιν, ᾿Άρτε- 
μίδωρός τε καὶ Διόδωρος" ποιητὴς δὲ τραγῳδίας 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 14-15 

Athenodorus for a time tried to induce both Boethus 

_and his partisans to change their course; but since 
_ they would abstain from no act of insolence, he 

used the authority given him by Caesar, condemned 
them to exile, and expelled them. These at first 
indicted him with the following inscription on the 
walls: “Work for young men, counsels for the 
middle-aged, and flatulence for old men”; and 
when he, taking the inscription as a joke, ordered the 
following words to be inscribed beside it, “thunder 
for old men,” someone, contemptuous of all decency 
and afflicted with looseness of the bowels, pro- 
fusely bespattered the door and wall of Athenodorus’ 
house as he was passing by it at night. Atheno- 
dorus, while bringing accusations in the assembly 
against the faction, said: ‘“‘One may see the sickly 
plight and the disaffection of the city in many ways, 
and in particular from its excrements.”” These men 
were Stoics; but the Nestor of my time, the teacher 
of Marcellus, son of Octavia the sister of Caesar, 
was an Academician. He too was at the head of 
the government of Tarsus, having succeeded Atheno- 
dorus; and he continued to be held in honour both 
by the prefects and in the city. 

15. Among the other philosophers from Tarsus, 
“whom I could well note and tell their names,’ ἢ 
are Plutiades and Diogenes, who were-among those 
philosophers that went round from city to city and 
conducted schools in an able manner. Diogenes 
also composed poems, as if by inspiration, when a 
subject was given him—for the most part tragic 
poems ; and as for grammarians whose writings are 
extant, there are Artemidorus and Diodorus ; and 

1 Iliad 3. 235. 


ἄριστος τῶν τῆς Πλειάδος καταριθμουμένων 
Διονυσίδης. μάλιστα δ᾽ ἡ Ῥώμη δύναται δι- 
δάσκειν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἐκ τῆσδε τῆς πόλεως 
φιλολόγων' Ταρσέων γὰρ καὶ ᾿Αλεξανδρέων ἐστὶ 
μεστή. τοιαύτη μὲν ἡ Ταρσός. 

16. Mera δὲ τὸν Κύδνον ὁ Πύραμος ἐκ τῆς 
Καταονίας ῥέων, οὗπερ καὶ πρότερον ἐμνήσθημεν" 
φησὶ δ᾽ ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος, ἐντεῦθεν εἰς Σόλους εὐ- 
θυπλοίᾳ σταδίους εἶναι πεντακοσίους. πλησίον 
δὲ καὶ Μαλλύός, ἐφ᾽ ὕψους κειμένη, κτίσμα 
᾿Αμφιλόχου καὶ Μόψου, τοῦ ᾿Απόλλωνος καὶ 
Μαντοῦς," περὶ ὧν πολλὰ μυθολογεῖται" καὶ 
δὴ καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐμνήσθημεν αὐτῶν ἐν τοῖς περὶ 
Κάλχαντος λόγοις καὶ τῆς ἔριδος, ἣν ἤρισαν 
περὶ τῆς μαντικῆς ὅ τε Κάλχας καὶ ὁ Μόψος" 
ταύτην τε γὰρ τὴν ἔριν “μεταφέρουσιν ἔνιοι, 
καθάπερ καὶ "Σοφοκλῆς, εἰς τὴν Κιλικίαν, καλέσας 
ἐκεῖνος. αὐτὴν Παμφυλίαν τραγικῶς, καθάπερ 
καὶ τὴν Λυκίαν Καρίαν καὶ τὴν Τροίαν καὶ 
Λυδίαν 8 Φρυγίαν" καὶ τὸν θάνατον δὲ τοῦ 
Κάλχαντος ἐνταῦθα παραδιδόασιν ἄλλοι τε καὶ 
Σοφοκλῆς. οὐ μόνον δὲ τὴν περὶ τῆς μαντικῆς 
ἔριν μεμυθεύκασιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς. τὸν 
γὰρ Μόψον φασὶ καὶ τὸν ᾿Αμφίλοχον ἐκ Τροίας 

C 676 ἐλθόντας κτίσαι Μαλλόν' εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αμφίλοχον εἰς 
“Apyos ἀπελθεῖν, δυσαρεστήσαντα. δὲ τοῖς ἐκεῖ 
πάλιν ἀναστρέψαι δεῦρο, ἀποκλειόμενον δὲ τῆς 
κοινωνίας συμβαλεῖν εἰς μονομαχίαν πρὸς τὸν 

1 ἡ Ῥώμη, Sihler (American Journal of Philology, 1923, 
p. 141) would emend to τὴν Ῥώμην. 

2 Μαντοῦς, Xylander, for Λητοῦς ; so the later editors, 

3 καί, before Φρυγίαν, Groskurd omits, so Meineke, 


»- a - = 
a ae 5 il 
So het eRe 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 15-16 

_ the best tragic poet among those enumerated in the 

τε Pleias”} was Dionysides. But it is Rome that is 

best able to tell us the number of learned men from 

this city ;? for it is full of Tarsians and Alexandrians. 
Such is Tarsus. 

16. After the Cydnus River one comes to the 

Pyramus River, which flows from Cataonia, a river 

which I have mentioned before.* According to 
Artemidorus, the distance thence to Soli in a straight 

voyage is five hundred stadia. Near by, also, is 

Mallus, situated on a height, founded by Amphilochus 
and Mopsus, the latter the son of Apollo and Manto, 
concerning whom many mythsare told. And indeed 
I, too, have mentioned them in my account of 

_ Calchas‘ and of the quarrel between Calchas and 

Mopsus about their powers of divination. For some 
writers transfer this quarrel, Sophocles, for example, 
to Cilicia, which he, following the custom of tragic 
poets, calls Pamphylia, just as he calls Lycia “ Caria” ® 
and Troy and Lydia “ Phrygia.” And Sophocles, 

among others, tells us that Calchas died there. But, 


according to the myth, the contest concerned, 
not only the power of divination, but also the 
sovereignty; for they say that Mopsus and 
Amphilochus went from Troy and founded Mallus, 
and that Amphilochus then went away to Argos, 

ο΄ and, being dissatisfied with affairs there; returned to 

Mallus, but that, being excluded from a share in the 
government there, he fought a duel with Mopsus, 

1 7.e. the ‘*Seven (Alexandrian) Stars,” referring to the 
Pleiades, the seven daughters of Atlas, who were placed b 
Zeus among the stars and became one of the oldest Gree 

2 See critical note. 8. 19 2, 4. 

* 14, 1. 27. 5 See 14. 3. 3. 



Μόψον, πεσόντας δ᾽ ἀμφοτέρους ταφῆναι μὴ ἐν 
ἐπόψει ἀλλήλοις" καὶ νῦν οἱ τάφοι δείκνυνται 
περὶ Μάγαρσα τοῦ Πυράμου πλησίον. ἐντεῦθεν 
δ᾽ ἣν Κράτης ὁ γραμματικός, οὗ φησὶ γενέσθαι 
μαθητὴς Παναίτιος. 

11. Ὑπέρκειται δὲ τῆς παραλίας ταύτης 
᾿Αλήιον πεδίον, δι’ οὗ Φιλώτας διήγαγεν ᾿Αλε- 
ξάνδρῳ τὴν ἵππον, ἐκείνου τὴν φάλαγγα ἀγα- 
γόντος ἐκ τῶν Σόλων διὰ τῆς παραλίας καὶ τῆς 
Μαλλώτιδος ἐπί τε ᾿Ισσὸν καὶ τὰς Δαρείου 
δυνάμεις. φασὶ δὲ καὶ ἐναγίσαι τῷ ᾿Αμφιλόχῳ 
τὸν ᾿Αλέξανδρον διὰ τὴν ἐξ ᾿Αργους συγγένειαν. 
Ἡσίοδος δ᾽ ἐν Σόλοις ὑπὸ ᾿Απόλλωνος ἀναιρε- 
θῆναι τὸν ᾿Αμφίλοχόν φησιν, οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸ 
᾿Αλήιον πεδίον, οἱ δ᾽ ἐν Συρίᾳ, ἀπὸ τοῦ ᾿Αληΐου 
ἀπιόντα διὰ τὴν ἔριν. 

18. Μετὰ δὲ Μαλλὸν Alyatar πολίχνιον, 
ὕφορμον ἔχον" εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αμανίδες πύλαι, ὕφομμον 
ἔχουσαι, εἰς ἃς τελευτᾷ τὸ ᾿Αμανὸν «ὄρος ἀπὸ 
τοῦ Ταύρου καθῆκον, ὃ ὃ τῆς Κιλικίας ὕ ὑπερκειται 
κατὰ τὸ πρὸς ἕω μέρος, ἀεὶ μὲν ὑπὸ πλειόνων 
δυναστευόμενον τυράννων, ἐχόντων. ἐρύματα: καθ᾽ 
ἡμᾶς δὲ κατέστη κύριος πάντων ἀνὴρ ἀξιόλογος 
καὶ βασιλεὺς ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων ὠνομάσθη διὰ τὰς 
ἀνδραγαθίας Ταρκονδίμοτος,᾿ καὶ τὴν διαδοχὴν 
τοῖς μετ᾽ αὐτὸν παρέδωκε. 

19. Μετὰ δὲ Αἰγαίας ‘Toads πολίχνιον ὕφορ- 
μον ἔχον καὶ ποταμὸς Lwapos.® ἐνταῦθα ὁ 
ἀγὼν συνέπεσεν ᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ καὶ Δαρείῳ" καὶ ὁ 

1 Ταρκονδίμοτος, Casaubon, for Ταρκοδίμεντος CF, Ταρκδή- 

μεντὸος Other MSS. 
2 Πίναρος, Tzschucke, for Πίδνος D, Πίνδος other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 16-19 

and that both fell in the duel and were buried in 
places that were not in sight of one another. And 
to-day their tombs are to be seen in the neighbour- 
hood of Magarsa near the Pyramus River. This! 
was the birthplace of Crates the grammarian, of 
whom Panaetius is said to have been a pupil. 

17. Above this coast lies the Aleian Plain, through 
which Philotas led the cavalry for Alexander, when 
Alexander led his phalanx from Soli along the coast 
and the territory of Mallus against Issus and the 
forces of Dareius. It is said that Alexander per- 
formed sacrifices to Amphilochus because of his 
kinship with the Argives. Hesiod says that 
Amphilochus was slain by Apollo at Soli; but others 
say that he was slain in the neighbourhood of the 
Aleian Plain, and others in Syria, when he was 
quitting the Aleian Plain because of the quarrel. 

18. After Mallus one comes to Aegaeae, a small 
town, with a mooring-place; and then to the 
Amanides Gates, with a mooring-place, where ends 
the mountain Amanus, which extends down from 
the Taurus and lies above Cilicia towards the east. 
It was always ruled by several powerful tyrants, who 
possessed strongholds; but in my time a notable 
man established himself as lord of all, and was named 
king by the Romans because of his manly virtues— 
I refer to Tarcondimotus, who bequeathed the 
succession to his posterity. 

19. After Aegaeae, one comes to Issus, a small 
town with a mooring-place, and to the Pinarus 
River. It was here that the struggle between 
Alexander and Dareius occurred; and the gulf is 

1 Mallus, 


κόλπος εἴρηται Ἰσσικός" ἐν αὐτῷ δὲ πόλις 
“Pwoos καὶ Μυρίανδρος πόλις καὶ ᾿Αλεξάνδρεια 
καὶ Νικόπολις καὶ Μόψου ἑστία καὶ Πύλαι 
λεγόμεναι, ὅριον Κιλίκων τε καὶ Σύρων. ἐν δὲ 
τῇ Κιλικίᾳ ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ τῆς Σαρπηδονίας 
᾿Αρτέμιδος ἱερὸν καὶ μαντεῖον, τοὺς δὲ χρησμοὺς 
ἔνθεοι προθεσπίξουσιν. 

20. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν Κιλικίαν πρώτη πόλις ἐστὶ 
τῶν Σύρων Σελεύκεια ἡ ἐν Πιερίᾳ, καὶ πλησίον 
᾿Ορόντης ἐκδίδωσι ποταμός. ἔστι δ᾽ ἀπὸ 
Σελευκείας εἰς Σόλους ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας πλοῦς ὀλίγον 
ἀπολείπων τῶν χιλίων σταδίων. 

21. Τῶν δ᾽ ἐν Τροίᾳ Κιλίκων, ὧν Ὅμηρος 
μέμνηται, πολὺ διεστώτων ἀπὸ τῶν ἔξω τοῦ 
Ταύρου Κιλίκων, οἱ μὲν ἀποφαίνουσιν ἀρχηγέτας 
τοὺς ἐν τῇ Τροίᾳ τούτων καὶ δεικνύουσί τινας 
τόπους κἀνταῦθα, ὥσπερ ἐν τῇ Παμφυλίᾳ 
Θήβην καὶ Λυρνησσόν, οἱ δ᾽ ἔμπαλιν καὶ ᾿Αλήιόν 
τι πεδίον κἀκεῖ δεικνύουσι. 

Περιωδευμένων δὲ καὶ τῶν ἔξω τοῦ Ταύρου 
μερῶν τῆς τ προειρημένης χερρονήσου, προσθετέον 
ἐστὶ καὶ ταῦτα. 

C677 22. Ὁ γὰρ ᾿Απολλόδωρος ἐν τοῖς περὶ νεῶν 
ἔτι καὶ τοιαῦτα λέγει" τοὺς γὰρ ἐκ τῆς ᾿Ασίας 
ἐπικούρους τῶν Τρώων ἅπαντας καταριθμεῖσθαί 
φησιν ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ τῆς χερ ονήσου κατοίκους 
ὄντας, ἧς ὁ στενώτατος ᾿ἰσθμός ἐστι τὸ μεταξὺ 
τοῦ κατὰ Σινώπην μυχοῦ καὶ Ἰσσοῦ" αἱ δ᾽ ἐκτὸς 
πλευραί, φησί, τριγωνοειδοῦς οὔσης, εἰσὶ μὲν 
ἄνισοι, παρήκουσι δὲ ἡ μὲν ἀπὸ Κιλικίας ἐπὶ 
Χελιδονίας, ἡ δ᾽ ἐνθένδε ἐπὶ τὸ στόμα τοῦ 
Εὐξείνου, ἡ δ᾽ ἐπὶ Σινώπην πάλιν ἐνθένδε. τὸ 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 19-22 

ealled the Issic Gulf. On this gulf are situated the 
city Rhosus, the city Myriandrus, Alexandreia, 
Nicopolis, Mopsuestia, and Pylae, as it is called, 
which is the boundary between the Cilicians and the 
_ Syrians. In Cilicia is also the temple and oracle 
_of the Sarpedonian Artemis; and the oracles are 
_ delivered by persons who are divinely inspired. 

20. After Cilicia the first Syrian city is Seleuceia- 
_ in-Pieria, near which the Orontes River empties. 
The voyage from Seleuceia to Soli, on a straight 

course, is but little short of one thousand stadia. 

21. Since the Cilicians in the Troad whom Homer 
_ mentions are far distant from the Cilicians outside 
_ the Taurus, some represent those in Troy as original 
colonisers of the latter, and point out certain places 
of the same name there, as, for example, Thebé and 
_ Lyrnessus in Pamphylia, whereas others of contrary 
opinion point out also an Aleian Plain in the former. 

Now that the parts of the aforesaid peninsula 
outside the Taurus have been described, I must add 
what follows. 

22. Apollodorus, in his work On the Catalogue 
of Ships, goes on to say to this effect, that all the 
allies of the Trojans from Asia were enumerated by 
the poet as being inhabitants of the peninsula, 
of which the narrowest isthmus is that between the 
innermost recess at Sinopé and Issus. And the 
exterior sides of this peninsula, he says, which is 
triangular in shape, are unequal in length, one of 
them extending from Cilicia to the Chelidonian 
Islands, another from the Chelidonian Islands to the 
mouth of the Euxine, and the third thence back to 
Sinopé. Now the assertion that the allies were 



μὲν οὖν μόνους τοὺς ἐν τῇ χερρονήσῳ διὰ τῶν 
αὐτῶν ἐλέγχοιτ᾽ ἂν ψεῦδος ὄν, δι’ ὧν ἠλέγξαμεν 
πρότερον, μὴ μόνους τοὺς ἐντὸς “Adwos. οἱ yap 
περὶ Φαρνακίαν. τόποι, ἐν οἷς τοὺς ᾿Αλιξώνους 
ἔφαμεν, ὥσπερ ἔξω τοῦ “Αλυός εἰσιν, οὕτω καὶ 
ἔξω τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ, εἴπερ καὶ τῶν στενῶν τῶν 
μεταξὺ Σινώπης καὶ ᾿Ισσοῦ, καὶ οὐ τούτων γε 
μόνων, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν κατ᾿ ἀλήθειαν στενῶν τῶν 
μεταξὺ ᾿Αμισοῦ τε καὶ Ἰσσοῦ" οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐκεῖνος 
ὀρθῶς ἀφώρισται τὸν ἰσθμὸν καὶ τὰ κατ᾽ αὐτὸν 
στενά, ἐκεῖνα ἀντὶ τούτων τιθείς. πάντων δ᾽ 
εὐηθέστατον τὸ τὴν χερρόνησον τριγωνοειδῆ 
φήσαντα τρεῖς ἀποφήνασθαι τὰς ἔξω πλευράς" 
ὁ γὰρ τὰς ἔξω λέγων πλευρὰς ἔοικεν ὑπεξαι- 
ρουμένῳ τὴν κατὰ τὰ στενά, ὡς καὶ ταύτην 
οὖσαν πλευράν, οὐκ ἔξω δὲ οὐδ᾽ ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ. 
εἰ μὲν τοίνυν τὰ στενὰ ταῦτα οὕτως ἣν συνηγ- 
μένα, ὥστε μικρὸν ἀπολείπειν τοῦ συνάπτειν ἐπ᾽ 
ἀλλήλαις τήν τε ἐπὶ ᾿Ισσὸν καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ Σινώπην 
πίπτουσαν “πλευράν, συνεχώρει ἂν τριγωνοειδῆ 
λέγεσθαι τὴν χερρόνησον" νῦν δέ γε τρισχιλίους 
σταδίους ἀπολειπόντων μεταξὺ τῶν UT αὐτοῦ 
λεγομένων στενῶν, ἀμαθία τὸ λέγειν τριγωνοειδὲς 
τὸ τοιοῦτον τετράπλευρον, οὐδὲ χωρογραφικόν. 
ὁ δὲ καὶ χωρογραφίαν ἐξέδωκεν ἐν κωμικῷ 
μέτρῳ, γῆς περίοδον. ἐπιγράψας. μένει δ᾽ ἡ 
αὐτὴ ἀμαθία, κἂν εἰς τοὐλάχιστον καταγάγῃ 
διάστημά τις τὸν ἰσθμόν, ὅσον εἰρήκασιν οἱ 
πλεῖστον ψευσάμενοι τὸ ἥμισυ τοῦ παντός, ὅσον 
εἴρηκε καὶ ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος, χιλίους καὶ πεντακο- 

1 12. 8, 24. 2 [ambic verse. 

GEOGRAPRY, 14. 5. 22 

alone those who lived in the peninsula can be 
proved wrong by the same arguments by which | 
οὐρὰ previously shown that the allies were not alone 

_ those who lived this side the Halys River! For 

too were a side, but not “ exterior 

just as the places round Pharnacia, in which, as | 
said, the Halizoni lived, are outside the Halys River, 
so also they are outside the isthmus, if indeed they 
are outside the narrows between Sinopé and Issus ; 
᾿ς and not outside these alone, but also outside the 
_ true narrows between Amisus and Issus, for he too 
_ incorrectly defines the isthmus and its narrows, 
since he substitutes the former for the latter. But 
the greatest absurdity is this, that, after calling the 
peninsula triangular in shape, he represents the 
_ exterior sides’ as three in number; for when he 
speaks of the “exterior sides” he seems privily to 
_ exclude the side along the narrows, as though this 
” or on the sea. 
If, then, these narrows were so shortened that the 

_ exterior side ending at Issus and that ending at 

_ Sinopé lacked but little of joining one another, one 

5 ἢ might concede that the peninsula should be called 

triangular ; but, as it is, since the narrows mentioned 
by him leave a distance of three thousand stadia 
between Issus and Sinopé, it is ignorance and not 
_ knowledge of chorography to call such a four-sided 

figure triangular. Yet he published in the metre 

of comedy? a work on chorography entitled A 
Description of the Earth. The same ignorance still 
remains even though one should reduce the isthmus 
to the minimum distance, I mean, to one-half of the 
whole distance, as given by those who have most 
belied the facts, among whom is also Artemidorus, 



σίους σταδίους: οὐδὲ yap τοῦτο συναγωγήν πω 
τρυγωνοειδοῦς ποιεῖ σχήματος. ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ τὰς 
πλευρὰς ὀρθῶς διήρηται τὰς ἔξω, τὴν ἀπὸ Ἰσσοῦ 
͵ / > , Ἁ / > sé 
μέχρι Χελιδονίων εἰπών: λοιπὴ γάρ ἐστιν ὅλη 
ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας ἡ Λυκιακὴ παραλία ταύτῃ, καὶ ἡ 
a « id , / 4 > nw \ 
τῶν Ῥοδίων περαία μέχρι Φύσκου' ἐντεῦθεν δὲ 
καμπὴν λαβοῦσα ἡ ἤπειρος ἄρχεται τὴν δευτέραν 
καὶ δυσμικὴν ποιεῖν πλευρὰν ἄχρι Προποντίδος 
καὶ Βυζαντίου. 

28. Φήσαντος δὲ τοῦ ᾿Εφόρου, διότι τὴν 
χερρόνησον κατοικεῖ ταύτην ἑκκαίδεκα γένη, 
\ ς 4 \ \ / 
τρία μὲν Ἑλληνικά, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ βάρβαρα 
χωρὶς τῶν μιγάδων, ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ μὲν Κίλικες 
Ν / \ 4 \ Ν 
καὶ Πάμφυλοι καὶ Λύκιοι καὶ Βιθυνοὶ καὶ 
Παφλαγόνες καὶ Μαριανδυνοὶ καὶ Τρῶες καὶ 
Κᾶρες, Πισίδαι δὲ καὶ Μυσοὶ καὶ Χάλυβες καὶ 
Φρύγες καὶ Μελύαι ἐν τῇ μεσογαίᾳ, διαιτῶν 1 

a ε > / ξ ΄ =, ‘ 
ταῦτα ὁ ᾿Απολλόδωρος ἑπτακαιδέκατόν φησιν 
εἶναι τὸ τῶν Γαλατῶν, ὃ νεώτερόν ἐστι τοῦ 
» / n > > , \ \ e Ἂ 
Ἐφόρου, τῶν δ᾽ εἰρημένων τὰ μὲν “Ελληνικὰ 
μήπω κατὰξ τὰ Τρωικὰ κατῳκίσθαι, τὰ δὲ 

/ 1 ” 3 4 ὃ ὰ Ν 
βάρβαρα πολλὴν éxew*® σύγχυσιν διὰ τὸν 
χρόνον: καταλέγεσθαι δ᾽ ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ τό 
τε τῶν Tpwowv* καὶ τῶν νῦν ὀνομαζομένων 
Παφλαγόνων καὶ Μυσῶν καὶ Φρυγῶν καὶ 
Καρῶν καὶ Λυκίων,, Μῇήονάς τε ἀντὶ Λυδῶν 
καὶ ἄλλους ἀγνῶτας, οἷον ᾿Αλιζῶνας καὶ Καύ- 
κωνας" ἐκτὸς δὲ τοῦ καταλόγου Κητείους τε καὶ 

1 διαιτῶν, Corais, for διαιρῶν. 

2 κατά, Casaubon, for καὶ τά. 

8 ἔχειν F, ἔχει other MSS. 

4 Τρώων moz, Τρωικῶν other MSS. 

sears cll eu 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 22-23 

that is, fifteen hundred stadia; for even this does 
not contract the side along the narrows enough to 

make the peninsula a triangular figure. Neither 

does Artemidorus correctly distinguish the exterior 
sides when he speaks of “‘the side that extends from 

__Issus as far as the Chelidonian Islands,” for there 
still remains to this side the whole of the Lycian 

coast, which lies in a straight line with the side he 

_ mentions, as does also the Peraea of the Rhodians 

as far as Physcus. And thence the mainland bends 
and begins to form the second, or westerly, side 
extending as far as the Propontis and Byzantium. 
23. But though Ephorus said that this peninsula 
was inhabited by sixteen tribes, of which three were 
Hellenic and the rest barbarian, except those that 

_ were mixed, adding that the Cilicians, Pamphylians, 

Lycians, Bithynians, Paphlagonians, Mariandynians, 
Trojans, and Carians lived on the sea, but the 
Pisidians, Mysians, Chalybians, Phrygians, and 
Milyans in the interior, Apollodorus, who passes 
judgment upon this matter, says that the tribe of 
the Galatians, which is more recent than the time 
of Ephorus, is a seventeenth, and that, of the afore- 
said tribes, the Hellenic had not yet, in the time 
of the Trojan War, settled there, and that the 
barbarian tribes are much confused because of the 
lapse of time; and that the poet names in his 
Catalogue the tribes of the Trojans and of the 
Paphlagonians, as they are now named, and of the 
Mysians and Phrygians and Carians and Lycians, 
as also the Meionians, instead of the Lydians, and 
other unknown peoples, as, for example, the Hali- 
zones and Caucones; and, outside the Catalogue, 

δ᾽ Λυκίων, Corais, for Δικίων F, Κιλίκων other MSS. 



Σολύμους καὶ Κίλικας τοὺς ἐκ Θήβης πεδίου 
καὶ Λέλεγας: ΠΠαμφύλους δὲ καὶ Βιθυνοὺς καὶ 
Μαριανδυνοὺς καὶ Πισίδας καὶ Χάλυβας καὶ 
Μιλύας καὶ Καππάδοκας μηδ᾽ ὠνομάσθαι, τοὺς 
μὲν διὰ τὸ μηδέπω τοὺς τόπους κατῳκηκέναι 
τούτους, τοὺς δὲ διὰ τὸ ἑτέροις γένεσι περιέ- 
χεσθαι, ὡς ᾿Ιδριεῖς μὲν καὶ Teppirar? Καρσί, 
Δολίονες δὲ καὶ Βέβρυκες Φρυξί. 

24. Φαίνεται δ᾽ οὔτε τοῦ ᾿Εφόρου τὴν ἀπό- 
φασιν διαιτῶν ἱκανῶς, τά τε τοῦ ποιητοῦ ταράτ- 
των καὶ καταψευδόμενος. ᾿Εφόρου τε γὰρ τοῦτο 
πρῶτον ἀπαιτεῖν ἐχρῆν, τί δὴ τοὺς “Χάλυβας 
τίθησιν ἐντὸς τῆς χερρονήσου, τοσοῦτον ἀφε- 
στῶτας καὶ Σινώπης καὶ ᾿Αμισοῦ πρὸς ἕω ; ; οἱ 
γὰρ λέγοντες τὸν ἰσθμὸν τῆς χερρονήσου ταύτης 
τὴν ἀπὸ ᾿Ισσοῦ γραμμὴν ἐπὶ τὸν Εὔξεινον, ὡς 
ἂν μεσημβρινήν τινα τιθέασι ταύτην, ἣν οἱ 
μὲν εἶναι νομίζουσι τὴν ἐπὶ Σινώπης, οἱ δὲ τὴν 
ἐπ᾿ ᾿Αμισοῦ, ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν Χαλύβων οὐδείς" λοξὴ 
γάρ ἐστι τελέως. ὁ γὰρ δὴ διὰ Χαλύβων μεσημ- 
βρινὸς, διὰ τῆς μικρᾶς ᾿Αρμενίας γράφοιτ᾽ ἂν 
καὶ τοῦ Εὐφράτου, τὴν Καππαδοκίαν ὅλην ἐντὸς 
ἀπολαμβάνων καὶ τὴν Κομμαγηνὴν καὶ τὸν 
᾿Αμανὸν καὶ τὸν ᾿Ισσικὸν κόλπον. εἰ δ᾽ οὖν 
καὶ τὴν λοξὴν γραμμὴν ὁρίξειν τὸν ἰσθμὸν 
συγχωρήσαιμεν, τὰ πλεῖστά γε τούτων, καὶ 
μάλιστα ἡ Καππαδοκία, ἐντὸς ἀπολαμβάνοιτ᾽ 
ἂν καὶ ὁ νῦν ἰδίως λεγόμενος Πόντος, τῆς 
Καππαδοκίας μέρος ὧν τὸ πρὸς τῷ Εὐξείνῳ" 
ὥστ᾽ εἰ τοὺς Χάλυβας τῆς χερρονήσου θετέον 

1 Τερμίλαι, Xylander, for Τερμέδαι. 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 23-24 

the Ceteians and the Solymi and the Cilicians from 
the plain of Thebé and the Leleges, but nowhere 
names the Pamphylians, Bithynians, Mariandynians, 
Pisidians, Chalybians, Milyans, or Cappadocians— 
some because they had not yet settled in this region, 
_and others because they were included among other 
tribes, as, for example, the Hidrieis and the Termilae 
among the Carians, and the Doliones and Bebryces 
among the Phrygians. 
«24. But obviously Apollodorus does not pass a 
_ fair judgment upon the statement of Ephorus, and 
also confuses and falsifies the words of the poet; for 
he ought first to have asked Ephorus this question : 
_ Why he placed the Chalybians inside the peninsula 
___ when they were so far distant towards the east from 
_ both Sinopé and Amisus? For those who say that 
the isthmus of this peninsula is the line from 
Issus to the Euxine make this line a kind of 
_ meridian, which some think should be the line to 
Α͂ Sinopé, and others, that to Amisus, but no one that 
_ to the land of the Chalybians, which is absolutely 
_ oblique; in fact, the meridian through the land 
_ of the Chalybians would be drawn through Lesser 
_ Armenia and the Euphrates, cutting off on this side 
of it the whole of Cappadocia, Commagené, Mt. 
_ Amanus, and the Issic Gulf. If, however, we 
_ should concede that the oblique line bounds the 
___ isthmus, at least most of these places, and Cappadocia 
in particular, would be cut off on this side, as also 
_ the country now called Pontus in the special sense 
_ of the term, which is a part of Cappadocia towards 
_ the Euxine; so that, if the land of the Chalybians 

2 ἥν, Corais inserts. 





μέρος, πολὺ μᾶλλον τοὺς Κατάονας καὶ Karr- 
πάδοκας ἀμφοτέρους καὶ Λυκάονας δέ, ods καὶ 
αὐτοὺς παρῆκε. διὰ τί δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς μεσογαίοις 
ἔταξε τοὺς Χάλυβας, ods ὁ ποιητὴς ᾿Αλιξῶνας ἢ 
ἐκάλεσεν, ὥσπερ καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀπεδείξαμεν ; ; ἄμεινον 
γὰρ ἦν διελεῖν καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ 
φάναι, τοὺς δὲ ἐν τῇ μεσογαίᾳ" ὅπερ καὶ ἐπὶ 
τῆς Καππαδοκίας ποιητέον καὶ τῆς Κιλικίας. ὁ 
δὲ τὴν μὲν οὐδ᾽ ὠνόμακε, τοὺς Κίλικας δὲ τοὺς 
ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ μόνον εἴρηκεν. οἱ οὖν ἐπ᾽ 
᾿Αντιπάτρῳ τῷ Δερβήτῃ καὶ οἱ ‘Opovadeis καὶ 
ἄλλοι πλείους οἱ συνάπτοντες τοῖς [Ιισίδαις, 

οἱ οὐκ ἴσασι θάλατταν 
ἀνέρες, οὐδέ θ᾽3 ἅλεσσι μεμιγμένον εἶδαρ 

τίνα λάβωσι τάξιν; ἀλλ᾽’ οὐδὲ Λυδοὺς οὐδὲ 
Myovas εἴρηκεν, εἴτε δύο εἴθ᾽ οἱ αὐτοί εἰσι, καὶ 
εἴτε καθ᾽ ἑαυτοὺς εἴτ᾽ ἐν ἑτέρῳ γένει περιεχο- 
μένους. οὕτω γὰρ ἐπίσημον ἔθνος οὐκ ἀπο- 
κρύψαι δυνατόν, ὅ τε μὴ λέγων περὶ αὐτοῦ μηδὲν 
οὐκ ἂν δόξειε παραλιπεῖν τι τῶν κυριωτάτων ; : 

25. Τίνες δ᾽ εἰσὶν οἱ μιγάδες ; οὐ γὰρ ἂν 
ἔχοιμεν εἰπεῖν. παρὰ τοὺς λεχθέντας τόπους ἢ 
ὠνομάσθαι ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἢ παραλελεῖφθαι ἄλλους, 
ods ἀποδώσομεν τοῖς μιγάσιν, οὐδέ γε αὐτῶν τινὰς 
τούτων, ὧν ἢ εἶπεν ἣ παρέλιπε. καὶ γὰρ εἰ 
κατεμίχθησαν, ἀλλ᾽ ἡ ἐπικράτεια πεποίηκεν ἢ 
“Βλληνας ἢ βαρβάρους' τρίτον δὲ γένος οὐδὲν 
ἴσμεν τὸ μικτόν. 

1 «Αλιζώνους CEF sw. 
2 οὐδέ θ᾽ F, οὐδ᾽ ἔθ᾽ other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 24-25 

must be set down as a part of the peninsula, much 
τῇ ore should Cataonia and both Cappadocias, as also 
sycaonia, which is itself omitted by him. Again, 
why did Ephorus place in the interior the Chalybians, 
= om the poet called Halizones, as I have already 
emonstrated?! For it would have been better to 
divide them and set one part of them on the sea 
| nd the other in the interior, as should also be done 
‘in the case of Cappadocia and Cilicia ; but Ephorus 
does not even name Cappadocia, and speaks only 
of the Cilicians on the sea. Now as for the people 
_ who were subject to Antipater Derbetes, and the 
᾿ς Homonadeis and several other peoples who border 
on the Pisidians, “men who do not know the sea 
and even do not eat food mingled with salt,” 2 
4 where are they to be placed? Neither does he say 
‘in regard to the Lydians or Meiones whether they 
_ are two peoples or the same, or whether they live 
_ separately by themselves or are included within 
another tribe. For it would be impossible to lose 
_ from sight so significant a tribe; and if Ephorus 
_ says nothing about it, would he not seem to have 
Ὁ something most important ? 
_ 25. And who are the “ mixed” tribes? For we 
Should be unable to say that, as compared with the 
_ aforesaid places, others were either named or omitted 
Γ ΡΥ him which we shall assign to the “mixed” 
tribes; neither can we call “mixed” any of these 
peoples themselves whom he has mentioned or 
_ omitted ; for, even if they had become mixed, still 
@ the predominant element has made them either 
_ Hellenes or barbarians ; and I know nothing of a 
third tribe of people that is “ mixed.” 

1 12. 3. 20. 3 Odyssey 11. 122. 

Ο 680 


26. Πῶς δὲ τρία γένη τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἐστὶ τὰ 
τὴν χερρόνησον οἰκοῦντα ; ; εἰ γάρ, ὅτι τὸ παλαιὸν 
οἱ αὐτοὶ ἦσαν Ἴωνες καὶ ᾿Αθηναῖοι, λεγέσθωσαν 
καὶ οἱ Δωριεῖς καὶ οἱ Αἰολεῖς οἱ αὐτοί, ὥστε δύο 
ἔθνη γίνοιτ᾽ ἄν' εἰ δὲ διαιρετέον κατὰ τὰ ὕ ὕστερα 
ἔθη, καθάπερ καὶ τὰς διαλέκτους, τέτταρα ἂν εἴη 
καὶ τὰ ἔθνη, καθάπερ, καὶ αἱ διάλεκτοι. οἰκοῦσι 
δὲ τὴν χερρόνησον ταύτην, καὶ μάλιστα κατὰ τὸν 
τοῦ ᾿Εφόρου διορισμόν, οὐκ Ἴωνες μόνον, ἀλλὰ 
καὶ ᾿Αθηναῖοι, καθάπερ ἐν τοῖς καθ᾽ ἕκαστα 
δεδήλωται. τοιαῦτα μὲν δὴ πρὸς τὸν Ἔφορον 
διαπορεῖν ἄξιον, ᾿Απολλόδωρος δὲ τούτων μὲν 
ἐφρόντισεν οὐδέν: τοῖς δὲ ἑκκαίδεκα ἔθνεσι προσ- 
τίθησιν ἑπτακαιδέκατον, τὸ τῶν Ῥαλατῶν, 
ἄλλως μὲν Χρήσιμον λεχθῆναι, πρὸς δὲ τὴν 
δίαιταν τῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ ᾿Εφόρου λεγομένων ἢ παρα- 
λειπομένων οὐ δέον" εἴρηκε, δὲ τὴν αἰτίαν αὐτός, 
ὅτι ταῦτα πάντα νεώτερα τῆς ἐκείνου ἡλικίας. 

27. Μεταβὰς δ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸν ποιητὴν τοῦτο μὲν 
ὀρθῶς λέγει, διότι πολλὴ σύγχυσις γεγένηται 
τῶν βαρβάρων ἐθνῶν ἀπὸ τῶν Τρωικῶν εἰς τὰ 
νῦν διὰ τὰς μεταπτώσεις: καὶ γὰρ προσγέγονέ 
τινα καὶ ἐλλέλοιπε καὶ διέσπασται καὶ συνῆκται 
εἰς ἕν. οὐκ εὖ δὲ τὴν αἰτίαν διττὴν ἀποφαίνει, 
δι᾽ ἣν οὐ μέμνηταί, τίνων ὁ ποιητής" ἢ τῷ μήπω 
τότ᾽ οἰκεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ ἔθνους τούτου, 4 τῷ ἐν 
ἑτέρῳ γένει περιέχεσθαι. τὴν γὰρ Καππαδοκίαν 
οὐκ εἴρηκεν, οὐδὲ τὴν Καταονίαν, ὡς δ᾽ αὕτως τὴν 

1 Cf. 8. 1. 2, 2 14.1.3 ff 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 26-27 

_ 26. And how can there be three Hellenic tribes 
that live on the peninsula? For if it is because 
the Athenians and the lonians were the same people 
in ancient times, let also the Dorians and the 
_Aeolians be called the same people; and thus there 
would be only two tribes. But if one should make 
‘distinctions in accordance with the customs of later 
times, as, for example, in accordance with dialects, 
_ then the tribes, like the dialects, would be four 
in number.' But this peninsula, particularly in 
accordance with the division of Ephorus, is inhabited, 
not only by Ionians, but also by Athenians, as I 
have shown in my account of the several places.? 
Now although it is worth while to raise such ques- 
tions as these with reference to Ephorus, yet 
_ Apollodorus took no thought for them and also goes 
__ on to add to the sixteen tribes a seventeenth, that 
_ of the Galatians—in general a useful thing to do, 
_ but unnecessary for the passing of judgment upon 
_ what issaid or omitted by Ephorus. But Apollodorus 
states the reason himself, that all this is later than 
_ the time of Ephorus. 
᾿ς 27. Passing to the poet, Apollodorus rightly says 
_ that mach confusion of the barbarian tribes has 
_ taken place from the Trojan times to the present 
᾿ς because of the changes, for some of them have been 
! _ added to, others have vanished, others πᾶνε been 
ο΄ dispersed, and others have been combined into one 
tribe. But he incorrectly sets forth as twofold the 
reason why the poet does not mention some of 
_ them; either because a country was not yet in- 
___habited by this or that tribe or because this or that 
_ tribe was included within another; for instance, the 
poet fails to mention Cappadocia, Cataonia, and 




Λυκαονίαν, δι’ οὐδέτερον τούτων' οὐ yap ἔχομεν 
τοιαύτην ἱστορίαν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν οὐδεμίαν. γελοῖόν 
\ \ / ’ ’ὔ \ 
τε τὸ τοὺς Καππάδοκας καὶ Λυκάονας διὰ τί μὲν 
᾿ , 
Ὅμηρος παρέλιπε, φροντίσαι καὶ ἀπολογήσασθαι, 
διὰ τί δ᾽ "Ἔφορος παρῆλθε, παρελθεῖν καὶ αὐτόν, 
καὶ ταῦτα παραθέμενον πρὸς αὐτὸ τοῦτο τὴν 
ἀπόφασιν τἀνδρός, πρὸς τὸ ἐξετάσαι καὶ διαι- 
ἃ , 7 κ᾿ a > Ἢ ant of 
τῆσαι" καί, διότι μὲν Μήονας ἀντὶ Λυδῶν “Opn- 
= / “ ’ ” \ » 4 
pos εἶπε, διδάξαι, ὅτι δ᾽ οὔτε Λυδοὺς οὔτε Μήονας 
εἴρηκεν "Ἄφορος, μὴ ἐπισημήνασθαι. 
28, Φήσας δὲ ἀγνώτων τινῶν μεμνῆσθαι τὸν 
᾽ n ct 
ποιητήν, Καύκωνας μὲν ὀρθῶς λέγει καὶ Σολύμους 
καὶ Knteiovs! cai Λέλεγας καὶ Κίλικας τοὺς ἐκ 
¢ al 
Θήβης πεδίου, τοὺς δ᾽ ᾿Αλιζῶνας αὐτὸς πλάττει, 
n > e “ \ ¢ cal > J, 
μᾶλλον δ᾽ οἱ πρῶτοι τοὺς ᾿Αλιζῶνας ἀγνοήσαντες, 
τίνες εἰσί, καὶ μεταγράφοντες πλεοναχῶς καὶ 
πλάττοντες τὴν τοῦ ἀργύρου γενέθλην καὶ ἄλλα 
‘ , 2 > / “ ‘ 
πολλὰ μέταλλα," ἐκλελειμμένα ἅπαντα. πρὸς 
ταύτην δὲ τὴν φιλοτιμίαν κἀκείνας συνήγαγον 
\ et / a e / / 
τὰς ἱστορίας, ἃς ὁ Σκήψιος τίθησι παρὰ Καλλι- 
σθένους λαβὼν καὶ ἄλλων τινῶν, οὐ καθαρευόντων 
" \ al ¢ 5 ὃ ὃ , € e 4 
τῆς περὶ τῶν ᾿Αλιζώνων ψευδοδοξίας" ὡς ὁ μὲν 
Ταντάλου πλοῦτος καὶ τῶν Πελοπιδῶν ἀπὸ τῶν 
Ἀ , \ / / y tee « 
περὶ Φρυγίαν καὶ Σίπυλον μετάλλων ἐγένετο" ὁ 
΄ nr , ‘ ~ 
δὲ Κάδμου ἐκ τῶν ὃ περὶ Θράκην καὶ τὸ Wayyaiov 
ὄρος" ὁ δὲ Πριάμου ἐκ τῶν ἐν ᾿Αστύροις ἃ περὶ 
Ν ’ ? \ fa) ΝΜ \ / 
Αβυδον χρυσείων, ὧν καὶ νῦν ἔτι μικρὰ λείπεται" 

1 Κητείους, Xylander, for Κητίους ; so later editors. 
2 μέταλλα, Corais, for μεγάλα ; so later editors, 
3 ἐκ τῶν, Corais inserts; so later editors. 
4 ἸΑστύροις, Xylander, for ᾿Ασυρίοις CDFiw, περὶ “ABuSov 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 27-28 

ikewise Lycaonia, but for neither of these reasons, 
we have no history of this kind in their case. 
Sorther, it is ridiculous that Apollodorus should 
co acern himself about the reason why Homer 
nitted the Cappadocians and Lycaonians and speak 
n his defence, and yet should himself omit to tell 
5 reason why Ephorus omitted them, and that too 
when he had cited the statement of the man for the 
ver y purpose of examining it and passing judgment 
“ss it; and also to teach us why Homer men- 
ed Meionians instead of Lydians, but not to 
᾿ παρε that Ephorus mentions neither Lydians 
_ nor Meionians. 
28. After saying that the poet mentions certain 
Sgnknown tribes, Apollodorus rightly names the 
_ Cauconians, the Solymi, the Ceteians, the Leleges, 
_ and the Cilicians of the plain of Thebé; but the 
-Halizones are a fabrication of his own, or rather 
x the first men who, not knowing who the Halizones 
ere, wrote the name in several different ways! and 
Dfatiricated the “birthplace of silver’”’? and many 
_ other mines, all of which have given out. And 
in furtherance of their emulous desire they also 
_ collected the stories cited by Demetrius of Scepsis 
from Callisthenes and certain other writers, who 
were not free from the false notions about the 
-Halizones. Likewise the wealth of Tantalus and 
1 the Pelopidae arose from the mines round Phrygia 
᾿ and Sipylus; that of Cadmus from those round 
_ Thrace and Mt. Pangaeus; that of Priam from the 
_ gold mines at Astyra near Abydus (of which still 
_ to-day there are small remains; here the amount 
_ of earth thrown out is considerable, and the exeava- 

Ε΄ 1 See 12. 3. 21. 2 See 12. 3. 24. 



πολλὴ δ᾽ ἡ ἐκβολὴ καὶ τὰ ὀρύγματα σημεῖα τῆς 
πάλαι μεταλλείας: ὁ δὲ Μέδου ἐκ τῶν περὶ τὸ 
Βέρμιον ὄρος" ὁ δὲ Ῥύγου καὶ ᾿Αλυάττου καὶ 
Κροίσου ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν Λυδίᾳ καὶ τῆς μεταξὺ 
᾿Αταρνέως τε καὶ Περγάμου, ὅπου 3 πολίχνη β 
ἐρήμη, “ἐκμεμεταλλευμένα ἔ ἔχουσα τὰ χωρία. 

Ἔτι καὶ ταῦτα μέμψαιτο ἄν τις τοῦ 
“Aor robepou, 8 ὅτι τῶν νεωτέρων καινοτομούντων : 
πολλὰ παρὰ τὰς Ὁμηρικὰς ἀποφάσεις, εἰωθὰς 
ταῦτ᾽ ἐλέγχειν ἐπὶ πλέον, ἐνταῦθα οὐκ ὠλυγώρηκε 
μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τἀναντία εἰς, ἕν συνάγει τὰ μὴ 
ὡσαύτως λεγόμενα. ὁ μὲν γὰρ Ξάνθος ὁ Λυδὸς 
μετὰ τὰ Τρωικά φησιν ἐλθεῖν τοὺς Φρύγας ἐ ἐκ τῆς 
Εὐρώπης καὶ τῶν ἀριστερῶν τοῦ Πόντου, a ἀγαγεῖν 
δ᾽ αὐτοὺς Σκαμάνδριον ἐ ἐκ ,"Βερεκύντων καὶ ᾽Ασκα- 
νίας, ἐπιλέγει δὲ τούτοις ὁ ᾿Απολλόδωρος, ὅ ὅτι τῆς 
᾿Ασκανίας ταύτης μνημονεύει καὶ “Opnpos, ἧς ὁ 

Φόρκυς δὲ Φρύγας ἦγε καὶ ᾿Ασκάνιος θεοειδὴς 

C681 τῆλ᾽ ἐξ ᾿Ασκανίης. 
ἀλλ᾽ εἰ οὕτως ἔχει, ἡ μὲν μετανάστασις ὕστερον 
ἂν εἴη τῶν Τρωικῶν γεγονυῖα, ἐν δὲ τοῖς Τρωικοῖς 
τὸ λεγόμενον ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ ἐπικουρικὸν ἧκεν 
ἐκ τῆς περαίας ἐκ τῶν Βερεκύντων καὶ τῆς ᾿Ασκα- 
νίας. τίνες οὖν Φρύγες ἧσαν, 

οἵ ῥα τότ᾽ ἐστρατόωντο παρ᾽ ὄχθας Σαγγαρίοιο, 
ὅτε ὁ Πρίαμος, 
ἐπίκουρος ἐὼν μετὰ τοῖσιν ἐλέγμην,3 
1 καί, before τῆς, Corais inserts. 
2 ὅπου, before πολίχνη, Jonesinserts. Tzschucke and Corais 

emend πολίχνη ἐρήμη. .. ἔχουσα to πολίχνης ἐρήμης . .. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. )8--29 

tions are signs of the mining in olden times); and 
of Midas from those round Mt. Bermius; and 
t of Gyges and Alyattes and Croesus from those 
n Lydia and from the region between Atarneus and 
rgamum, where is a small deserted town, whose 
lands have ‘been exhausted of ore. 

29. Still further one might find fault with 
Ape llodorus, because, when the more recent writers 
make numerous innovations contrary to the state- 
τ ents of Homer, he is wont frequently to put 
these innovations to the test, but in the present 
vase he not only has made small account of them, 

mut also, on the contrary, identifies things that 
are not meant alike; for instance, Xanthus the 
pa ydian says that it was after the Trojan War that 
the Phrygians came from Europe and the left-hand 
5 of the Pontus, and that Scamandrius led them 
tre om the Berecyntes and Ascania, but Apollodorus 
adds to this the statement that Homer refers to 
this Ascania that is mentioned by Xanthus: “ And 
hgh and godlike Ascanius led the Phrygians 
m afar, from Ascania.”1 However, if this is 
so, the migration must have taken place later 

‘than the Trojan War, whereas the allied force 
“mentioned by the poet came from the opposite 
_ mainland, from the Berecyntes and Ascania. Who, 
then, were the Phrygians, “who were then en- 
camped along the banks of the Sangarius,’”* when 
οἷ 2 says, “for I too, being an ally, was numbered 
_ among these” ?2 And how could Priam have sent 

Ws eR iT On i  α; 



a Ὁ ὙΡΟ 


᾿ς 1 Πίιαὰ 2. 862. 2 Iliad 3. 187. 8 Iliad 3. 188. 


; __ * ἐλέγμην is emended by Tzschucke and Corais to ἐλέχθην 
(as i in the Homeric text). 



φησί; ; πῶς δὲ ἐκ μὲν Βερεκύντων μετεπέμπετο 
Φρύγας ὁ Πρίαμος, πρὸς ods οὐδὲν ἣν αὐτῷ 
συμβόλαιον, τοὺς δ᾽ ὁμόρους καὶ οἷς αὐτὸς 
πρότερον ἐπεκούρησε παρέλιπεν ; οὕτω δὲ περὶ 
τῶν Φρυγῶν εἰπὼν “ἐπιφέρει καὶ τὰ περὶ τῶν 
Μυσῶν οὐχ ὁμολογούμενα τούτοις" λέγεσθαι γάρ 
φησι καὶ τῆς Μυσίας κώμην ᾿Ασκανίαν περὶ 
λίμνην. ὁμώνυμον, ἐξ ἧς καὶ τὸν ᾿Ασκάνιον ποτα- 
μὸν ῥεῖν, οὗ μνημονεύει καὶ Εὐφορίων" 
Μυσοῖο παρ᾽ ὕδασιν ᾿Ασκανίοιο" 
καὶ ὁ Αἰτωλὸς ᾿Αλέξανδρος" 
of} καὶ ἐπ᾽ ᾿Ασκανίῳ δώματ᾽ ἔχουσι ῥόῳ, 

λίμνης ᾿Ασκανίης, ἐπὶ χείλεσιν" ἔνθα Δολίων 
υἱὸς Σεληνοῦ νάσσατο καὶ Μελίης. 

καλοῦσι δέ, φησί, Δολιονίδα καὶ Μυσίαν τὴν 
περὶ Κύξικον ἰόντι εἰς Μιλητούπολιν. εἰ οὖν 
οὕτως ἔχει ταῦτα, καὶ ἐκμαρτυρεῖται ὑπὸ τῶν 
δεικνυμένων νῦν καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ποιητῶν, τί ἐκώλυε 
τὸν Ὅμηρον “ταύτης μεμνῆσθαι τῆς ᾿Ασκανίας, 
ἀχλὰ μὴ τῆς ὑπὸ Ξάνθου λεγομένης ; ; εἴρηται δὲ 
καὶ πρότερον περὶ τούτων ἐν τῷ περὶ Μυσῶν καὶ 
Φρυγῶν λόγῳ, ὥστε ἐχέτω πέρας. 


. Λοιπὸν δὲ τὴν πρὸς νότου “παρακειμένην τῇ 
χερρονήσῳ ταύτῃ περιοδεῦσαι νῆσον τὴν Κύπρον. 
εἴρηται δ᾽, ὅτι ἡ περιεχομένη θάλαττα ὑπὸ τῆς 
Αὐγύπτου καὶ Φοινίκης καὶ Συρίας καὶ τῆς λοιπῆς 
παραλίας μέχρι τῆς Ῥοδίας σύνθετός πώς ἐστιν 

1 εἰ CDEFA; but see same passage in 12. 4. 8. 

ea a 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 29-6. 1 

for Phrygians from the Berecyntes, with whom he 

had no compact, and yet leave uninvited those 

who lived on his borders and to whom he had 
formerly been ally? And after speaking in this 

_ way about the Phrygians he adds also an account 

of the Mysians that is not in agreement with this; 
for he says that there is also a village in Mysia 
which is called Ascania, near a lake of the same 
name, whence flows the Ascanius River, which is 
mentioned by Euphorion, “ beside the waters of the 
Mysian Ascanius,’ and by Alexander the Aetolian, 
“who have their homes on the Ascanian streams, 
on the lips of the Ascanian Lake, where dwelt 
Dolion, the son of Silenus and Melia.” And he 
says that the country round Cyzicus, as one goes 
to Miletupolis, is called Dolionis and Mysia. If 
this is so, then, and if witness thereto is borne both 
by the places now pointed out and by the poets, 
what could have prevented Homer from mentioning 
this Ascania, and not the Ascania spoken of by 
Xanthus? I have discussed this before, in my 
account of the Mysians and Phrygians ;! and there- 
fore let this be the end of that subject. 


1. Ir remains for me to describe the island which 
lies alongside this peninsula on the south, I mean 
Cyprus. I have already said that the sea surrounded 
by Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria, and the rest of the 
coast as far as Rhodia? consists approximately of 

17. 3.2-3; 12. 3.3; 12.4.5, 
2 The Peraea of the Rhodians. 

C 682 


ἔκ τε tov Αἰγυπτίου πελάγους καὶ τοῦ Παμφυ- 
λίου καὶ τοῦ κατὰ τὸν ᾿Ισσικὸν κόλπον. ἐν δὲ 
ταύτῃ ἐστὶν ἡ Κύπρος, τὰ μὲν προσάρκτια μέρη 
συνάπτοντα ἔχουσα τῇ Tpaxeta Κιλικίᾳ, καθ᾽ ἃ 
δὴ καὶ προσεχεστάτη τῇ ἠπείρῳ ἐστί, τὰ δὲ ἑῷα 
τῷ Ἰσσικῷ κόλπῳ, τὰ δ᾽ ἑσπέρια τῷ Παμφυλίῳ 
κλυζόμενα πελάγει, τὰ δὲ νότια τῷ Αἰγυπτίῳ. 
τοῦτο μὲν οὖν σύρρουν ἐστὶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἑσπέρας τῷ 
Λιβυκῷ καὶ τῷ Καρπαθίῳ πελάγει, ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν 
νοτίων καὶ τῶν ἑῴων μερῶν ἥ τε Δἴἤγυπτός ἐστι 
καὶ ἡ ἐφεξῆς παραλία “μέχρι Σελευκείας ‘Te Kal 
Ἰσσοῦ, πρὸς ἄρκτον δ᾽ ἥ τε Κύπρος καὶ τὸ Παμ- 
φύλιον πέλαγος. τοῦτο δὲ ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ἄρκτων 
περιέχεται τοῖς τε ἄκροις τῆς Τραχείας Κιλικίας 
καὶ τῆς Παμφυλίας καὶ Λυκίας μέχρι τῆς “Ῥοδίας, 
ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς δύσεως τῇ Ῥοδίων νήσῳ, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς 
ἀνατολῆς τῇ Κύπρῳ τῇ κατὰ [Πάφον καὶ τὸν 
᾿Ακάμαντα, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς μεσημβρίας σύρρουν ἐστὶ 
τῷ Αἰγυπτίῳ πελάγει. 

2. Ἔστι δ᾽ ὁ μὲν κύκλος τῆς Κύπρου σταδίων 
τρισχιλίων καὶ τετρακοσίων εἴκοσι κατακολ- 
πίζοντι" μῆκος δὲ ἀπὸ Κλειδῶν ἐ ἐπὶ τὸν ᾿Ακάμαντα 
πεζῇ στάδιων χιλίων τετρακοσίων ὁδεύοντι ἀπ᾽ 
ἀνατολῆς ἐπὶ δύσιν. εἰσὶ δὲ αἱ μὲν Κλεῖδες 
νησία δύο προκείμενα ἷ τῇ Κύπρῳ κατὰ τὰ ἑωθινὰ 
μέρη τῆς νήσου, τὰ διέχοντα τοῦ Πυράμου στα- 
δίους ἑπτακοσίους" ὁ δ᾽ ᾿Ακάμας ἐστὶν ἄκρα δύο 
μαστοὺς ἔχουσα καὶ ὕλην πολλήν, κείμενος μὲν 
ἐπὶ τῶν ἑσπερίων τῆς νήσου μερῶν, ἀνατείνων δὲ 
πρὸς ἄρκτους, ἐγγυτάτω μὲν πρὸς Σελινοῦντα τῆς 
Τραχείας Κιλικίας ἐν διάρματι χιλίων σταδίων, 
πρὸς Σίδην δὲ τῆς Παμφυλίας χιλίων καὶ ἑξακο- 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. τ--2 

egyptian and Pamphylian Seas and of the sea 
ἸΣ gulf of Issus. In this last sea lies Cypros ; its 
rthern parts closely approach Cilicia Tracheia, 
where they are closest to the mainland, and its 
e Baier parts border on the Issic Gulf, and its 
western on the Pamphylian Sea, being washed by 
mat sea, and its southern by the Aegyptian Sea. 
y the Aegyptian Sea is confluent on the west 
with the Libyan and Carpathian Seas, but in its 
southern and eastern parts borders on Aegypt and 
the coast next thereafter as far as Seleuceia and 
Issus, and towards the north on Cypros and the 
‘Pe mphylian Sea; but the Pamphylian Sea is sur- 
unded on the north by the extremities of Cilicia 
cheia, of Pamphylia, and of Lycia, as far as 
Rhodia, and on the west by the island of the 
Rhoc ns, and on the east by the part of Cypros 
nea Paphos and the Acamas, and on the south is 
confluent with the Aegyptian Sea. 
2. The circuit of Cypros is three thousand four 
eendred and twenty stadia, including the sinuosities 
f the gulfs. The length from Cleides to the Acamas 
γ᾿ land, travelling from east to west, is one thousand 
four hundred stadia. The Cleides are two isles 
lying off Cypros opposite the eastern parts of the 
id, which are seven hundred stadia distant from 
a? The Acamas is a promontory with two 
breasts and much timber. It is situated at the 
tern part of the island, and extends towards the 
not h; it lies closest to Selinus in Cilicia Tracheia, 
the passage across being one thousand stadia, 
_ whereas the passage across to Sidé in Pamphylia is 

° 1 “gone of προκείμενα, Corais and Meineke, following F, 
read προσκείμενα. 


σίων, πρὸς δὲ Χελιδονίας χιλίων ἐννακοσίων. ἔστι 
δὲ ἑτερόμηκες τὸ ὅλον τῆς νήσου σχῆμα, καί που 
καὶ ἰσθμοὺς ποιεῖ κατὰ τὰς τὸ πλάτος διοριζούσας 
πλευράς" ἔχει δὲ καὶ τὰ καθ᾽ ἕκαστα, ὡς ἐν 
βραχέσιν εἰπεῖν, οὕτως, ἀρξαμένοις ἀπὸ τοῦ προσ- 
εχεστάτου σημείου τῇ ἠπείρῳ. 

3. "Edayev δέ! που κατὰ τὸ ᾿Ανεμούριον, 
ἄκραν τῆς Τραχείας Κιλικίας, ἀντικεῖσθαι τὸ 
τῶν Κυπρίων ἀκρωτήριον τὴν Κρομμύου ἄκραν ἐν 
τριακοσίοις καὶ πεντήκοντα σταδίοις" ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ 
ἤδη δεξιὰν τὴν νῆσον ἔχουσιν, ἐν ἀριστερᾷ δὲ τὴν 
ἤπειρον, πρὸς ἄρκτον ὁ πλοῦς ἐστὶ καὶ πρὸς ἕω 
καὶ πρὸς τὰς Κλεῖδας εὐθυπλοίᾳ σταδίων ἑπτα- 
κοσίων. ἐν δὲ τῷ μεταξὺ Λάπαθός τέ ἐστι πόλις, 
ὕφορμον ἔχουσα καὶ νεώρια, Λακώνων κτίσμα 
καὶ Πραξάνδρου, καθ᾽ ἣν ἡ Νάγιδος" 5 εἶτ᾽ ᾿Α φρο- 
δίσιον, καθ᾽ ὃ στενὴ ἡ νῆσος" εἰς γὰρ Σαλαμῖνα 
ὑπέρβασις σταδίων ἑβδομήκοντα" εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αχαιῶν 
ἀκτήϑ ὅπου Τεῦκρος προσωρμίσθη πρῶτον ὁ 
κτίσας Σαλαμῖνα τὴν ἐν Κύπρῳ, ἐκβληθείς, ὥς 
φασιν, ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς Τελαμῶνος" εἶτα Kap- 
πασία πόλις, λιμένα ἔχουσα. κεῖται δὲ κατὰ τὴν 
ἄκραν τὴν Σαρπηδόνα" ἐκ δὲ τῆς Καρπασίας 
ὑπέρβασίς ἐστιν ἰσθμοῦ τριάκοντα σταδίων πρὸς 
τὰς νήσους τὰς Καρπασίας καὶ τὸ νότιον πέλαγος" 
εἶτ᾽ ἄκρα καὶ ὄρος" ἡ δ᾽ ἀκρώρεια καλεῖται “Odvp- 
πος, ἔχουσα ᾿Αφροδίτης ᾿Ακραίας ναόν, ἄδυτον 
γυναιξὶ καὶ ἀόρατον. πρόκεινται δὲ πλησίον αἱ 

1 δέ, Corais emends to δή. 

2 ἡ Nay:dos. Corais, for ἣν &y:dus ; so the later editors. 

3 εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αχαιῶν ἀκτή moxz, εἶτα χάρων ἀκτή other MSS.; so 
the editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 2-3 

‘sixteen hundred and to the Chelidonian islands one 
thousand nine hundred. The shape of the island 
as a whole is oblong; and in some places it forms 
isthmuses on the sides which define its breadth. 

But the island also has its several parts, which 1 

shall describe briefly, beginning with the point that 
is nearest to the mainland. 

3. I have said somewhere! that opposite to 
_Anemurium, a cape of Cilicia Tracheia, is the 
promontory of the Cyprians, I mean the promontory 
of Crommyus, at a distance of three hundred and 
fifty stadia. Thence forthwith, keeping the island 
on the right and the mainland. on the left, the 
_ voyage to the Cleides lies in a straight line towards 
_ the north-east, a distance of seven hundred stadia. 

In the interval is the city Lapathus, with a mooring- 
place and dockyards; it was founded by Laconians 
and Praxander, and opposite it lies Nagidus. Then > 
one comes to Aphrodisium, where the island is 
narrow, for the passage across to Salamis is only 
seventy stadia. Then to the beach of the Achaeans, 
where Teucer, the founder of Salamis in Cypros, 
_ first landed, having been banished, as they say, by 
his father Telamon. Then to a city Carpasia, with 
a harbour. It is situated opposite the promontory 
_ Sarpedon; and the passage from Carpasia across 
_ the isthmus to the Carpasian Islands and the 
southern sea is thirty stadia. Then to a promon- 
tory and mountain. The mountain peak is called 
_ Olympus; and it has a temple of Aphrodité Acraea, 
which cannot be entered or seen by women. Off 

1 14. 5. 3, 

4 6, before κτίσας, Kramer inserts ; so the later editors. 
VOL. VI. n 3/77 


Κλεῖδες καὶ ἄλλαι δὲ πλείους, εἶθ᾽ αἱ Καρπάσιαι 
νῆσοι, καὶ μετὰ ταύτας: ἡ Σαλαμίς, ὅθεν ἦν 
Ἄριστος ὁ συγγραφεύς: εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αρσινόη πόλις καὶ 
λιμήν" εἶτ᾽ ἄχλος λιμὴν Λεύκολλα"" εἶτ᾽ ἄκρα 
Πηδάλιον, ἧς 3 ὑπέρκειται λόφος τραχύς, ὑψηλός, 
τραπεζοειδής, ἱερὸς ᾿Αφροδίτης, εἰς ὃν ἀπὸ Κλει- 
δῶν στάδιοι ἑξακόσιοι ὀγδοήκοντα" εἶτα κολπώ- 
ons Kal τραχὺς παράπλους ὁ πλείων εἰς Κίτιον" 
ἔχει. δὲ λιμένα κλειστόν' ἐντεῦθέν ἐστι Ζήνων ΤΕ, 
ὁ τῆς στωικῆς αἱρέσεως “ἀρχηγέτης, καὶ ᾿Απολ- 
C 683 λώνεος ἐ ἰατρός" ἐντεῦθεν εἰς Βηρυτὸν στάδιοι χίλιοι 

πεντακόσιοι. εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αμαθοῦς πόλις καὶ μεταξὺ 
πολίχνη, Παλαιὰ καλουμένη, καὶ ὄρος μαστοειδὲς 
Ὄλυμπος" εἶτα Κουριὰς χερρονησώδης, εἰς ἣν 
ἀπὸ Θρόνων στάδιοι ἑπτακόσιοι. εἶτα πόλις 
Κούριον, ὅρμον ἔχουσα, ᾿Αργείων κτίσμα. ἤδη 
οὖν πάρεστι σκοπεῖν τὴν ῥᾳθυμίαν τοῦ ποιήσαντος 
τὸ ἐλεγεῖον τοῦτο, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή" 

ἱραὶ τῷ Φοίβῳ, πολλὸν διὰ κῦμα θέουσαι, 

ἤλθομεν αἱ ταχιναὶὴ τόξα φυγεῖν ἔλαφοι: 

᾿Ἡδύλος ὃ ἐστίν, εἴθ᾽ ὁστισοῦν" φησὶ “ μὲν γὰρ 
rere Tas ἐλάφους Κωρυκίης ἀπὸ δειράδος, 
ἐκ δὲ Κιλίσσης ἠιόνος εἰς ἀκτὰς διανήξασθαι 
Κουριάδαϊ; καὶ ἐπιφθέγγεται, διότι 

μυρίον ἀνδράσι θαῦμα νοεῖν πάρα, πῶς ἀνόδευ- 

χεῦμα δι᾽ εἰαρινῷ 5 ἐδράμομεν Cepupo.® 

1 Λεύκολλα, Casaubon, for Λεύκολα ; so the later editors. 
2 ἧς F, eis ἥν other MSS. 

8 ‘HddAos Εἰ, εἴθ᾽ ἡ δῆλος other MSS. * φασί CDhiosz. 
5. δι᾿ εἰαρινῷ, Meineke, for δ᾽ ἀερινίων moz, δι’ ἐρίνων other 


= να ὩὩνΝ 

De παν ελάυκινς 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 5 

it, and near it, lie the Cleides, as also several other 
islands; and then one comes to the Carpasian 
Islands; and, after these, to Salamis, where Aristus 
the historian was born. Then to Arsinoé, a city 
and harbour. Then to another harbour, Leucolla. 
Then to a promontory, Pedalium, above which lies 
a hill that is rugged, high, trapezium-shaped, and 
sacred to Aphrodité, whereto the distance from the 
Cleides ig six hundred and eighty stadia. Then 
comes the coasting-voyage to Citium, which for the 
most part is sinuousand rough. Citium hasa harbour 
that can be closed ; and here were born both Zeno, 
the original founder of the Stoic sect, and Apollonius, 
a physician. The distance thence to Berytus is one 
thousand five hundred stadia. Then to the city 
Amathus, and, in the interval, to a small town 
called Palaea, and to a breast-shaped mountain called 
Olympus. Then to Curias, which is peninsula-like, 
whereto the distance from Throni is seven hundred 
stadia. Then toa city Curium, which has a moor- 
ing-place and was founded by the Argives. One 
may therefore see at once the carelessness of the 

t who wrote the elegy that begins, “we hinds, 
sacred to Phoebus, racing across many billows, came 
hither in our swift course to escape the arrows of 
our pursuers,” whether the author was Hedylus or 
someone else; for he says that the hinds set out 
from the Corycian heights and swam across from 
the Cilician shore to the beach of Curias, and further 
says that “it is a matter of untold amazement to 
men to think how we ran across the impassable 
stream by the aid of a vernal west wind’’; for while 

6 Ceptpy, Meineke, for ζεφύρων. 


ἀπὸ γὰρ Κωρύκου περίπλους μέν ἐστιν εἰς Κου- 
ριάδα ἀκτήν, οὔτε ζεφύρῳ δέ, οὔτε ἐν δεξιᾷ 
ἔχοντι τὴν νῆσον, οὔτ᾽ ἐν ἀριστερᾷ, δίαρμα 

οὐδέν. ἀρχὴ δ᾽ οὖν τοῦ δυσμικοῦ παράπλου τὸ 
Κούριον τοῦ βλέποντος πρὸς “Ρόδον, καὶ εὐθύς 
ἐστιν ἄκρα, ἀφ᾽ ἧς ῥίπτουσι τοὺς ἁψαμένους τοῦ 
βωμοῦ τοῦ ᾿Απόλλωνος" εἶτα Τρήτα καὶ Βοόσου- 
ρα καὶ ΠΠαλαίπαφος, ὅσον ἐν δέκα σταδίοις ὑπὲρ 
τῆς θαλάττης ἱδρυμένη, ὕφορμον ἔχουσα, καὶ 
ἱερὸν ἀρχαῖον τῆς Παφίας ᾿Αφροδίτης" εἶτ᾽ ἄκ 

Ζεφυρία, πρόσορμον ἔχουσα, καὶ ἄλλη ᾿Αρσινόη, 
ὁμοίως πρόσορμον ἔχουσα καὶ ἱερὸν καὶ ἄλσος" 
μικρὸν δ᾽ ἀπὸ τῆς θαλάττης καὶ ἡ “Ἱεροκηπίς. 
εἶθ᾽ ἡ Πάφος, κτίσμα ᾿Αγαπήνορος, καὶ λιμένα 
ἔχουσα καὶ ἱερὰ εὖ κατεσκευασμένα. διέχει δὲ 
πεζῇ σταδίους ἑξήκοντα τῆς Παλαιπάφου, καὶ 

πανηγυρίζουσι διὰ τῆς ὁδοῦ ταύτης κατ᾽ ἔτος ἐπὶ 

τὴν Παλαίπαφον ἄνδρες ὁμοῦ γυναιξὶν συνιόντες 
καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἄλλων πόλεων. φασὶ δ᾽ εἰς ᾿Αλεξάν- 
δρειάν τινες ἐκ Πάφου σταδίους εἶναι τρισχιλίους 
ἑξακοσίους. εἶθ᾽ ὁ ᾿Ακάμας ἐστὶ μετὰ Td gov 
εἶτα πρὸς ἕω μετὰ τὸν ᾿Ακάμαντα πλοῦς εἰς 

᾿Αρσινόην πόλιν καὶ τὸ τοῦ Διὸς ἄλσος" εἶτα 

Σόλοι 2 πόλις, λιμένα ἔχουσα καὶ “ποταμὸν καὶ 

ἱερὸν ᾿Αφροδίτης καὶ "ἸΙσιδος' κτίσμα͵ δ᾽ ἐστὶ. 

Φαλήρου καὶ ᾿Ακάμαντος ᾿Αθηναίων" οἱ δ᾽ ἐνοι- 
κοῦντες Σόλιοι καλοῦνται. ἐντεῦθεν ἦν Στα- 
σάνωρ τῶν ᾿Αλεξάνδρου ἑταίρων, ἀνὴρ ἡγεμονίας 
ἠξιωμένος" ὑπέρκειται δ᾽ ἐν μεσογαίᾳ Λιμενία. 
πόλις" εἶθ᾽ ἡ Κρομμύου ἄκρα. 

1 καί is omitted by all MSS. except DF. 
= Σόλοι, Tzschucke, for Σόλους. 




GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 3 

5. is a voyage round the island from Corycus to 
5 beach Curias, which is made neither by the aid 
f a west wind nor by keeping the island on the 
nor on the left, there is no passage across the 
ea between the two places. At any rate, Curium is 
e beginning of the westerly voyage in the direction 
| f Rhodes ; ; and immediately one comes to a pro- 
mo! ntory, whence are flung those who touch the 
iitar of Apollo. Then to Treta, and to Boosura, 
nd to Palaepaphus, which last is situated at about 
en stadia above the sea, has a mooring-place, and 
in ancient temple of the Paphian Aphrodité. Then 
9 the promontory Zephyria, with a landing-place, 
re oe another Arsinoé, which likewise has a landing- 
5 and a temple and a sacred precinct. And at 
distance from the sea is Hierocepis. Then 
to Paphus, which was founded by Agapenor, and has 
both | a harbour and well-built temples. It is sixty 
1 distant from Palaepaphus by land; and on 
£ this road men together with women, who also 
ass ssem nble here from the other cities, hold an annual 
pro cession to Palaepaphus. Some say that the dis- 
from Paphus to Alexandria is three thousand 
οἰ τλωμιν stadia. Then, after Paphus, one comes 
᾿ > the Acamas. Then, after the Acamas, towards 
} east, one sails to a city Arsinoé and the sacred 
. recinct of Zeus. Then to a city Soli, with a 
harbour and a river and a temple of Aphrodité and 
3 ais. It was founded by Phalerus and Acamas, 
: enians; and the inhabitants are called Solians; 

ΠΥ Re tas Nr Nl at Ὁ ΡΝ 

ee ee, OL 

and ithere was born Stasanor, one of the comrades of 
d Recknder, who was thought worthy of a chief 
command ; and above it, in the interior, lies a city 
‘Limenia. And then to the promontory of Crommyus. 

fy 381 


4. Τί δὲ δεῖ τῶν ποιητῶν θαυμάζειν, καὶ 
μάλιστα τῶν τοιούτων, οἷς ἡ πᾶσα περὶ τὴν 

C 684 φράσιν ἐστὶ σπουδή, τὰ τοῦ Aaudorou συγ- 

κρίνοντας, ὅ ὅστις τῆς νήσου τὸ μῆκος ἀπὸ τῶν 
ἄρκτων πρὸς μεσημβρίαν ἀποδίδωσιν, ἀπὸ 
Ἱεροκηπίας, ὥς φησιν, εἰς Κλεῖδας ; οὐδὲ ὁ 
᾿Ερατοσθένης εὖ" αἰτιώμενος γὰρ τοῦτον, οὐκ ἀπ᾽ 
ἄρκτων φησὶν εἶναι τὴν ἹἹεροκηπίαν, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπὸ 
νότου" οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀπὸ νότου, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπὸ δύσεως, 
εἴπερ ἐν τῇ δυσμικῇ πλευρᾷ κεῖται, ἐν ἣ καὶ ἡ 
Πάφος καὶ ὁ ᾿Ακάμας. διάκειται μὲν οὕτως ἡ 
Κύπρος τῇ θέσει. 

5. Kar’ ἀρετὴν δ᾽ οὐδεμιᾶς τῶν νήσων λείπεται" 
καὶ γὰρ εὔοινός ἐστι καὶ εὐέλαιος, σίτῳ τε αὐτάρ- 
κει χρῆται" μέταλλά τε χαλκοῦ ἐστὶν᾽ ἄφθονα. τὰ 
ἐν Ταμασσῷ," ἐν οἷς τὸ χαλκανθὲς γίνεται, καὶ ὁ 
ἰὸς τοῦ χαλκοῦ, πρὸς τὰς ἰατρικὰς δυνάμεις 
χρήσιμα. φησὶ δ᾽ ᾿Ερατοσθένης τὸ παλαιὸν 
ὑλομανούντων τῶν πεδίων, ὥστε κατέχεσθαι 
δρυμοῖς καὶ μὴ γεωργεῖσθαι, μικρὰ μὲν ἐπωφελεῖν 
πρὸς τοῦτο τὰ μέταλλα, δενδροτομούντων πρὸς 
τὴν καῦσιν τοῦ χαλκοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἀργύρου, προσ- 
γενέσθαι δὲ καὶ τὴν ναυπηγίαν τῶν. στόλων, ἤδη 
πλεομένης ἀδεῶς τῆς θαλάττης καὶ μετὰ δυνά- 
pea" ὡς δ᾽ οὐκ ἐξενίκων, ἐπιτρέψαι τοῖς βου- 
λομένοις καὶ δυναμένοις ἐκκόπτειν καὶ ἔχειν 
ἰδιόκτητον καὶ ἀτελῆ, τὴν διακαθαρθεῖσαν γῆν. 

6. Πρότερον μὲν οὖν κατὰ πόλεις ἐτυραννοῦντο 
οἱ Κύπριοι, ἀφ᾽ οὗ δ᾽ οἱ Πτολεμαϊκοὶ βασιλεῖς 

1 Ταμασσῷ, Xylander, for Ταμασῷ E, Τανασσῷ other MSS. 


=) eee 

GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 4-6 

4. But why should one wonder at the poets, and 
particularly at writers of the kind that are wholly 
concerned about style, when we compare the state- 
ments of Damastes, who gives the length of the 
island as from north to south, “from Hierocepias,” 
as he says, “to Cleides’’? Neither is Eratosthenes 
correct, for, although he censures Damastes, he 
says that Hierocepias is not on the north but on the 
south ; for it is not on the south either, but on the 
west, since it lies on the western side, where are also 
Paphus and the Acamas. Such is the geographical 

position of Cypros. 

5. In fertility Cyprus is not inferior to any one of 
the islands, for it produces both good wine and good 
oil, and also a sufficient supply of grain for its own 
use. And at Tamassus there are abundant mines of 
copper, in which is found chalcanthite! and also 
the rust of copper, which latter is useful for its 
medicinal properties. Eratosthenes says that in 
ancient times the plains were thickly overgrown 
with forests, and therefore were covered with woods 
and not cultivated; that the mines helped a little 
against this, since the people would cut down the 
trees to burn the copper and the silver, and that 
the building of the fleets further helped, since the 
sea was now being navigated safely, that is, with naval 
forces, but that, because they could not thus prevail 
over the growth of the timber, they permitted any- 
one who wished, or was able, to cut out the timber 
and to keep the land thus cleared as his own 
property and exempt from taxes. 

6. Now in the earlier times the several cities 
of the Cyprians were under the rule of tyrants, 

1 Sulphate of copper. 


κύριοι τῆς Αἰγύπτου κατέστησαν, εἰς ἐκείνους καὶ 
ἡ Κύπρος περιέστη, συμπραττόντων πολλάκις 
καὶ τῶν Ῥωμαίων. ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ὁ τελευταῖος ἄρξας 
Πτολεμαῖος, “ἀδελφὸς τοῦ Κλεοπάτρας πατρός, 
τῆς καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς βασιλίσσης, ἔδοξε πλημμελής τε 
εἶναι καὶ ἀχάριστος εἰς τοὺς εὐεργέτας, ἐκεῖνος 
μὲν κατελύθη, Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ κατέσχον τὴν νῆσον, 
καὶ γέγονε στρατηγικὴ ἐπαρχία καθ᾽ αὑτήν. 
μάλιστα δ᾽ αἴτιος τοῦ ὀλέθρου κατέστη τῷ 
βασιλεῖ Πόπλιος Κλαύδιος Ποῦλχερ' ἐμπεσὼν 
γὰρ εἰς τὰ λῃστήρια, τῶν Κιλίκων ἀκμαζόντων 
τότε, λύτρον αἰτούμενος ἐπέστειλε τῷ βασιλεῖ, 
δεόμενος πέμψαι καὶ ῥύσασθαι αὐτόν: ὁ δ᾽ 
ἔπεμψε μέν, μικρὸν δὲ τελέως, ὥστε καὶ τοὺς 
λῃστὰς αἰδεσθῆναι λαβεῖν, ἀλλὰ ἀναπέμψαι 
πάλιν, τὸν δ᾽ ἄνευ λύτρων ἀπολῦσαι. σωθεὶς δ᾽ 
ἐκεῖνος ἀπεμνημόνευσεν ἀμφοτέροις τὴν χάριν, 
καὶ γενόμενος δήμαρχος, ἴσχυσε τοσοῦτον, ὥστε 
ἐπέμφθη Μάρκος Κάτων, ἀφαιρησόμενος τὴν 
Κύπρον τὸν κατέχοντα. ἐκεῖνος μὲν οὖν ἔφθη 
διαχειρισάμενος αὑτόν, Κάτων δὲ ἐπελθὼν παρέ- 

C685 λαβε τὴν Κύπρον, καὶ τὴν βασιλικὴν οὐσίαν 

διέθετο, καὶ τὰ χρήματα εἰς τὸ δημόσιον ταμιεῖον 
τῶν Ῥωμαίων ἐκόμισεν" ἐξ ἐκείνου δ᾽ ,ἐγένετο 
ἐπαρχία ἡ νῆσος, καθάπερ καὶ νῦν ἐστί, στρα- 

τηγική" ὀλίγον δὲ χρόνον τὸν μεταξὺ ᾿Αντώνιος 
Κλεοπάτρᾳ καὶ τῇ ἀδελφῇ αὐτῆς ᾿Αρσινόῃ παρέ- 
δωκε" καταλυθέντος δὲ ἐκείνου, συγκατελύθησαν 
καὶ αἱ διατάξεις αὐτοῦ πᾶσαι. 


GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 6 

but from the time the Ptolemaic kings became 
established as lords of Egypt Cyprus too came 
into their power, the Romans often co-operating 
with them. But when the last Ptolemy that 
reigned, the brother of the father of Cleopatra, the 
queen in my time, was decreed to be both dis- 
agreeable and ungrateful to his benefactors, he was 
deposed, and the Romans took possession of the 
island ; and it has become a praetorian province by 
itself. The chief cause of the ruin of the king was 
Publius Claudius Pulcher; for the latter, having 
fallen into the hands of the bands of pirates, the 
Cilicians then being at the height of their power, 
and, being asked for a ransom, sent a message to 
the king, begging him to send and rescue him. 
The king indeed sent a ransom, but so utterly small 
that the pirates disdained to take it and sent it 
back again, but released him without ransom. 
Having safely escaped, he remembered the favour 
of both; and, when he became tribune of the 
people, he was so powerful that he had Marcus 
Cato sent to take Cypros away from its possessor, 
Now the king killed himself beforehand, but Cato 
went over and took Cypros and disposed of the 
king’s property and carried the money to the Roman 
treasury. From that time the island became a 
province, just as it is now—a praetorian province. 
During a short intervening time Antony gave it 
over to Cleopatra and her sister Arsineé, but when 
he was overthrown his whole organisation was over- 
thrown with him. 


poe enn ri stascolot “od γι a 
reo «Bas Wt goat a; πλάι 

ae 3 τι eddy Orit; 

‘ ( ἐ wires 
a) WD j J, ory mytiy ΤῊ 
YY 4, I ee: 
thd shi i) SUS cont ; Sad. 

Ἶ a “ wr ; oo 
Lp μοι νυ eur 
bs , 5 ὁ 
J ; af 
ΖΦ 10 ΟΦ ΞΕ. ΧΟ Ὁ! 
™ ae oe a we ᾽ν ἢ &, 7 
ray vey ΣΙ ΟΥΣ τὸ & Soe 
ὰ J ry 
ev itl a Sil 26 THT 0 τὸ 520} 
, ° Ὶ 4 
Levin “Pletal” Shy” 1 sagt 
Pe ἋΣ 

3 wii id Backer sus Fo « 

Ὶ ν᾽ ual πὸ al oa 

Ww ’ Th a a r “3s 25 "24 

- a d : ᾿ 
» ΡΟΣ 6 ea AVE 1 ἢ 

. 4 t Π A 

pat alas ΤΩ mit ok mabey ay 

αν ‘yest ig, be Τα νι τοῦ πε FUE 
— . . 

ibe HM a bee 3 apa aby poster 
“ a . 
ef ὰ _ + s ἊΣ ¢ 
AA ee "ay Γ at vy wes ‘ame γ Hin te 

‘ mm | has 25 ae 


be Ὑ ead 

ΠΣ Aa ΓΗ ‘ ΠΡΟ Ὕ ag. Wi (Fes 
; A-h 

xs 7, | [ 4 Γ ἣχ bs ων. Ἢ 4 

ΔΙ Leif! 4 7 v4 ip Εἰ oe v4 i). ὦ 
᾿ - τὶ ἼΩΝΕΣ ς- tal Υγ “ὦ δ᾽ 

ΘΠ ΟΣ δὲ ΠΡΟΣ ἔμ τὰ ἈΥΕΕ 1 

a. τ 

ΟἿ SIT ΘΗΝ ἐν ΟΣ δ Toact both | 
Sif" fo δὴ yess) ibs eras | ie i Kook, 
npn Sy ΟἹ 7 teeodt SF [εν Ths Dee 

2 . ἢ .- 
ge “A . 4 ΟΣ ΟΝ ee 
5 4hiacs? bow st ‘ehh 
. τ ταν Ρ 
i ae wary ΕΓ ΤΥ: 5“ 6h Ὁ 
᾿ vi 
, evr « & +. 4 
(Ba νυ Ὁ ὩΣ ἢ gatny τι 
» - > ὥ 
ι an ἐεγτε ΟῚ ra ti" site ped s cw 
Σ 4 ond ἌΡ" “ὦ a 
“159 2 ew ate eee ἈΠΌ ΤΗΝ <a 
SO ee oe te Cen 
adi Das reese ict “a & 
7 q ᾿ “ 
φΦ ΟΕ 
ag ib 
Pe ad x 



ABA, queen of Olbé, 343 

Abydus, 5, 19, 23, 37, 41, 43 

Acamas, the promontory, 375, 381 

Achilles, 15, 61, 105, 107, 119, 121, 
129, 149, 151 

Adeimantus of pempencus (see foot- 
note 3 on p. 36), 37 

Aega, the promontory, 133, 135 

Aeneias, 19, 65, 105, 107, 119 

Adramyttium, 9, 103, 123, 127, 129 

Adramyttium, Gulf of, 13, 97, 103 

27, 29 
Adrestus, builder of altar to Nemesis, 

(Rots ἮΝ 7, 23 

Aeolis, 7, 2 

‘Aepytus, on of Neleus, founder of 

Aeschines the orator, contemporary 
of Cicero, native of Miletus, 207 
lus, on the Caicus River, 139 
Aesepus River, the, 3, 7, 85 
Agamemnon, 55, 97, 223, 233 
Agapenor, on return from Troy 
founded Paphus, 381 
es the Peripatetic and 
(8. apparently about 
130 B.C.), native of Cnidus, 283 
thocles, son of Lysimachus, slain 
his father, 165 
Agrippa, transported δ work of 
Tysippus from Lampsacus_ to 

27, 299 
Alcaeus the poet, threw away his 
arms ip 77; on Antandrus, 
native of Mitylené, 141; 
author of yet poems. 143: 

interpreted b ias, 147 
Alexander the Crest, ae defeated satraps 

of Dareius, 27; visited Dlium, 51; 
friendly to Ilium, 55, 57; offered to 
restore temple of Artemis at 
Ephesus, 227; extended limits of 
refuge, 229; sacred precinct of, 
239; seized Halicarnassus, 285; 
destroyed Milyas, 321; led phalanx 
against Dareius from Soli, 355 

Alexander Lychnus the orator, native 
of Ephesus, 231 

Althaemenes the Argive, coloniser of 
Crete, Rhodes, and other cities, 271 

Alyattes, mound of, built by prosti- 
tutes, 177, 179 

Amphilochus, founder of Mallus, 353; 
tomb of, near Magarsa, 355 

Amyntas (see Dictionary in vol. τ), 
received a part of Cilicia Tracheia 
from the Romans, 337 

Anacreon the melic poet (see Dicticnary 
in vol. ii), calls Teos ‘* Atha- 
mantis,” 199; lived with tyrant 
Polycrates, 217; native of Teos, 
237; on warlike zeal of the Carians, 

Anaxagoras the natural philosopher, 
a Clazomenian, 245 

Anaxarchus, companion of Alexander 
on Asiatic expedition, 55 

Anaxenor the citharoede, exalted by 
Antony and consecrated to Zeus 
by his native land, 255 

Anaximander (see Dictionary in 
vol. i), native of Miletus, 207 

Anaximenes οὗ Lampsacus, accom- 
panied Alexander on Asiatic ex- 
peditios, wrote histories of Philip 
and Alexander, a his of Greece 
in twelve books; on places called 
Colonae, 35; a rhetorician, 37; on 
the colonies of Miletus, 207 

Anaximenes the philosopher, native 

1 A complete index will appear in the last volume. 



of Miletus, 207; 
Anaxayoras, 245 
Ancbialé, founded by Sardanapallus 
and the site of his tomb, according 

to Aristobulus, 341, 343 

Androelus, son of Oodrus the king of 
Athens, leader of the JIonian 
colonisation and founder of Ephesus 
(according to Pherecydes), 199; 
drove Carians and Leleges out of 
Ephesus, 225 

Andromaché, native of Thebé, 17 

Andronicus the Peripatetic, native of 
Rhodes, 279 

Antandrus, 101, 103, 123 

Antigonus the son of Philip (see 
Dictionary in vol. v), founder of 
Alexandreia in Troad, 53; eee 
of Antigonia (Alexandreia), 
incorporated Scepsians into A roa 

associate of 

andreia, 105; builder of new 
Smyrna, rg revolted from, by 
Eumenes, 34 

Antimachus (see Dictionary in vol.iv), 
on the goddess Nemesis, 31 
Antimenidas, brother of Alcaeus, 
native of Mitylené, 141 
Antiocheia on the Maeander, 189 
Antiochus the Great (see Dictionary in 
vol. v); τὴ en by the Romans, 
53; fought by Eumenes, 167 
Antiochus Soter (see Dictionary in 
vol. v); conquered by Eumenes, 165 
Antipater Derbetes, the tyrant, 365 
Antipater the Stoic, native of Tarsus, 


Antony (see Dictionary in vol. v), 
carried off statue of Aias to Aegypt, 
59; carried off statues from the 
Heraeum, 213; increased limits of 
refuge at Ephesus, 229; assigned 
part of Cilicia to Cleopatra, 331; 
conferred queenship on Aba, 343; 
friendly to Boethus, ruler of 
Tarsus, 349; gave Oypros to 
Cleopatra amd her sister Arsinoé, 385 

Apelles the painter (see Dictionary in 
vol. i), native of Ephesus, 231; 
painted portrait of Antigonus and 
the Aphrodité Anadyomené, 287, 


Apellicon of Teos, bought libraries of 
Aristotle and Theophrastus, 111; 
“a Teian,”’ 239 

Aphrodité Acraea, 377 


Aphrodité the Paphian, 381 
a the , founder of 

Teosg, 2 

Apollo, sie hee, 245, 317, 381; 
Actaeus, 29 Cillaean, 123, 127; : 
Didymeus, 308 

;  Larisaean, 
Sminthian, 21, "123; Thymbraean, 
iti Ulius,” 207 
Apotoducun of Athens (see Dictionary 
in vol. i), author of works On the the 
Catalogue of ships and A Description 
of the Earth; on the term “ bar- 

Minor, 361, 363, 367; on 
the Trojan allies according to 

Apollodorus the rhetorician and philo- 

sopher, native of P 171 
Apollonius the piiyuiclin, ustivo of 
Citium, 379 

Apollonius the Stoic, best of the 

sing of Panaetius, native of 
ysa, 26 

Apollonius Malacus (teacher 
rhetoric at Rhodes about 120 B.c ᾿ 
native of ——. 281; ridiculed 
Alabanda, 29 

Apollonius Melon of Alabanda, 
author of speech entitled Against 
the Caunians, 267; pupil of 
Menecles the orator, 281; changed 
his abode to Rhodes, 299 

Apollonius Mus, fellow-pupil with 
Heracleides the physician in time 
of Strabo, 243 

Apollonius paar author of the 
Argonauts, Alexandrian but 
called a Rhodian, 281 


Arcesilaiis, of the Academy, and 
fellow-student of Zeno, 131 

Archedemus the Stoic, native of 
Tarsus, 347 

Archelaus, king of padocia, 

received the whole ΟΝ 

ceia (from 

the hilosopher 

(fi. about 450 B.0.), pupil of 
Anaxagoras, 245 

Archilochus, on the Magnetans, 253 

Areius, contemporary of Augustus, 
friend of Xenarchus the philosopher, 

Archaeanax of Mitylené, reputed 
builder of wall round Sigeium, 75 
ee oe pears native of Methym- 

| Aristarchus (see snes org! A in vol. i), 
_ teacher of aeieaienteds 9 

of Proconnesus (see 
in vol. i), 33; reputed teacher of 
“Homer, 219 
oe (see Dictionary in vol. v), 
ο΄ gays that Anchbialé was founded by, 
‘ ete stout of, 
Siiitetoclos the’ gr 
68 6 grammarian, con- 

_ temporary of Strabo, native of 
- Rhodes, 281 
Aristodemus, son of Menecrates, 
Ι teacher of Strabo at Nysa, 263 
Ariston the Peripatetic (see footnote 
τ΄ 8 on p. 289), 289 
Ariston, pupil and heir of Ariston the 

Peripatetic, native of Cos, 289 
Aristonicus, caused Leucae to revolt 

after death of his brother Attalus 

Philometor, 247; ended life in 

᾿ heer Rome, 249 
; ; on the Trojan walls, 1; 

teacher of Neleus, 111; tarried at 

a Assus, 115; teacher and friend of 

ΕΝ Hermeias the tyrant, 117; teacher 
of Theophrastus and Phanias, 145 

‘ posuere (see Dictionary in vol. ii), 

distances between certain 

| ἰυδοιμε cities, 159; on the restora- 

᾿ tion of temple of Ephesian Artemis, 

227; ambassador to Rome, honoured 

_ at Ephesus, 233; on certain 

) distances in Asia Minor, 307, 809, 

311; on cities in the Lycian League, 

eris, not Corace- 

distances, 359; on the number of 
the tribes in Asia Minor, 361 
Artemidorus, son of Theopompus the 
r of Strabo, native of 
{ Cnidus. 283 

πὴ ἡ- Nor} grammarian, native 

of Tarsus, 
Γ Artemis, 29, 207, 221; the Astyrene, 
129; Cindyas, 289; Ephesian, 223, 



a Pago 251; 

chia, ergaea, 3253 
donian, 357 

Artemisia, wife of Mausolus the king 
of Caria, 283 

Asander the Dine: slayer of Pharnaces 
and king of the Bosporus, 169 

Asclepius, born near Triccé, 249 

Assus, 101, 115, 129 

Astyra, 45, 129, 1 131 

Athena, 81, 88, ἘΝ 215, 277, 325 

Athena Lindia, 2 

Athenaeus oc ag ” Peripatetie. con- 
temporary of Strabo, native of 
Seleuceia, 335 

Athenais the prophetess (contem- 
porary of Alexander), native of 
Eryt 243 

Athenians, the, voted, but rescinded, 
disgraceful decree against the 
Mitylenaeans, 145; 


founders of 

Elaea, 159 
Athenodorus Oananites (see Dic- 
tionary in vol. i), teacher of 

Augustus, native of Tarsus, 349; 
restored good government at 

Tarsus, 351 

Athenodorus Oordylion, lived with 
Marcus Cato, native of Tarsus, 347 

Attalic kings, the, 31, 159, 163 

Attalus I, king of Pergamum (reigned 
241-197 B.C.), on the Beautiful 
Pine, 89; transferred Gergithians 
of the Troad to Gergitha, 139; son 
of Attalus and Antiochis, 165; 
friend of the Romans, 167 

Attalus II, Philadelphus, king of 
Pergamum (reigned 159-138 B.C.), 
deceived in regard to mole at mouth 
of Ephesian harbour, 229; settled 
the “ Dionysiac artists” in Myon- 
nesus, 237; Attaleia named after 
him, 323 

Attalus III, Philometor, king 
Pergamum (reigned 138-133 B.C.), 
left the Romans his heirs, 169; 
after his death Leucae revolted, 247 


Bacchylides, on the source of the 
Caicus River, 137 

Bellerophon, Palisade of, 191 

Bias, one of the Seven Wise Men, 
native of Priené, 211 



Boethus, bad poet, bad citizen, and 
ruler of Tarsus, 349 


Caesar Augustus, gave back statue of 
Aias to Rhoeteians, 59; appointed 
Marcus Pompey procurator of Asia, 
145; pupil of Apollodorus, 171; 
restored statues to the Heraeum, 
215; nullified extension of limits 
of refuge at Ephesus, 229; dedi- 
cated a painting of Apelles to his 
father, 289; friend of Xenarchus 
the philosopher, 335 

Caesar, Julius, friendly to Ilium, 55, 
57; friend to Mithridates of 
Pergainum, 169; Trebonius one of 
his murderers, 247; sold wealth of 
Pythodorus, 257; painting by 
Apelles dedicated to him by his son 
Augustus, 289 

Caicus River, the, 5, 103, 133, 137, 
153, 169 

ee the prophet, died of grief as 

t of contest with Mopsus the 

oshisehet 233, 325, 353 

interpreter. of Sappho and 
Alcaeus, 147 

Callimachus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on Creophilus of Samos, 219; com- 
rade of the poet Heracleitus, 285 

Callinus the elegiac poet, on the 
Teucrians, 95; on the capture of 
Sardeis, 179; calls Ephesians 
**Smyrnaeans,” 201; on the 
Magnetans, 251; on the early 
invasion of the Cimmerians, 253; 
on the death of Calchas at Clarus, 

Callisthenes (see Dictionary in vol. v), 
on the name “ Adrasteia,” 29; 
companion of Alexander, 55; on 
the cities united by Mausolus, 119; 
on the Arimi, 177; on Sardeis, 179; 
on Phrynichus the tragic poet, 209; 
had false notions about the Hali- 
zones, 369 

Cameirus, 275, 279 

Canae, 5, 13, 105, 133, 141 

Caresené, 87, 89 

Carians, the, 117, 119, 197, 199, 215, 
225, 263, 293, 301 

Cato, Marcus, sent from Rome to seize 
Cypros, 385 


Cauconians, the 151 

Cayster Plain, the, 155, 185 
Celaenae, 137 

Chares the Lindian, built the Colossus 

daries of the Troad, 9; 
of Lampsacus, 37 

Cheirocrates the architect, completed 
the temple of Artemis ‘at Ephesus 
and proposed to Alexander to 
fashion Mt. Athos in his likeness, 227 

Chelidonian Islands, the, 263, 319 

Chersiphron, first architect of temple 
of Artemis at Ephesus, 225 

Chios, founded by Egertius, 201, 243 

Chrysa, 93, 121, 123 

Chrysippus, successor of Cleanthes as 
head of the Stoic school of philoso- 

5 teeta aoe ἜΜΕΝ of Soli, 339 


γε λύε, apple Menippus Catocas 
above al nanan orators, 299 

Cilicia Pedias, 327 

Cilicia Tracheia, 811, 313, 325, 327, 
337, 375 

Cilicians, the, 121, 149, 153, 331 

Citium, home of Zeno, 379 

Clazomenae, founded by Paralus, 201, 
239, 245 

Cleanthes of Assus, the Stoic philo- 
sopher, successor “of Zeno, 115 

Oleides, the, two isles off Oypros, 375, 

ἤει τὸν one of the Seven Wise Men, 
native of Lindus, 279 

Cleopatra, assigned by Antony a part 
of Cilicia Tracheia for the building 
of her fleets, 331; joined Antony in 
conferring queenship upon Aba, 
ταν presented Cypros by Antony, 

Codrus, king of Athens, 199 

Colophon, 199, 203, 233, 235 

Colossus of Rhodes, the, 269 

Coriscus, Socratic philosopher, 111 

Cos, 287 

Crates the grammarian, native of 
Mallus, 355 

eo sons of, tyrants at 'lralleis, 

Creophilus of Samos, reputed teacher 
of Homer, and Callimachus 
called author of the poem entitled 
The Capture of Oechalia, 219 

ὌΝ, in Strabo’s time), 
epigrams in the 
ΤΑ native of Mity- 

: aye origin of wealth of, 371 
promontory, 333, 377, 


physician of Artaxerxes and 
of works entitled Assyrica 

the, frightened Hera, 223; 
ial college of, 225 

379, 381 

king of mea: 35 

μέντα: on ὃν geographical position 
pool Ἧς Athenian, founder of 

Damasus νοβ βοίδνβα the orator, native 
of Tralleis, 257 
“poe enaiegy the grammarian, reputed to 
have been crucified because he 
reviled the kings in a distich, 249 

Dardaniang, the, 19, 101 
‘Dareius, father of Xerxes, burned the 
cities on the Propontis, 43; gave 
ar the tyranny over Samos, 

Dele, great slave market, 329 
Demetrius Lacon, pupil of the 
Epicurean Protarch us, 

Demetrius, son of eps, ΚΆΜΝΕΙ by 
Attalus to defeat Alexander the son 
of Antiochus, 169 

Demetrius of Scepsis (see Dictionary 
in vol. i), visited lium, 53; on 
territory subject to Hector, 65; 
on spurs of Mt. Ida, 67; cites 
Hestiaea of Alexandreia, 73; calls 

_ Timaeus a falsifier 77; on Mt. Ida, 
85; on the Rhesus River, 87; his 
commentary on the Catalogue of the 


Trojans, 91; on Antandrus, 101; 
on Scepsis, 105; author of The 
Marshalling of the Trojan Forces, 
113; calls the Gargarians semi- 
barbarians, 117; on the Arimi, 177; 
on the Asioneis, 179; borrowed 
stories from Callisthenes, 369 

Diodorus the dialectician, nicknamed 
eda contemporary ‘of Ptolemy 
Soter, 291 

Diodorus the general (see footnote 2 
on p. 129), 129 

Diodorus the grammarian, native of 
Tarsus, 351 

Diodorus the younger, of Sardeis, 
friend of Strabo, and author of 
poems and historical treatises, 181 

Diodoruses, the; two orators, both 
natives of Sardeis, 179, 181 

Diodotus Tryphon, caused Syria to 
revolt, but was forced by Antiochus 
= son of Demetrius to kill himself, 


Diogenes the poet and itinerant 
philosopher, native of Tarsus, 351 
Dionysides the tragic poet, native of 
Tarsus, 353 

Dionysius the historian and rhetori- 
cian, contemporary of Strabo, 
native of Halicarnassus, 285 

Dionysius Thrax, Alexandrian but 
called Rhodian, 281 

Dionysocles the orator, native of 
Tralleis, 257 

Dionysus, Games in honour of, 237 

Dionysus Pyrigenes, 183 

Diophanes the rhetorician, native of 
Mitylené, 143 

Diotrephes of Antiocheia, teacher of 
Hybreas of Mylasa, 295 

Diotrephes the sophist, native of 
Antiocheia on the Maeander, 191 

Dolabella, captured at Smyrna, and 
slew, Trebonius, one of the mur- 
derers of Caesar, 247 

Dometius Abenobarbus (see Dictionary 
in vol. ii), opponent and slayer of 
Menodarus, 257 

Egertius, founder of Chios, 201 

Elaea, 105, 133, 159 

Elaeussa, the island, royal residence of 
Archelaus, 267, 337 



Elaitic Gulf, the, 5, 103, 133 
ἐμ τε μῶν 155, 199, ’201, '205, 221, 225, 

ie (see Dictionary in vol. i), on 
the extent of Aeolis, 9; on the name 
* Aeolis,” 79; native of Cymé, 161; 
object of ridicule, 163; on the 
founding of Miletus, 205; on the 
number of tribes in Asia Minor, 361, 
363; does not name Cappadocia, 
365; on Homer’s Trojan allies, 369 

Epicurus the philosopher, i in a sense a 

psacenian, e an 
ephebus at Athens, 19 
Erastus, Socratic philosopher, 111 
Eratosthenes (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
wrong on the geographical position 
of Cypros, 38; on certain distances 
in Asia Minor, 311 
Erythrae, founded by Cnopus the son 
of Codrus, 201, 239, 241 
Eudemus the philosopher, native of 
Rhodes, 279 
Eudoxus of Cnidus (see Dictionary in 
vol. i), on places on the Propontis, 
9; mathematician and comrade of 
Plato, 283 
Eumenes I, brother of Lysimachus and 
king of Pergamum, 165 
Eumenes II, king of Pergamum, 165; 
received Telmessus from the Romans 
but later was forced to give it back 
to the Lycians, 317 
Eumenes of Cardia (see Dictionary in 
vol. v), removed Macedonian trea- 
sures from Cyinda, 343 
Euripides, on Augé the mother of 
Telephus, 135; on Marsyas, 137; 
pil of Anaxagoras, 245; quoted 
ry Athenaeus, 335 
Euthydemus, orator and statesman, 
contemporary of Strabo, native of 
Mylasa, 295 


Fimbria, Roman quaestor, destroyer 
of Llium, 55 


Gargara, 103, 117 

Glaucias, the tyrant, refugee to 
Sidené, 83 

Granicus River, the, 5, 7, 27, 85 



Halicarnassus, 119, 209, 283, 285 
Halizones, the, 365, 369 
Hamaxiane 93, 95, ‘97, 101 By 
ecataeus see Dictionary in v 
Miletus, 2073. 

native on the 

mountain of the Phtheires, 209; 

native of Teos, 239 

Heca king 
father of three sons and two 
daughters, 285, 295 
Beene 19, Pores 151, 153 
ylus e elegiac poet, con- 
temporary of Oallimachus, 379 

the visit of the 

saa τιν ate native of 253 
πριν κοῦ, 866 rir ger ea, of Magnesia, 255 

speaks to gratify the Ilians, ast 

calls Assus an er city, 117; 

native of Lesbos, 14 

Heracleides of Pontus (see Dictionary 
in vol. i), on the temple of Apollo, 95 
Heracleitus the poet, comrade of 
Callimachus, native of MHalicar- 

yrant of Assus and 
Atarneus, 115, 131 

Hermocreon, builder of altar at 
Parium, 29 

Hermodorus, called by Heracleitus 
** the most useful man of Ephesus,’ 
and reputed to have written certain 
laws for the Romans, 231 

Hermus River, the, 5, 13, 159, 173, 197 

Herodotus, on the priestess of Athena 
at Pedasus, 119; on Arion of 
Methymna, 145; on certain rivers 
near Sardeis, 173; on the tomb of 
Alyattes, 177, 179; 

phylians, 325 
Herostratus, an Ephesian who in 356 
B.c. set on fire the temple of 
Artemis at Ephesus to immortalise 
H ge a ot of the god Priap 
esi ew D us, 
29; native of Oymé, 161; on the 


gee Calchas and 
Mopsus, ole ays that Amphilo- 
Begg Apollo at Soli, 
"$85; ‘Gn the origin the Asiatic 
 Hestiaea of dreia, author of a 
work on Homer’s /liad, 73 
ees.) Fane Hece- 
married his younger sister 

the orator, native of 
da, 299 

the philosopher, native 
of Rhodes, ha 

_ Hippocrates 
4 Reet Gun, 289 
Ξιρνοθβα (868 Pictionary in vol. iv), 
ort h 201; iy 
tel to esus, on 
Bias of Priené, 211; native of 

; Boo 11. 16, 23, 49, 71, 81, 99, 
q 105, 109, 117, 121, 135, 137, 153, 
161, 175, 179, 219, 237, 243, 247, 
273, 301, 321, 
pies, orator, 

temporary of 

, 81 
Ilium, territory of, 45; founded by 
Tus, 49, 53, 55, 67, 81, 153 
Ion the tragic poet, native of Chios, 

Labienus, — seized Mylasa, 297 

Larisa, 153, 1 
Loctara, 5, 1 ὮΙ 13, 97, 101 
the, 17, ut ἦτ, 19, 121, 149, 

“ih fae thee 167 225. 

Lesbocles, ate. 4“ Mitylené, 148 

Lesbos, 7, 139, 

Leto,the mother vot A pois and Artemis 
223, 265, 267 

Lindus, 275, 279 

Lycia, 265, 311 

Lycians, the, 19, 179 
Lycian League, the, 313, 315 

Lycurgus the orator, on the rasing of 
Tlium, 83 

ρον, the, 181 
Lyrnessus, 17, 105, 107, 121, 323 

Lysimachus (see Dictionary in vol. v, 
and footnote 3 on p. 203 of vol. iii), 
devoted especial attention to Ilium 
and Alexandreia, 53; permitted 
Scepsians to return home from 
Alexandreia, 65; founder of the 
Asclepieium, 89; king of Pergamum, 
163, 165; built wall round Ephesus, 
225; builder of the new Smyrna, 
245; ridiculed in distich composed 
by Daphitas, 251 


Maeander River, the, 185, 211, 249 
Magnesia, 159 
Magnesia on the Maeander, 249 

Mallus, 353, 355 

Manius Aquillius the consul (129 me 
personally @ province in 
Asia Minor, 249 

Marcus Perpernas, made campaign 
against Aristonicus and captured 
him alive, 249 

Mausolus, king of Caria, 119; tomb 
of, 283; married his elder sister 
Artemisia, 285 

Malenchrus, tyrant of Mitylené, 143 

Memnon of Rhodes, served Persians 
as general, 117 

Menander (see Dictionary in vol. v), 
says ‘‘it (Samos) produces even 
bird’s milk,” 217; became an 
ephebus at Athens, 219 

Menecles the orator, teacher of 
Apollonius Malacus and Apollonius 
Molon, 281; native of Alabanda, 299 

Menecrates, pupil of Aristarchus, 
native of Nysa, 263 

Menecrates of Elaea (see Dictionary in 
vol. v), author of On the Founding of 
Cities, on the Pelasgians, 157 

Menippus Catocas, the Asiatic orator, 



applauded by Cicero and native of 
Stratoniceia, 299 

Menodorus, contemporary of Strabo. 
scholar and priest, 257 

Mesogis, Mt., 213, 255, 257 

Methymna, 139, 141, 145 

Metrodorus of Lampsacus, comrade of 
Epicurus, 37 

Metrodorus of Scepsis, philosopher, 
statesman, and rhetorician, 113 

Midas, origin of wealth of, 371 

Miletus, founded by Neleus of Pylus, 
199, 209, 211 

Milyas, destroyed by Alexander, 321 

Mimnermus, says that Colophon was 
founded by Andraemon of Pylus, 
199; on Colophon, 203; native of 
Colophon, 235 

Minos the king, 301 

Mithridates Eupator (the Great), 
friend to Metrodorus, 113; the 
king, 181; extended limits of 
refuge at Ephesus, 229 

Mithridates of a friend of 
Julius Caesar, 169 

Mitylené, 141 

Mopsus the prophet, victor over 
Calchas in contest, 233; led 
peoples over the Taurus, 325, 353; 
PP of, near Magarsa, 355 

pre ended tyranny at Cibyra, 193; 

ay of Athenaeus the Peripatetic 
(contemporary of Strabo), and 
captured because of plot against 
Augustus, 335 

Mylasa, 291, 293, 295, 299 

Myrina, 159, 163 

Myron (fi. about 430 B.C. ), one of the 
greatest Greek sculptors, 213 

Mpyrsilus, the historian, of Methymna, 
on the founders of Assus, 117 

rain, 1 tyrant of Mitylené, 143 

Mysia, 181 

Meta? founded by Cydrelus, 199, 211 


Neleus, Socratic philosopher, pupil of 
Aristotle and Theophrastus, and 
heir to libraries of Aristotle and 
Theophrastus, 111 

Neocles the schoolmaster, father of 
annie Ἢ sent by Athenians to 
Samos, 2 

ΜΑΝΤΙΚῊ ὡς the glossographer of 


ine (see footnote 1 on p. 36), 

Nestor the Academician, teacher of 
Marcellus the nephew of Augustus, 
native of Tarsus and successor of 
Athenodorus as ruler there, 351 

Nestor, the Stoic, native of Tarsus, 347 

Nicias, contemporary of 
tyrant over the Coans, 289 

Nicomedes the Bithynian, helped to 
overcome Aristonicus (131 B.C.), 247 


Pamphylia, 311 

Panaetius the philosopher, native of 
Rhodes, 279; reputed to have been 
a pupil of Orates of Mallus, 355 

Paris, tomb of, 65 

Parrhasius the painter, native of 
Ephesus, 231 

Peiraeus, the, torn down by Sulla, 275 

Peisander the poet, author of the 
Heracleia and native of Rhodes, 281 

Pelasgians, the, 153, 155, 157, 301 

Re of the Rhodians, the, 263, 265, 

Pergamum, library of, 111, 163 

Pericles, statesman and general, 
subdued Samos (440 B.c.), 219 

Phanias the Peripatetic, native of 
Eressus, 145 

Pherecydes Leros (see Dictionary in 
vol. v), on the Ionian seaboard, 197; 
on the contest between Calchas and 

Philemon the comic poet, native of 
Soli, 341 

Philetas, the poet and critic, native of 
Cos, 289 

Philip, author of The Carica, on the 
Carian language, 303 

Philotas of Thebes, coloniser of Priené, 
199, 211; leader of Alexander's 

Phocaea, 5, 201 
Phoenix, Mt., 265 

Phrynon, Olympian 
Athenian general, 77 
Pinarus River, the; scene of the 
struggle between Alexander and 
Dareius, 355 

victor, 753 


ον PRI" τος τες 

the musician, 235; 
on the Homeridae of Chios, 245; 
says that gold rained on Rhodes, 277 

Pittacus of Mitylené, one of the Seven 

Wise Men, 77; born at Mitylené, 
141; one of the tyrants, 143 
third son of king Heca- 

τς tomnos of Caria, 285 
_ Plato, on the stages of civilisation, 47; 

teacher of Hermeias the tyrant, 117 

_ Plutiades the itinerant philosopher, 
native of Tarsus, 351 

the, near Acharaca, 259; 
at Hierapolis, 187 
pent alge te of Zeno and 

522 B. t 
Pelyerates changed B.C.), tyran 

Polymedium, 101, 139 
mentioned by Pindar as 
a famous musician and as a native 

315; 315; friend 
of 4 

Pompey, Marcus, the son of Theo- 
phanes of Mitylené, appointed 
of Asia by Augustus, 145 
Poseidon, 81, 213; the Heliconian, 221 
lpr (see Dictionary in vol. Σ 
brick-making in Iberia, 133 
athinian at Rhodes, 279 
Potamon the rhetorician, native of 
Mitylené, 143 
Praxander the Laconian, founder of 
Lapathus, 377 
Praxiphanes, native of Rhodes, 279 
Praxiteles the great sculptor, works of 
in the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, 

Priam, the sway of, 13, 17, 63, 81, 107, 

Priené, 199, 211 

Procles, founder of Samos, 201 

Proconnesus, Old pase New, 33 

Propontis, the, 3 

Protarchus the fricercan: native of 
oe and teacher of Demetrius 

Protesilius, 5. temple cara 61 
and his ae at Rhodes, 269 

Pindar, on the Pithecussae, 177; on 

Ptolemy, the last that reigned and 
uncle of Oleopatra, ruined by 
Publius Claudius Pulcher, 385 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, repaired Pat- 
pe and called it Lycian Arsinoé, 

Publius Crassus, made campaign 
against Aristonicus, 249 

Pulcher, Publius Claudius, ruined 
Ptolemy the uncle of Cleopatra, 385 

eg commander of the Lesbians, 

Pyrrha, 141, 145, 211 

Pythodoris, queen of the Pontus, 
daughter of  Pythodorus the 
* Asiarch,” 257 

Pythodorus, native of Nysa, “" Asi- 
arch ” at Tralleis, friend of Pompey, 
extremely wealthy, and father of 
Queen Pythodoris, 257 


Rhodes, 269, 273, 275 
Rhoeteium, 59, 67, 83, 85 


Samos, founded by Tembrion and 
Procles, 201, 213, 215 

Sappho, on the promontory called 
Aega, 135; native of Mitylené, 143; 
interpreted by Callias, 147 

Sardeis, 171, 173, 177 

per ee River, the, 65, 67, 73, 85, 


Scepsis, 85, 101, 105, 109 

Scipio Aemilianus, sent by Romans to 
inspect Cilicia, 329 

Scopas the great sculptor, maker of 
image of Apollo, 95; maker of work 
containing statues of Leto and 
Ortygia (the nurse) with a child in 
each arm of the latter 223 

Scylax of Caryanda (see Dictionary in 
vol. v), the boundaries of the 
Troad, 8; born at Caryanda, 289 

Seleuceia, 333, 335, 337 

Seleuceia-in-Pieria, first Syrian city 
after Cilicia, 357 

Seleucus Nicator, overthrew Lysi- 
machus and was slain by Ptolem 
Ceraunus 165; incompetent heredi. 

succession of, 329 
us Isauricus, demolished Isaura 



@ 5B.C.), ood. ; captured Olympus, 
fortress of Zenicetus the pirate, % tap. 
Sestus, 5, 41, 43 
Sibylla the’ prophetess, native of 
Erythrae, 241 

Sigeium, 61, 67, 73, 75, 79, 85 
tory of Lesbos, 139, 

tive of Cos, 289 
Simus the melic poet, corrupter of the 
traditional style, 253 
Simmias the grammarian (fl. about 
300 B.0.), native of Rhodes, 281 
Sipylus, ruler of eee pi 159 
a a, 201, 20 
Soll Poinpetopali ἃ 316, 339, 355 

Sophocles ’ the orien poet, on on the 
unity of Antenor’s home, 107; 
ericles to subdue Samos, 


on the contest between 
Calchas and —— 235, 353 

Sostratus, grammarian and teacher of 
Pompey the Great, 263 

Stratocles the philosopher, native of 
Rhodes, 279 

Stratoniceia, 297, 299 

Stratonicus the citharist, on 
— ; on the paleness of tie Osunlean 

Sulla, overthrew Fimbria and came to 
agreement with Mithridates, 55, 59; 
carried off Apellicon’s library to 
Rome, 113; tore down the Peiraeus, 

Syloson, brother and assistant of his 
brother Polycrates the tyrant of 
Samos, 217; later became tyrant of 
of Samos by gift of Dareius, 219 

Syrians, the, 177 


Tamassus in Cypros, site of copper 
mines, 383 
visa ti μὰ πές. chat of wealth of, 369 

Tarcon named by the Romans 
king of Mt. ray σαττοῖ 355 
Tarsus, 343, 345, 


ae — at first by Athamas, 

Teuthras, | of the Oilicians and 
Mysians, 1 

Terpander the τόμους ταν artist, 147 

Thales, one of the Seven Wise Men, 
native of Miletus, 207 

— 121, a 149, 323 

emistocles ; his wife, or iter, a 
oe in temple of Din Ae cml 
Theocritus the sophist, native of 
Chios, 243 
Theophanes the historian, of Mitvlené, 
contem of 143 

Theophrastus, teacher of Neleus, 111; 
native of Eressus, 145 

Theopompus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on Sestus, 45; on Mt. Mesogis, 185; 
native of Chios, 243 

eopompus, contemporary 
Strabo, friend of wes oad 
native of Cnidus, 28 

, Sculptor of “re of Hecaié 
and other works at temple of 

Artemis at Ephesus, 229 
Thucydides, on the seizure of by 
the Athenians, 79; on the 

** barbarians,” 301, 
esi Pte 247 


on the size of the 
largest of the Lrwutntnts Isles, 277 
Timosthenes (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on islands between Asia and Lesbos, 


Tmolus, Mt., 173, 183 

Tralleis, 255 

Trebonius, one of the murderers of 
Caesar, slain by Dolabella at Smyrna, 

Treres, the, 179, 251 

Troad, the, 3, 7, 21, 77 

Trojan Plain, the, 65, 67 

Trojans, ἊΝ sway and dynasties of, 

5, 19, 149 
Troy, 7, 9, 15 
Typhon the giant, 177, 183 
nion the 

a of Apellicon’s ταν. at 
Rome, 113 


u the consul, in 
mand against Mithridates” 5S was 

‘ h est city in Lycia, 317 
x theta, ancient historian, 
f ‘iL 183; on the Phrygians, 371, 
the Peripatetic, con- 
Strabo and friend of 
orator, compared Ὁ. 
with Menippus Catocas, 131, 
Roa coplao ge yop (396-314 
5 ΟΣ, δὲ the oourt οἱ Hermeias the 
_ tyrant, 117 

ophar tyrant of Olbé and 

Aba, 343 


— hanes the natural philosopher, 
native of Colophon, 235 

Xerxes, gave Lam to Themi- 

Apollo, 205; gave Myus, Magnesia, 
and Lampsacus to Themistocles, 211 


Zeleia, 11, 19, 25 
Zenicetus the pirate, burnt himself up 
with his whole house, 339 
Zeno the Stoic (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
native of Citium, 115, 379 
Zeus, 215, a7, 343; Atabyrius, ave 

Carian, 93; : 
Lambrandenus, 293; Osogo, 293; 
Stratius, 293 

Zonas, one of the two Diodoruses, 
native of πίων ees pleader of the 
cause of Asia, 18 


μ΄ ὃ 





Latin Authors 

Ammianus Marcettinus. Translated by J.C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. 

Aputeius: THE Gotpen Ass (ΜΕΤΑΜΟΠΡΗΟΒΕΒ). W. Adling- 
] ton (1566). Revised by S. Gaselee. 

$7. Αὐσύϑτινε: Crty or Gop. 7 Vols. Vol. I. G. H. 
McCracken. Vol. VI. W. C. Greene. 

Sr. AucusTINE, CoNFEssSIONS oF. W. Watts (1631). 2 Vols. 
_ §$r. Aueustine, Sevect Lerrers. J. H. Baxter. 

Avsonius. H.G. Evelyn White. 2 Vols. 

ΒΕΡΕ. J.E. King. 2 Vols. 

Rev. Η. F. Stewart and ἘΣ. K. Rand. 

Papen: ALEXANDRIAN, AFRICAN and SpANiIsH Wars. A. 6. 

CaEsar: Civiz Wars. A. G. Peskett. 

Carsar: Gattic War. H. J. Edwards. 

Cato: Dr Re Rustica; Varro: Dr Re Rustica. H. B. Ash 
and W. D. Hooper. 

Catuttus. F. W. Cornish; Trsuttus. J.B. Postgate; PrEr- 

Cretsus: De Mepicina. W.G.Spencer. 3 Vols. 

Ciczrro: Brutus, and Oraror. G. L. Hendrickson and H. M. 

(Ciczro]: AD Hrrennium. H. Caplan. 

Ciczrro: Dr Orarore, ete. 2 Vols. Vol. I. DE Onators, 

᾿ς Books I. and 11. Εἰ. W. Sutton and H. Rackham. Vol. 11. 
De Oratore, Book III. De Fato; Paradoxa Stoicorum; 
De Partitione Oratoria. H. Rackham. 

Cicero: Dg Fintsus. H. Rackham. 

Cicrro: Dz INvENTIONE, etc. H. M. Hubbell. 

Ciczrro: Dr Natura Deorvum and Acapemica. H. Rackham. 
Cicrro: Dz Orricius. Walter Miller. 

Ciczro: Dz Rerusrica and Dz Lrecisus; Somnium ΒΟΙΡΙΟΝΊΒ. 
Clinton W. Keyes. 


Cicero: Dr ΒΈΝΕΟΤΟΤΕ, De Amicirta, Dz ὈΙΨΙΝΑΤΙΟΝΕ. 
W. A. Falconer. 

Cicero: In Catrrrnam, Pro Fracco, Pro Murena, Pro Suita. 
Louis E. Lord. 

Cicero: LEetrers Tro Atticus. E.O.Winstedt. 3 Vols. 

— Lerrers TO His Frrenps. W. Glynn Williams. 3 

Cicero: Puinierics. W.C. A. Ker. 

Cicero: Pro ArcuiA Post Repirum, Dr Domo, De Harus- 
Picum Responsis, Pro Puancio. N. H. Watts. 

Ciczero: Pro Carctna, Pro Lece Maniiia, Pro CLueEnttio, 
Rasreio. H, Grose Hodge. 

Cicero: Pro Cartio, De Provinciis CoONSULARIBUS, PRO 
Batso. R. Gardner. 

Cicero: Pro Mitons, In Pisonem, Pro Scauro, Pro ΕὌΝΤΕΙΟ, 
Pro Rasrrio Postumo, Pro Marcetto, Pro Licario, Pro 
Reece Deroraro. N. H. Watts. 

Cicero: Pro Quinctio, Pro Roscio AmERINO, Pro Rosocio 
Comorpo, Contra Ruttum. J. H. Freese. 

Cicero: Pro ΞΈΒΤΙΟ, ἵν Vatintum. R. Gardner. 

CicERO: TuscuLan Dispurations. J. E. King. 

CicrRO: VERRINE Orations. L. H. G. Greenwood. 2 Vols. 
CraupIAN. M. Platnauer. 2 Vols. 

CotumMELLA: Dre Re Rustica. Dr Arsorisus. H. B. Ash, 
ἘΣ. 8. Forster and E. Heffner. 3 Vols. 

Curtius, Q.: History or ALEXANDER. J.C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 
Fuorvus. E.S. Forster; and Cornettus Nepos. J.C. Rolfe. 

Frontinvus: SrraTaGEeMs and AquEepuocts. C. E. Bennett and 
M. B. McElwain. 

Fronto: CORRESPONDENCE. C.R. Haines. 2 Vols. 

Getuivus, J.C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. 

Horace: Oprs and Eroprs. C. E. Bennett. 

Horace: Sattres, Episttes, Ars Portioa. H. R. Fairclough. 
JEROME: SELECTED Lerrers. Εἰ. A. Wright. 
JUVENAL and Persius. G. G. Ramsay. 

Livy. B. O. Foster, F. G. Moore, Evan T. Sage, and A. C. 
Schlesinger and R. M, Geer (General Index). 14 Vols. 

Lucan. J.D. Duff. 
Lucretius. W. Η. D. Rouse. 
ΜΆΒΤΙΑΙ. W.C.A. Ker. 2 Vols. 

Minor Latin Poets: from Pustimivus Syrvus τὸ Rovtitius 
NaMATIANUs, including GrattTius, CALPURNTUs SICULUS, 
NEMESIANUsS, AVIANUS, and others with “ Aetna” and the 
* Phoenix.” J. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Duff. 

Ovip: THE Art or LOvE and OrHER Porms. J. H. Mozley. 


eee ae ae ee eee mv 


Ovip: Fastt. Sir James G. Frazer. 

Ovm: Herorpges and Amorges. Grant Showerman. 

Ovip: MreramorpnHoses. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. 

Ovip: Trist1a and Ex Ponto. A. L. Wheeler. 

Prersius. Cf. JUVENAL. 

W.H. ἢ. Rouse. 

Prautrus. Paul Nixon. 65 Vols. 

Pury: Lerrers. Melmoth’s Translation revised by W. M. L. 
Hutchinson. 2 Vols. 

Puy: Naturat History. H. Rackham and W. H. 5. Jones. 
10 Vols. Vols. 1.-—V. and IX. H. Rackham. Vols. VI. and 
VII. W.H.S. Jones. 

Propertivus. H. Εἰ. Butler. 

PrupeEentivus. H.J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 

Quintiuran. H.E. Butler. 4 Vols. 

Rematns or ΟἿ Latin. E.H. Warmington. 4 Vols. Vol. I. 
(Enntus anp Caercritus.) Vol. Il. (Livius, Nazvius, 
Pacuvius, Acctus.) Vol. III. (Lucrirus and Laws or XII 

Sattust. J.C. Rolfe. 

Scrrerores HistoriaE AuacustaE. Ὁ. Magie. 3 Vols. 

Seneca: ApocotocynTosis. Cf. PETRONIUs. 

SeNEcA: EpistutaEr Moraes. R.M.Gummere. 3 Vols. 

Seneca: Morat Essays. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. 

SenecA: TRAGEDIES. F.J. Miller. 2 Vols. 

Sipontus: Poems and Letters. W.B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 

Smrus Irauicus. J.D. Duff. 2 Vols. 

Sratius. J.H.Mozley. 2 Vols. 

Suetonius. J.C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 

Tacitus: Dratocurs. Sir Wm. Peterson. AGrRiIcoLA and 
GERMANIA. Maurice Hutton. 

ἰω το Histories AND AnNaAts. C.H. Moore δηᾶ J. Jackson. 


ΤΈΒΕΝΟΒ. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. 

TERTULLIAN: ApoLoatA and De Sprectracuuis. T. R. Glover. 
Mrinvervus Fewtrx. G. H. Rendall. 

Vaterius Fraccus. J. H. Mozley. 

Varro: De Lineva Lata. R.G. Kent. 2 Vols. 

VELLEIUs Patercutus and Res GestaE Divi Aveusti. F. W. 

Virreru. H.R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. 

Virrvuvius: De ArcHITECTURA. F.Granger. 2 Vols. 

Greek Authors 

AcuitLes Tatius. S. Gasclee. 
AELIAN: ON THE NaturRE ΟΕ Antmats. A. F. Scholfield. 3 

Illinios Greek Club. 

AEscCHINES. Οὐ. Ὁ. Adams. 
AgescHyLus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. 

ALCIPHRON, AELIAN, Purmostratus: Lerrers. A. R. Benner 
and F. H. Fobes. 


APOLLODORUS. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. 

APOLLONIUsS Ruoptus. R. C. Seaton. 

THe ApostoLic FatHErRs. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. 

ἌΡΡΙΑΝ: RomMAN History. Horace White. 4 Vols. 


ARISTOPHANES. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. Verse 

ARISTOTLE: ArT OF RueEToric. J. H. Freese. 

VIcEs AND VirtuEs. H. Rackham. 


ARISTOTLE: MretApuysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. 

ARISTOTLE: MrerEerontocica. H. D. P. Lee. 

ARISTOTLE: Mrnor Works. W. 5. Hett. On Colours, On 
Things Heard, On Physiognomies, On Plants, On Marvellous 
Things Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 
On Situations and Names of Winds, On Melissus, Xenophanes, 
and Gorgias. 


ARISTOTLE: OxrcONomIcCA and Magna Moraria. G. C. Arm- 
strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). 


W.S. Hett. 

ARISTOTLE: OrGANON—Categories, On Interpretation, Prior 
Analytics. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. 

ARISTOTLE: OrGANON—Posterior Analytics, Topics. H. Tre- 
dennick and E. 5. Foster. 

ARISTOTLE: ORGANON—On Sophistical Refutations. 

On Coming to be and Passing Away, On the Cosmos. E.'S. 
Forster and D. J. Furley. 

ARISTOTLE: Parts oF Animats. A. L. Peck; Morion anp 



i gl Puysics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Cornford. 

_ Aristorte: Poxrrics and Lonainus. W. Hamilton Fyfe; 

Demetrius ΟΝ Styte. W. Rhys Roberts. 

ArIsToTLE: Porirics. H. Rackham. 

ARISTOTLE: Prosptems. W.S. Hett. 2 Vols. 

Vol. 11.).. H. Rackham. 

ARRIAN: History oF ALEXANDER and Inpica. Rev. E. Iliffe 
Robson. 2 Vols. 


ἢ Sr. Bast: Letrers. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. 

Cautrmacuus: Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 

CaLLImactus, Hymns and Spresaine. and LycopHron. A. W. 
; Aratus. 6. Β. Mair 

q Οὐ δοῦν of ALEXANDRIA. Ree: G. W. Butterworth. 

CottutHus. Cf. OPPIAN. 

Darunis AND Cutox. Thornley’s Translation revised by 
J. M. Edmonds; and Partuentvus. S. Gaselee. 

ΠΊΟΝΘΒ. I—XVII. anp XX. J. H. Vince. 

DEMOSTHENES 11.: DE Corona and Dr Fatsa LEGATIONE. 
C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. 


A. T. Murray. 

and Lerrers. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 

Dro Casstus: Roman History. E. Cary. 9 Vols. 
Dio Curysostom. J.W.Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. 5 Vols. 

Dioporvs Sicutvus. 12 Vols. Vols. I-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 
Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman, Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 
Vol. XI. F. Walton. 

Drocenss LaEritius. R.D. Hicks. 2 Vols. 

Dionysius or Haticarnassus: Roman Antiquities. Spel- 
_ man’s translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. 

Epicrerus. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 
Evurripes. A.S. Way. 4 Vols. Verse trans. 

Evsesius: Ecctxstastican History. Kirsopp Lake and 
J.E.L. Oulton. 2 Vols. 

GALEN: On THE Naturat Facurtizes. A. J. Brock. 
Tue Greek ANTHOLOGY. W.R. Paton. 5 Vols. 

Greex Exzcy anp JamsBus with the ANAcREONTEA. J. Μ, 
Edmonds. 2 Vols. 


THE GREEK BucoLtic Porrs (THEOcRITUs, Bron, Moscuvs). 
J. M. Edmonds. 

GREEK MATHEMATICAL Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 
Heropotus. A. D.Godley. 4 Vols. 

HEsI0D AND THE Homeric Hymns. Η. G. Evelyn White. 

HrprocraTeEs and the FRAGMENTs OF HERACLEITUS. W.H.S. 
Jones and E,. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 

Homer: Iniap, A.T. Murray. 2 Vols. 

HomER: Opyssry. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 

Isazrus. E. W. Forster. 

IsocraTEs. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 

JosEepHus. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 
Vols. I.-VII. 

JuLt1aAn. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 

Lucran. 8 Vols. Vols. 1.--. A.M. Harmon. Vol. VI. K. 

LycopHron. Cf. CALLIMACHUS. 
Lyra GrAEcA. J.M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. 
Lystas. W.R. M. Lamb. 

ManetrHo. W. G. Waddell: Protemy: Trrrasrptos. Εἰ, E. 

Marcus AureEttus. C. R. Haines. 
MENANDER. F. G. Allinson. 
Mryor Artic Orators (ANTIPHON, ANDOCIDEs, LycuRGUs, 

DeMapDEs, Dinarcuus, Hyprererpes). K. J. Maidment and 
J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. 

Nonnos: Dionysiaca. W.H.D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 

Oppian, CottutHus, TryPHIODORUS. A. W. Mair. 

Papyri. Non-Lirerary Sexections. A. §. Hunt and C. C 
Edgar. 2 Vols. Lirrrary SEtEections (Poetry). D. L. 


Vols. and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Puio. 10 Vols. Vols. 1.--.; F. H. Colson and Rey. G. H. 

Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. 

Puito: two supplementary Vols. (Translation only.) Ralph 

Conybeare. 4 Vols. 


theatre and Eunapius: Lives or THE Sopuists. Wilmer 
Cave Wright. 

 Pryvar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 

_ Prato: CHARMIDEs, ALCIBIADESs, Hipparcnus, Tuc Lovers, 
_  ‘THraGces, ΜΙΝΟΒ and Errtnomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 

Prato: Cratytus, PARMENIDEs, GREATER Hippias, LESSER 
Hrepras. H. N. Fowler. 

Prato: Eurnuypxro, Apotoay, Criro, PHAEDO, PHAEDRUs. 
H. N. Fowler. 

ren LacuEes, Proracoras, MENO, EurnHypEemMus. W.R. M. 

Prato: Laws. Rev. R.G. Bury. 2 Vols. 

Prato: Lysis, Symposium, Goretas. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Prato: Repustic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 

bo gia el Parmesus. H.N.Fowler; Ion. W.R.M. 

Puato: THEAETETUS and Sopuist. H. N. Fowler. 

Prato: Trmaervs, Crittas, CuiropHo, MENEXENUS, EPISTULAE. 
Rev. R. G. Bury. 

Prurarcn: Morarita. 15 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt. 
Vol. VI. W.C. Helmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 
B. Einarson. Vol. IX. 10. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sandbach, 
W. C. Helmbold. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XII. H. 
Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. 

ProurarcH: THe Paratret Lives. Β. Perrin. 11 Vols. 
Potysius. W.R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Procorius: History or THE Wars. H.B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 
Protemy: Terrasrsios. Cf. MANETHO. 

Quintus SMyrnaEvus. A.S. Way. Verse trans. 

Sextus Emprricus. Rev. R.G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

Sopuoctes. F.Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

Srraso: GeocrapHy. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

ete. A. D. Knox. 

THEOPHRASTUS: ENQurIRY INTO Prants. Sir Arthur Hort, 
Bart. 2 Vols. 

Tuucypipes. C.F.Smith. 4 Vols. 
TrypHioporus. Cf. ΟΡΡΙΑν. 
XENOPHON: CyrRopaEDIA. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

XENOPHON: MEMORABILIA and Orconomicus. E.C. Marchant. 
XENOPHON: ΞΟΒΙΡΤΑ Movora. Εἰ. C. Marchant. 


Greek Authors 

ARISTOTLE: History or Animas. A. L. Peck. 
Piorinus: A. H. Armstrong. 

Latin Authors 

Basrius AND PHarprus. Ben Εἰ, Perry. 




a7 ; The geography of Strabo 





reat ts 



ee : | 

Se ? : ᾿ ἶ ny Ree. At 

ie ᾿ : : ; : = ic 

ersae ἐν τα sauna 
ΣΌΣ ΣΤ Τδυν τοτλτς τ